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Full text of "The general biographical dictionary : containing an historical and critical account of the lives and writings of the most eminent persons in every nation ; particularly the British and Irish ; from the earliest accounts to the present time .."

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Printed  by  Nichols,  Son,  and  Bbntliy, 
Red  Don  Passage*  Fleet  Street,  London. 




or  THE 












OTBIDGB  AND  SON  ;  O.  AND  W.  NICOL  ;  O.  WILKIB  }  J.  WALKER  ;  R.  LEA  ; 
AND  SONS;  J.  AND  A.  ARCH  $  J.  HARR18;  BLACK,  PARRY,  AND  CO.;  J.  BOOTH; 

1815.         . 


j  en- 

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is  earliest 

* A  m  was  ear£* 

*  *   ■     ^-       — — -  at  princely 

i  the  title  6JF 

*     ^  ---  ated  poetry* 

*^^     "* "  >us  composi* 

^■■fc*.       ^^  jf  th«  inflrtei* 



only  in  his  si** 

visit  the  pridci* 

•al  knowledge  of 

his  father  died* 

heirs  of  his  powet 

succeeded  him  ki 

on  of  Sixtus  IV.  to 

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though  without  any  superiority  of  rank  or  title,  and  his 
conduct  being  marked  by  urbanity  and  generosity  to  all 
ranks,  he  acquired  numerous  and  zealous  partizans.  Such 
was  tbe  influence  of  his  family,  that  while  the  citizens  of 
Florence  fancied  they  lived  under  a  pure  republic,  the  Me- 
dici generally  assumed  to  themselves  the  first  offices  of  the 
state,  or  nominated  such  persons  as  they  esteemed  fit  for 
those  employments.  Cosmo  exerted  this  influence  with 
great  prudence  and  moderation ;  yet,  owing  to  the  discon- 
tent of  the  Florentines,  with  the  bad  success  of  the  war 
against  Lucca,  a  party  arose,  led  on  by  Rinaldo  de'  Albizi, 
which,  in  1433,  after  filling  the  magistracies  with  their 
own  adherents,  seized  the  person  of  Cosmo,  and  committed 
him  to  prison,  and  he  was  afterwards  banished  to  Padua 
for  ten  years,  and  several  other  members  and  friends  pf 
the  Medici  family  underwent  a  similar  punishment.  He 
was  received  with  marked  respect  by  the  Venetian  govern- 
ment, and  topk  up  his  abode  in  the  city  of  Venice.  Witbin 
a  year  of  his  retreat,  Rinaldo  was  himself  obliged  to  quit 
Florence;  and  Cosmo  being  recalled,  he  returned  amidst 
the  acclamations  of  his  fellow-subjects.  Some  victims 
were  offered  to  his  future  security,  and  the  gonfalooiere 
who  had  pronounced  his  sentence,  with  a  few  others  of 
that  party,  were  put  to  death.  Measures  were  now  taken 
to  restrict  the  choice  of  magistrates  to  the  partizans  of  tbe 
Medici,  and  alliances  were  formed  with  the  neighbouring 
powers  for  the  avowed  purpose  of  supporting  and  perpetu- 
ating the  system  by  which  Florence  was  from  that  time  to 
be  governed.  The  manner  in  which  Cosmo  employed  his 
authority,  has  conferred  upon  his  memory  the  greatest 
honour.  From  this  time  his  life  was  an  almost  uninter- 
rupted series  of  prosperity.  The  tranquillity  enjoyed  bv 
the  republic,  and  the  satisfaction  and  peace  of  mind  wbicp 
he  experienced  in  the  esteem  and  confidence  of  his  fel- 
low-citizens, enabled  him  to  indulge  his  natural  propensity 
to  tbe  promotion  of  science,  and  the  patronage  and  en- 
couragement of  learned  men.  The  richest  private  citizen 
in  Europe,  he  surpassed  almost  all  sovereign  princes  in  the 
munificence  with  which  he  patronized  literature  and  th$ 
fine  arts.  4fe  assembled  around  him  some  of  the  niost 
learned  men  of  the  age,  who  had  begun  to  cultivate  the 
Grecian  language  and  philosophy.  He  established,  at 
Florence,  an  academy  expressly  for  the  elucidation  of  the 
Platonic  philosophy,  at  the  head  of  which  he  placed  the 


celebrated  Marsilius  Ficinus.  He  collected  from  all  p&rts 
by  means  of  foreign  correspondences,  manuscripts  of  the 
Greek,  Latin,  and  Oriental  languages,  which  formed  the 
foundation  of  the  Lauren tian  library ;  nor  was  be  less  libe- 
ral in  the  encouragement  of  the  fine  arts.  During  the  re- 
tirement of  his  latter  days,  his  happiest  hours  were  de- 
voted to  Hie  study  of  letters  and  philosophy,  and  the  con- 
versation of  learned  men.  He  also  endowed  numerous 
religions  houses,  and  built  an  hospital  at  Jerusalem  for  the 
relief  *f  distressed  pilgrims.  While  the  spirit  of  his  go- 
vernment was  moderate,  he  avoided  every  appearance  of 
state  which  might  excite  the  jealousy  or  discontent  of  the 
Florentines  \  and  therefore,  by  way  of  increasing  his  in- 
terest among  them,  restricted  the  marriages  of  his  children 
to  Florentine  families.  By  such  wise  measures,  and  the 
general  urbanity  of  his  behaviour  to  all  orders  of  men,  hfe 
Attained  the  title  of  "  Father  of  his  country,"  which  was 
inscribed  on  bis  tomb.  He  died  Aug.  I,  1464>  aged  seventy- 
five  years,  deeply  lamented  by  the  citizens  of  Florence,1 

MEDICI  (Lorenzo*  or  Lawrence  db),  grandson  of 
the  preceding,  was  born  Jan.  1,  1448.  From  his  earliest 
years  he  gave  proofs  of  a  vigorous  mind,  which  was  car6* 
fully  cultivated,  and  exhibited  many  traits  of  that  princely 
and  liberal  spirit  which  afterwards  procured  him  the  title  of 
"  Magnificent."  In  polite  literature  he  cultivated  poetry* 
and  gave  some  proofs  of  his  talents  in  various  eomposi* 
tions.  At  the  death  of  Cosmo,  on  account  of  the  infirinU 
ties  of  his  father  Peter  de  Medici^  he  was  immediately 
initiated  into  political  life,  although  then  only  in  bis  six- 
teenth year.  He  vtas  accordingly  sent  to  visit  the  pririci* 
pal  courts  in  Italy,  and  acquire  a  personal  knowledge  of 
their  politics  and  their  rulers*  In  1 469  his  father  di6d* 
leaving  his  two  sons  Lorenzo  and  Julian  heirs  of  his  pottet 
and  property ;  but  it  was  Lorenzo  who  succeeded  him  fcs* 
head  of  the  republic.  Upon  the  accession  of  Sistu*  IV.  to 
the  papal  throne,  he  went,  with  some  other  citizens,  lo 
congratulate  the  new  pope,  and  was  invested  with  the  df-» 
%fice  of  treasurer  of  the  holy  see,  and  while  at  Rome  took 
every  opportunity  to  add  to  the  remains  of  ancient  art 
which  his  family  had  collected.  One  of  the  first  public 
Occurrences  after  he  conducted  the  helm  of  government, 
Iras  *  revolt  of  the  inhabitants  of  Volterra,  on  account  of 

.  1cRoKoe,ilifeof  Lorcnz0.~»Recs'f  Crclop»duu 

•B  2 


a  dispute  with  the  Florentine  republic  ;  by  the  recommen- 
dation of  Lorenzo,  means  of  force  were  adopted,  which 
ended  in  the  sack  of  the  unfortunate  city,  an  event  that 
gave  him  much  concern.     In  1472,  he  re-established  the 
academy  of  Pisa,  to  which  he  removed  in  order  to  com- 
plete the  work,  everted  himself  in  selecting  the  most  emi- 
nent professors,  and  contributed  to  it  a  large  sum  from  his 
private  fortune,  in  addition  to  that  granted  by  the  state  of 
Florence,     Zealously  attached  to  the  Platonic  philosophy, 
be  took  an  active  part  in  the  establishment  of  an  .academy 
for  its  promotion,  and  instituted  an  annual  festival  in  ho- 
nour of  the  memory  of  Plato,  which  was  conducted  with 
singular  literary  splendour.     While  he  was  thus  advancing 
in  a  career  of  prosperity  and  reputation,  a  tragical  inci- 
dent was  very  near  depriving  his  country  of  his  future  ser- 
vices.    This  was  the  conspiracy  of  the  Pazzi,  a  numerous 
and  distinguished  family  in  Florence,  of  which  the  object 
was  the  assassination  of  Lorenzo  and  bis  brother.     In  the 
latter  they  were  successful ;  but  Lorenzo  was  saved,  and 
the  people  attached  to  the  Medici  collecting  in  crowds, 
put   to  death  or  apprehended   the   assassins,  whose   de- 
signs were  thus  entirely  frustrated,  and  summary  justice 
was  inflicted   on   the   criminals.     Satviati,   archbishop   of 
Pisa,  was  hanged  out  of  the  palace  window  in  his  sacer- 
dotal robes ;    and  Jacob  de  Pazzi,  with  one  of  his  ne- 
phews, shared  the  same  fate.     The  name  and  arms  of  the 
Pazzi  family  were  suppressed,  its  members  were  banished, 
and  Lorenzo  rose  still  higher  in  the  esteem  and  affection  of 
his  fellow- citizens.     The  pope,  Sixtus  IV.  who  was  deep 
in  this  foul  conspiracy,  inflamed  almost  to  madness  by  the 
defeat  of  his,  schemes,  excommunicated  Lorenzo  and  the 
magistrates  of  Florence,  laid  an  interdict  upon  the  whole . 
territory,  and,  forming  a  league  with  the  king  of  Naples, 
prepared  to  invade  the  Florentine  dominions.     Lorenzo 
appealed  to  all  the  surrounding  potentates  for  the  justice 
of  his  cause;  and  he  was  affectionately  supported  by  his* 
fellow-citizens.  Hostilities  began,  and  were  carried  on  with 
various  success  through  two  campaigns.     At  the  close  of 
1479,  Lorenzo  took  the  bold  resolution  of  paying  a  visit 
to  the  king  of  Naples,  and,  without  any  previous  security, 
trusted  his  liberty  and  his  life  to  the  mercy  of  a  declared 
enemy.     The  monarch. was  struck  with  this  heroic  act  of 
confidence,  and  a  treaty  of  mutual  defence  and  friendship 
was  agreed  upon  between  them,    and  Sixtus  afterwards 


consented  to  a  peace.  At  length  the  death  of  Sixtus  IV. 
freed  him  from  an  adversary  who  never  ceased  to  bear  him 
ill-will ;  and  he  was  able  to  secure  himself  a  friend  in  his 
successor  Innocent  VIII.  He  conducted  the  republic  of 
Florence  to  a  degree  of  tranquillity  and  prosperity  which 
it  had  scarcely  ever  known  before ;  and  by  procuring  the 
institution  of  a  deliberative  body,  of  the  nature  of  a 
senate,  he  corrected  the  democratical  part  of  his  con- 

Lorenzo  distinguished  himself  beyond  any  of  his  pre- 
decessors in  the  encouragement  of  literature  and  the  arts  : 
and  his  own  productions  are  distinguished  by  a  vigour  of 
imagination,  an  accuracy  of  judgment,  and  an  elegance  of 
style,  which  afforded  the  first  great  example  of  improve* 
ment,  and  entitle  him,  almost  exclusively,  to  the  honour- 
able appellation  of  the  "  restorer  of  Italian  literature." 
His  compositions  are  sonnets,  canzoni,  and  other  lyric 
pieces,  some  longer  works  in  stanzas,  some  comic  satires, 
and  jocose  carnival  songs,'  and  various  sacred  poems,  the 
latter  as  serious  as  many  of  the  former  are  licentious: 
Some  of  these  pieces,  especially  those  of  the  lighter  kind, 
in  which  he  imitated  the  rustic  dialect,  became  extremely 
popular.  His  regard  to  literature,  in  general,  was  testi- 
fied by  the  extraordinary  attention  which  he  paid  to  the 
augmentation  of  the  Laurentian  library.  Although  the  an- 
cestors of  Lorenzo  laid  the  foundation  of  the  immense  col- 
lection of  MSS.  contained  in  this  library,  he  may  claim 
the  honour  of  having  raised  the  superstructure.  If  there 
was  any  pursuit  in  which  he  engaged  more  ardently  and 
persevered  in  more  diligently  than  the  rest,  it  was  that  of  • 

enlarging  his  collection  of  books  and  antiquities :  for  this 
purpose  he  employed  the  services  of  learned  men,  in  dif- 
ferent parts  of  Italy,  and  especially  of  his  intimate  friend  * 
and  companion  Politian,  who  took  several  journey  sin  order 
to  discover  and  purchase  the  valuable,  remains  of  antiquity. 
"  I  wi&h,"  said  Lorenzo  to  him  as  he  was  proceeding  on 
one  of  these  expeditions,  "  that  the  diligence  of  Picus 
and  yourself  would  afford  me  such  opportunities  of  pur- 
chasing books  that  I  should  be  obliged  even  to  pledge 
my  furniture  to  possess  them"  Two  journeys,  undertaken 
at.  the  instance  of  Lorenzo,  into  the  east,  by  John  Lascar, 
produced  a  great  number  of  rare  and  valuable  works.  On 
his  return  from  his  second  expedition,  he  brought  with 
bim  two  hundred  copies,  many  of  which  he  had  procured 

6  M  E  P  J  C  I. 

from  a  B>ona$tery  afr  mount,  Atbos ;  but  this. treasure  did  not 
agrrive  till  after  the  death  of  Lorenzo,  who,  in  bis  last  mo- 
ments, expressed  to  Politian  and  Picus  his.  regret  that  he 
could,  not  live  to  complete  tiue  collectioa  which,  he  was* 
fouling  for  theij;  accommodation.    On  the  discovery  of  the 
invaluable  art  of  printing,  Lorenzo  was  solicitous,  to  avail 
himself  of  ifp  advantages  ii)i  procuring  editions,  of  the  best 
works  of  antiquity  corrected  by  tbie  ablest  scholars,  whose 
labours  were   rewarded  by  his  munificence.     When,  the 
capture  of  Constantinople  by  the  Turks  caused  the  dis- 
persion of  many  learned  Q reeks,,  be  took  advantage  of 
the  circumstance,  to  promote  the  study  of  jhe  Greek  lan«% 
guage  in  Italy.     It  was  'now  at  Florence  that  this  tongue 
was  inculcated  under  the  sanction  of  a  public  institution*, 
either  by  native  Greeks,,  or  learned  Italians,  who  were  their 
powerful  competitors,  whose  services  were  procured  by  the 
diligence  of  Lorenzo  de  Medici,  and  repaid  by  bis  bounty., 
"  Hence,"  says  Mr.  Roscoe,.  "  succeeding:  scholars  have: 
been  profuse  of  their  acknowledgments  to  their  great  pa- 
tron,, who.  first  formed  that  establish  meat,    from  which* 
to  use  their  own    classical    figure,,    as  from  the  Trojan 
horse,     so     many    illustrious     champions    have    sprung,^ 
and   by  means  of    which  the  knowledge   of  the  Greek, 
tpngue  was  extended,    not  only  through  all  Italy,   but 
through  France,  Spain,  Germany,  and  England ;  from  all, 
which  countries  numerous  pupils,  attended  at  Florence*  who> 
diffused  the  learning  they  had  there  acquired;  throughout, 
the  rest  of  Europe." 

The  services  of  Lorenzo  to  the  fine  arts  were  not  less  con* 
spicuous  than  those  whichhe  rendered  to  letters,  by, augment- 
ing his  father's  collection  of  the  remains  of  antient  taste  and 
skill.     It  is  not,  however,  on  this  account,  only  that  he  is~< 
,  entitled  to  the  esteem  of  the  professors  and  admirers. of  the: 
arts.     He  determined  to  excite,  amon&  his  countrymen-, 
a  gpod  taste,,  and,,  by  proposing  to  their  imitation  the  rer 
mains  of  the  ancient  masters,  to  elevate  their,  views  beyond 
the  forms  of  common  life,  to  the  contemplation  of  that- 
ideal  beauty  which  alone  distinguishes  works,  of  art  from 
mere  mechanical  productions.    With  this  vi^w  he  appro* 
priated  his. gardens  in  Florence  to  the  establishment  of  an* 
academy  for  the  study  of  the  antique,  which  he  furnished: 
with  a  profusion  of  statues,  busts,  and  oth^r  relics  of  art, 
the  most  perfect  in  their  kind  that  he.  could,  procure,    Th& 


attention  of  the  higher  Tank  of  bis-  feHow-citrzetrtf  wtf* 
incited  to  these  pursuits  by  the  Example  of  Lorenzo-';  thai 
of  the  lower  class  by  bis- liberality.  To  the  latter  k&ftotf 
only  allowed  competent  stipends*,  while  th*e*y  attended  to 
their  studies,  but  appointed  considerable  premiums  as  re- 
wards of  their  proficiency.  To  this  institution,  more  thaW 
any  other  circumstance,  Mr.  Roscoe  ascribes*  the  sudden* 
and  astonishing  proficiency  which,  towards  the  close  of  the 
1 5th  century,  was  evidently  made  in  the  arts,  and  which, 
commencing  at  Florence,  extended  itself  to  the  rest  of  Eu- 
rope. In  1488,  his  domestic  comfort  was  much  impaired  by 
the  loss  of  his  wife  ;  and  after  that  his  constitution  appears* 
to  have  given  way,  and  in  April  1492,  he*  sunk  under  the 
debilitating  power  of  a  slow  fever,  and  expired  in  the  forty- 
fourth  year  of  his  age.  For  his  general  character,'  as  well* 
as<  the  history  of  his  age,  we  must  refer  to  the  very  inte&* 
resting  work  from  which  this  brief  account  has  beetl- 
takeh. ' 

MEDINA  (Sir  John),  a  portrait-painter,  waar  the  son 
of  Afedina  de  l'Asturias,  a  Spanish  captain,  who  had  settled1 
at  Brussels,  where  this  son  was  born  in  1659,  and  was  in- 
structed in  painting  by  Du  Chatel.     He  married  youngs 
and  cattle  into  England  in  1686,  where  be  drew  portraits' 
for  several  years.     The  earl  of  Leven  encouraged  hint  t& 
go  to  Scotland,  and  procured  him  a*  subscription  of  five* 
Hundred  pounds  worth  of  business.    He  accepted  the  otfer, 
and,  acoordiug  to  Waipole,  carried  with  hurra  large  num- 
ber of  bodies  and  postures,  to  which  he  painted  heads; 
He  returned  to  England  for  a-  short  time,  but  went  again' 
to  Scotland,  where  be  died  in  1711,  aged  fifty- two,  and' 
was  buried   in   the  Grey  Friars   church-yard.      He   was* 
knighted  by  the  duke  of  Queensbury,  lord-  high  commis- 
sioner, being' the  last  instance  of  that  honour  conferred  itr 
Scotland  while  a  separate  kingdom.     He  painted  most  of 
the  Scotch   nobility;    but  was  .not   rich,    having  twenty 
children*     The  portraits  of  the  professors  ia  the5  Surgeons' - 
ball  at  Edinburgh  were  painted  by  him.     Waipole  notices* 
other  portraits  by  him  in  England,  and;  adds,  that  he  was* 
capable  both  of  history  and  landscape.     The  duke  of  Gor- 
don presented  his  portrait  to  the  grand  duke  of  Tuscany,' 
who  pJ-aced  it  in  the  gallery  at  Florence,  among  the  series' 
of-emttieot  artists  painted  by  themselves;     The  prints  in' 

1  Rot<pe's  Life  of  Loreoao,  abridged  in  Rets'*  CyctopHdia. 


*n  octavo  edition  of  Milton  were  designed  by  him,  but 
Mr.  Walpole  does  not  tell  us  of  what  date.  Sir  John's 
gxapdson,  John  Medina;  the  last  of  the  family,  died  at 
Edinburgh  in  1796.  He  practised  painting  in  some  mea- 
sure, although  all  we  have  heard  specified  is  the  repair  he 
gave  to  the  series  of  Scottish  kings  in  Holyrood-house, 
which  are  well  known  to  be  imaginary  portraits.1 

MEERMAN  (Gerard),  a  very  learned  lawyer  and  pen- 
sionary of  Rotterdam  wa*  born  at  Leyden  in  1722  ;  of  his 
early  history,  pursuits,  &c.  our  authorities  give  no  ac- 
count, nor  have  the  bibliographers  of  this  country,  to  whom* 
he  is  so  well  known,  supplied  this  deficiency.  All  we  know 
is,  that  he  died  December  15,  1771,  in  the  forty-ninth  year 
of  his  age,  after  a  life  spent  in  learned  research  and  la- 
bom-,  which  produced  the  following  works  :  1.  "  De  rebus- 
mancipi  et  nee  mancipi."  Leyden,  1741,  4to.  2.  "  Spe- 
cimen calculi  fluxionalis,"  ibid.  1742,  4to.  3.  "Speci- 
men animadversionum  in  Cazi  institutiones,"  Mantuae  Car- 
petunorum  (i.  e.  Madrid),  reprinted  with  additions  by  the 
author,  at  Paris,  1747,  8vo.  4.  "  Conspectus  novi  the- 
sauri juris  civilis  et  canonici,"  Hague,  1751,  8vo.  This 
conspectus  was  immediately  followed  by  the  work  itself. 
5.  "Novus  Thesaurus  juris  civilis,"  &c.  ,1751^-1753,  7 
vols,  folio ;  a  book  of  high  reputation,  to  which  his  son 
John  added  an  eighth  volume,  in  1780.  6.  "  Conspectus 
OrigiuumTypographicarum  proxime  in  lucem  edehdarum," 
1761,  8vo.  This  prospectus  is  very  scarce,  as  the  author 
printed  but  a  very  few  copies :  it  is  however  in  demand 
with  collectors,  as  containing  some  things  which  he  did  not 
insert  in  the  work  itself.  The  abb£  Gouget  published  a 
French  translation,  with  some  additions,  in  1762.  The 
entire  work  appeared  in  1765,  under  the  title  of,  7.  il  Ori- 
gines  Typographies,"  Hague,  2  vols.  4to.  An  analysis  of 
tbis  valuable  work  was  drawn  up  by  Mr.  Bowyer,  and  printed 
in  "  The  Origin .  of  Printing,  in  two  Essays,  1.  The  sub- 
stance of  Dr.  Middleton's  Dissertation  on  the  origin  of 
printing  in  England.  2.  Mr.  Meerman's  account  of  the 
first  invention  of  the  art,"  1774,  8vo.  This  volume  was 
the  joint  composition  of  Messrs.  Bowyer  and  Nichols. 
Meerman's  partiality  to  Haerlem,  as  the  origin  of  print- 
ing, was  attacked  with  much  severity  by  Heinecken,  who 
being  a  German,  betrayed  as  much  partiality  to  Mental 

1  Walpolc'f  Anecdotes.— Edwards's  Continuation. 


^nd  Strasburgh. '  It .  seems,  however,  now  to  be  agreed 
among  typographical  antiquaries,  that  Heineckep  paid  too 
little  attention  to  the  claims  of  Haerlem,  and  Meerman  in- 
finitely too  much.  The, dissertation  of  the  latter,  however, 
has  very  recently  been  reprinted  in  France,  by  Mons. 
Jansen,  with  useful  notei,  and  a  catalogue  of  all  tbe 
v  books  published  in  the  Low  Countries«diiring  the  fifteenth 

i  MEHEGAN  (William  Alexander),  a  French  bisto* 
nan,  of  Irish   extraction,  as  his    name    sufficiently  de- 
notes, was  born  in  1721  at  Salle  in  the  C£vennes.     He 
addicted  himself  very   early   to  letters,  and  the  history 
of  his  life  is  only  the  history  of  his. publications.     He 
produced  in   1752,  1.  ?'  The  origin  of  the   Guebres,  or 
natural  religion  put  into  action."     This  book  has  too  much 
of  the  cast  of  modern  philosophy  to  deserve  recommenda- 
tion, and  has  now  become  very  scarce.  \  2.  In   1755  he 
published  "  Considerations  on  the  Revolutions  of  Arts,"  a 
work  more  easily  to  t>e  found;  and,  3.  A  small  volume  of 
"  Fugitive  Pieces'9  in  verse,  far  inferior  to  his  prose.     In 
the  ensuing  year  appeared,  4.  His  "  Memoirs  of  the  Mar- 
chioness de  Terville,  with  the  Letters  of  Aspasia,"   12 mo. 
The  style  of  tjhese  memoirs  is  considered  as  affected,  which, 
indeed,  is  the  general  faujt  prevalent  in  bis  works.     In  his 
person  also  be. is  said  to  have  been  affected  and  finical ; 
with  very  ready  elocution,  but  a  mode  of  choosing  both 
his  thoughts  and  expressions  that  was  rather  brilliant,  than 
natural.     His  style,  however,  improved  as  he  advanced' m 
life.     In  1759  he  gave  the  world  a  treatise  on,  5.  "  The 
origin,  progress,  and  decline  of  Idolatry,"  12mo;  a  pro- 
duction in. which  this  improvement  in  his  mode  of  writing 
is  very  .evident.     It  is  still  more  so  in  his,  6.  "  Picture  of 
modern  History,"  "Tableau  de  l'Histoire  moderne,"  which 
was  published  in  1766,  in  3  vols.  1 2 mo.     His  chief  faults 
are  those  of  ill- regulated  genius,  which  is  very  strongly 
apparent  in  this  work;  it  is  eloquent,  full  of  those  graces 
of  elocution,  and  richness  of  imagination,  which  are  said 
to  have  made  his  conversation  so  peculiar :  but  it  becomes 
fatiguing  from  an  excessive  ambition  to  paint  every  thing 
in  brilliant  colours.  •'  He  speaks  of  every  thing  in  the  pre- 
sent tense,  and  he  embellishes  every  subject  with  images 

i  Diet.  Hist.— Bowycr  and  Nichols's  "  Origin  of  Printing."-— Dibdin's  Biblio- 
nania  and  Typographical  Antiquities.— Saaii  Onomast. 



10  M  E  H  E  G  A  N. 

and  allusions.  He  died  Jaw.  23,  1766,  before*  this  nrfost 
considerable  of  his  works  was  quite  ready  for  publication. 
Be  was*  married,  and  bis  wife  is  said  US  have  been  a  woman 
who  in  all  respects  did  honour  to  the  elegance  of  his  taste?. 
AH  his  writings  are  in  French. l 

MEIBOMIUS,  is  the  name  of  several  learned1  men,  wfror 
weve  Germans.     John- Henry  Meibomiue  was  a  professor* 
of  physic  at  Helmstadt,  where  he  was  born  in  1590,  ancf# 
was.  arfterwaixfe  first  pbyaiciaw  at  Lubeck,  where  he  died  in 
1655.     He  was  the  author  of  several  Itemed  works  on  me- 
dical subjects,  such  as  '*  Jusjurandum  Hippoeratis,"    Gr. 
&  Lafc,  1643,  4*o;  "  t)e   usu  flagrorum  in   re   medica," 
Leyden*.  1639,  &c.  &c.     He  is  known  in  the  literary  world7 
by  a  work  published  at  Leyden  in  1653,  4to,  and  entitled,. 
" Maacenas,.  sive  dte  C.  Cilnii  Matcenatis  vita,  moribus,  & 
rebus  gestis,"  in  which  he  seems  to  have  quoted'  every 
passage  from  antiquity,  where  any  thing  is  said  of  Maece- 
nas;.  but  having  employed1  neither  criticism  nor  method,* 
he  cannot  claim  any  higher*  merit  than  that  of  a  mere  col-  , 

MtEIBOMIUS  (Hbnry),  son  of  the  former,  was  born  atf 
Lubeck  in  1638;  and  after  toying  a  proper  foundation  in' 
literature   at  home,  went  in    1655   to   the   university   of 
Helmstadt,  where  he  applied  himself  to  philosophy  and4 
medicine.     Afterwards  he  went  to  study  under  the  pro- 
feseors*  at  Groningen,  Franeker,  and  Leyden ;  and  upon 
his  return  to  Germany,  projected  a  larger  tour  through' 
Italy,  France,  and  England,  which  he  executed ;  he  con- 
tracted an   acquaintance   with   the  learned  wherever  he 
went;,  and  took  a>  doctor  of  physic's  degree  in  1*>63>,  as 
he  passed  through  Angers  in  France.     He  was  offered  a' 
professorship  of  physio  at  Helmstadt  in  1661 :  but  his  tra^ 
veiling  scheme  did  not-  permit  him  to  take  possession  of  if 
till   1664.     This,  and   the   professorships  of  history    and' 
poetry,  joined  to  it  in  1678,  he  held  to  the  time  of  bis- 
death,  which  happened  in: March,  17O0.     Besides  a  great 
number  of'  works  relating  to  his  own* profession,  he  pub* 
lished,  in  3  vols,  folio,  in  1688,  "  Scriptores  rerom-  Ger- 
mantcarum,"   a  very  useful  collection,   which  had  been* 
begun,  but  not  finished,  by  his  father.8 

1  Necrologie  pour  1767. — Diet.  Hist 

*  Moreri.— Ek>y,  Diet.  Hist  de  Medicine. — Savii  Onomattieon. 

*  Moreru— Eloy.«— Mceron,  toJ.  XVHI.— -Saxii  OnomatticoB* 

M  e  r  B  O  M  I  u  s.  n 

.   MEIBOMLUS  (Marcus),  a.  very  learned  man,  of  the 
flame  feuaaily  as  the  preceding,  was*  born  in  16  ill.     He  de- 
voted himself  to  literature  and  criticieoiy  but  particularly 
ta  the  learning  ef  the  ancients ;  as  their  music,,  the  struc- 
ture of  their  galleys,  &c.     In  1652  he  published  a  collec- 
tion' of  seven  Greek  authors,  who  had  written  upon  ancient 
l  music,  to  which,  he  added  a  Latin  version  by  himself,     it 
+wa&  entided  "  Antique  Musics  auctores  septenx  Greece  et 
Latine,  Marcos  Mieibomit*  restituit  ac  Notis  explicavit."' 
Aaaat.     The  first  volume  contains :   I.  Ariatoxetil  Harmo- 
nicoruro  Elementorura^  libri  \iu     IL  Euclidis  Introductio- 
Harmonica..    III.  Nichomachi  Geraseni,  Pythagorici,  Har- 
mon^ Man u ale.     IV.  Alypu  Introductio  Musica*     V.  Gau- 
dentii    Philosophi   Introductio    Harmonica.      VI.  Bacchii 
Seuioris  Introductio  Artia  Musiosa.    The  second;  volume : 
Ari&tidis  QuintiHaoi  de  Musica*.  libri  iii.    Martiani  Capelles 
de  Musicay  liber  ix.     This,  says  Dc  Burpey,  is  the  most 
solid  aud  celebrated  of  his  critical  works,  in  which  all  sub- 
sequent writers  on.  the  subject  of  ancient  music  place  im- 
plicit faith*     It  is  from  these  commentaries  oni  the  Greek 
writers  in  music,  particularly  Alypius,  that  we  are  able  t(h 
fancy  we  can  decipher  the  musical  characters  used  by  the 
ancient  Greeks,  in  their  notation ;  which,  before  his  time, 
had  been  so  altered,  corrupted,  disfigured,  and  confounded, 
by   the   ignorance   or  negligence  of  the   transcribers   of 
ancient  MS&,  that  they  were  rendered  wholly  uninteU 

Meibomius,  after  this  learned  and  elegant  publication, 
was  invited  to  the  court  of  the  queen  of  Sweden,  to  whom1 
he  had  dedicated  it;  hut  this  visit  was  not  followed  by  the 
most  pleasing  consequences*     Having  by  his  enthusiastic 
account  of  the  music  of.  the  ancients,  impressed  this*  prin- 
cess with  similar  ideas,  the  younger  Bourdelot,  \  physi- 
cian, and  his  rival,  (as  a  classical  scholar)' in  the*  queen's* 
favour,  instigated  her  majesty  to  desire' bior  to  sing  an' 
ancient  Grecian  air,,  while  Naudet,  'an  old  Frenchman,  . 
danced  d  la  Grec  to  the  sound  of  his  voice.     But  the  per- 
formance, instead  of  exciting  admiration*  produced  loud- 
bursts  of  laughter  from  all  present ;  which  so  enraged  Mei- 
bomius, that  seeing  the  buffoon  Bourdelot  in  the  gallery 
among  the  scoffers,  and  having  no  doubt  but  that  it  was  he 
who,  with  a  malicious  design,  had  persuaded  her  majesty 
to  desire  this  performance,  immediately  flew  thither,  and 
exercised  the  pugilist's  art  on  his  face  so  violently,  without 

12  M  E  I  B  O  M  I  U  S. 

being  restrained  by  the  presence  of  the  queen,  that  he? 
thought  it  necessary  to  quit  the  Swedish  dominions  before 
he  could  be  called  to  an  account  for  his  rashness  ;  and  im- 
mediately went  to  Copenhagen,  where  being  well  received, 
he  fixed  his  residence  there,  and  became  a  professor  at 
Sora,  a  Danish  college  for  the  instruction  of  the  young 
nobility.  Here  too  he  was  honoured  with  the  title  of 
aulic  counsellor,  and  soon  after  was  called  to  Elsineur, 
and  advanced  to  the  dignity  of  Architesori6,  or  presi- 
dent of  the  board  of  maritime  taxes  or  customs ;  but, 
neglecting  the  duty  of  his  office,  he  was  dismissed,  and 
upon  that  disgrace  quitted  Denmark.  Soon  after,  he 
settled  at  Amsterdam,  and  became  professor  of  history 
in  the  college  of  that  city;  but  refusing  to  give  instruc- 
tions to  the  son  of  a  burgomaster,  alleging  that  he  was 
not  accustomed  to  instruct  boys  in  the  elements  of  know- 
ledge, but  to  finish  students  arrived  at  maturity  in  their 
studies,  he  was  dismissed  from  that  station.  After  quitting 
Amsterdam,  he  visited  France  and  England ;  then  re- 
turning to  Holland,  he'  led  a  studious  and  private  life  at 
Amsterdam  till  1710  or  1711,  when  he  died  at  near  100 
years  of  age. 

Meibomius  pretended  that  the  Hebrew  copy  of  the 
Bible  was  full  of  errors,  and  undertook  to  correct  them  by 
means  of  a  metre,  which  he  fancied  he  had  discovered  in 
those  ancient  writings ;  but  this  drew  upon  him  no  small 
raillery  from  the  learned.  Nevertheless,  besides  the  work 
above  mentioned,  he  produced  several  others,  which  shewed 
him  to  be  a  good  scholar;  particularly  his  "  Diogenes 
Laerti'us,"  Amst.  1692,  2  vols.  4to,  by  far  the  most  critical 
and  perfect  edition  of  that  writer ;  his  "  Liber  de  Fabrica 
Triremium,"  1671,  in  which  he  thinks  he  discovered  the 
method  in  which  the  ancients  disposed  their  bancs  of  oars  ; 
bis  edition  of  the  ancient  Greek  Mycologists ;  and  his 
dialogues  on  Proportions,  a  curious  work,  in  which  the 
interlocutors,  or  persons  represented  as  speaking,  are 
Euclid,  Archimedes,  Apollonius,  Pappus,  Eutocius,  Theo, 
and  Hermotimus.  This  last  work  was  opposed  by  Lan- 
gius,  and  by  Dr.  Wall  is  in  a  considerable  tract,  printed 
in  the  first  volume  of  bis  works. ' 

l  Moreri.— Burney'g  Hist,  of  Music,  and  in  the  Cyclopedia. — Htttton's  Diet. 
— Smxii  Onomasticon. 

MEIEH.  13 

MEIER  (George  Frederic),  a  German  writer  on  phi- 
losophical subjects,  was  born  in  1718,  at  Ammendorff, 
near  Halle  in  Saxony.  He  appeared  first  as  an  author  m 
1745,  when  he  published,  in  German,  1.  His  "  Represen- 
tation of  a  Critic,"  being  his  delineation  of  the  character 
of  a  perfect  critic.  In  the  same  year  he  produced,  2.  "  In- 
structions how  any  one  may  become  a  Modern  Philoso- 
pher," 8vo.  We  have  a  translation  in  this  country,  called 
"  The  Merry  Philosopher,  or  Thoughts  on  Jesting,"  pub- 
lished in  1764,  from  the  German  of  Meier,  but  whether 
a  translation  of  the  last-mentioned  work,  we  know  not.  It 
is  a  very  dull  performance.  Whatever  merit  might  belong 
to  his  works  on  philosophical  and  critical  subjects,  they 
were  peculiarly  his  own,  for  he  was  not  master  of  the 
learned  languages.  Yet  his  work  on  the  elements  of  all 
the  polite  arts,  was  received  by  his  countrymen  with  no 
inconsiderable  approbation.  It  is  entitled,  3.  "  Introduc- 
tioo  to  the  elegant  arts  and  sciences ;"  and  was  printed  at 
Halle,  in  Svo,  1743 — 1750;  and  republished,  in  three 
parts,  in  1754 — 1759.  J.  Matthew  Gesner,  however,  in 
his  "  Isagoge,"  is  frequently  severe  against  this  author, 
and  particularly  derides  his  form  of  Esthetics,  which  had 
been  much  applauded.     Meier  died  in  1777.  *       ,    - 


MELA  (Pomponius),  an  ancient  Latin  writer,  was  born 
in  the  province  of  Bsetica  in  Spain,  and  flourished  in  the 
first  century,  in  the  reign  of  the  emperor  Claudius.  His 
three  books  of  "  Cosmography,  or  De  situ  Orbis,"  are 
written  in  a  concise,  perspicuous,  and  elegant  manner; 
and  have  been  thought  worthy  of  the  attention  and  labours 
of  the  ablest  critics.  Isaac  Vossius  gave  an  edition  of 
them  in  1658,  4to,  with  very  large  and  copious  notes,  in 
which  he  takes  frequent  occasion  to  criticize  "  Salthasius's 
Commentaries  upon  Soiinus."  James  Gronovius  published 
"Mela,"  in  1658,  12mo,  with  shorter  notes;  in  which, 
however,  as  if  he  resented  Vossius's  treatment  of  Salmasius, 
he  censures  his  animadversions  with  some  degree  of  se- 
verity. To  this  edition  of  Mela,  is  added,  "  Jnlii  Honorii 
oratoris  excerptum  cosmographise,"  first  published  from 
the  manuscript ;  and  "  JEthici  Cosmographia:"  Vossius 
answered  the  castigations  of  Gronovius,  in  an  "  Appendix 
to  his  Annotations,"  1686,  4to;  but,  dying  the  same  year, 

1  Diet.  Hist—Saxii  Onomasticeo. 

14  MELA. 

Jeft  his  manes  to  be  insulted  by  Grooovius,  in  another 
edition  <of  Mela  immediately  published,  with  illustrations  by 
.medals.  In  this  last  edition  by  Grouovins,  are  added  five 
books*,  "  De  geotgraphia,"  written  by  some  later  author; 
by  Jornandes,  as  Fabrkias  conjectures.  Perhaps  one  of 
the  best  editions  of  Pomponius  Mela,  is  that  by  Reynolds, 
printed  at  Exeter  in  1711*  4to,  illustrated  with  27  maps, 
and  which  was  reprinted  at  London,  1719  and  1739,,  and 
at  Eton,  1761  and  1775,  4to.  The  last  edition,  collated 
with  many  MSS.  is  that  by  C.  H.  Tzscbuckius,  printed  at 
Leipsic,  1807,  7  vols.  Svo.1 

MELANCTHON  (Philip),  whom  the  common  consent 
of  all  ecclesiastical  historians  has  placed  among  the  most 
eminent  of  the  reformers,  was  born  at  Bietten,  in  the 
Palatinate  upon  the  Rhine,  Feb.  16,  1497.  His  family 
name,  Scbwartserd,  in  German,  means  literally  black  earthy 
which,  according  to  the  custom  of  the  times  {as  in  tbe^case 
of  Oecolampadtus,  Erasmus,  C  by  tree  us,  Reuchlio,  &c), 
was  exchanged  for  Mdauctbon,  a  compound  Greek  word 
of  the  same  signification.  His  education  was  at  first 
chiefly  under  the  care  of  his  maternal  grandfather  Renter, 
as  his  father's  time  was  much  engrossed  by  the  affairs  of 
the  elector  Palatine,  whom  he  served  as  engineer,  or  com* 
missary  of  artillery.  He  first  studied  at  a  school  in  Bret- 
ten,  and  partly  under  a  private  tutor,  and  gave  very  early 
proofs  of  capacity.  He  was  afterwards  sent  to  Pfortsheim, 
a  city  in  the  marquisate  of  Baden,  where  was  a  flourishing 
college,  and  here  he  became  known  to  the  celebrated 
Reuchlin,  to  whom  it  would  appear  he  was  distantly  re* 
lated,  and  who  assisted  him  in  learning  the  Greek  Ian* 
guage.  Probably  by  his  advice,  Melancthon  went  to  the 
university  of  Heidelberg,  where  he  was  matriculated  on 
Oct.  13,  1509.  Such  was  his  improvement  here  that  his 
biographers  inform  us  he  was  admitted  to  his  bachelor'* 
degree,  although  under  fourteen  years  of  age,  and  that  he 
was  intrusted  to  teach  the  sons  of  count  Leon  stein.  Yet, 
notwithstanding  his  extraordinary  proficiency,  he  was  re- 
fused his  degree  of  master  on  account  of  his  youth ;  and, 
either  disappointed  in  this,  or  because  the  air  of  Heidel* 
berg  did  not  agree  with  his  constitution,  be  left  that  uni- 
versity in  1512,  and  went  to  Tubingen,  where  he  resided 
six  years. 

1  Vossitis  de  Hist.  Lat.— Fabric  Bibl,  JL*t.— -Saxii  Onomastiooo* 


Bgil^et  has  with  much  propriety  classed  Meknctbon 
among  the  enfans  celebres,  or  list  of  youths  who  became 
celebrated  Apr  early  genius  and  knowledge.  It  is  said  that 
while  at  Heidelberg  he  was  employed  in  composing  the 
greatest  part  of  the  academical  speeches,  and  Bail  let  adds, 
than  at  thirteen  he  wrote  a  comedy,  and  dedicated  it  to 
Reijcblii*.  With  such  capacity  and  application  he  could 
nqt  fail  tp  distinguish  himself  during  his  residence  at  Tu- 
bingen, where  he  studied  divinity,  law,  and  mathematics, 
and  gape  public  lectures  on  the  Latin  classics,  and  oo  the 
pcieoces.  About  this  time  Reucblin  had  made  him  a  pre*- 
seat  of  a  small  edition  of  the  Bible,  printed  by  Frobenius, 
in  reading  which*  we  are  tpld,  he  took  much  delight  In 
1513  he  was  created  doctor  in  philosophy,  or  master  of 
arts,  and  had  attracted  the  notice  of  Erasmus,  who  con* 
ceived  the  highest  hopes  of  .bim — "  What  hopes,  indeed," 
he  said  about  1315,  "  may  we  not  entertain  of  Philip  Me* 
lafycthon,  who  though  as  yet  very  young,  and  almost  a 
boy,  is  equally  to  be  admired  for  his  knowledge  in  both 
languages  ?  Wba&  quickness  of  invention  !  what  purity  t>f 
diptipq  j!  what  powers  of  memory  !  what  variety  of  reading  1 
what  qaodesty  and  gracefulness  of  behaviour !"  • 

Iq  1  £  I  H$  Frederic  elector  of  Saxony,  on  the  recommeiv* 
Ration  <pf  Reuchlin,  presented  bim  to  the  Greek  professor- 
ship in  the  university  of  Wittemberg;  and  his  learned  and 
elegant  inauguration  speech  wa6  highly  applauded,  and  re- 
moved every  prejudice  which  might  be  entertained  against 
hisyontb*  Here  he  read  lectures  upon  Homer  and  part 
of  the  Greek  Testament  to  a  crowded  audience,  and  here 
also  J)$  fiwt  formed  that  acquaintance  with  Luther,  then 
divinity  professor  at  Wittemberg,  which  was  of  so  much 
ijppofl#ne#  i?  his  future  life.  He  became  also  known  to 
Carolosi^dt,  one  of  Luther's  most  zealous  adherents  in 
opposing  tk$  corruptions  Of  popery,  and  who  was  at  this 
time  archdeacon  of  Wittemberg.  Finding  that  some  of  the 
sciences  had  been  taught  here  in  a  very  confused  and  im- 
perfect manner  for  want  of  correct  manuals,  or  text-books, 
he  published  in  1519  hi?  "  Rhetoric,"  which  was  followed 
by  .siipiLar  works  on  "  Logic"  and  "  Grammar."  In  the 
abave-qaentioned  year  (1519)  be  accompanied  Luther  to 
Leip&ic,  to  witness  that  conference  which  Luther  had  with 
Eckiiift  (see  Li/trek,  vol  XXL  p.  507),  and  joined  so  much 
io  the  debate  as  to  give  Eckius  a  very  unpleasant  specimen 
of  his  talents  in  controversy.    From  this  time  Melaucthon 



became  an  avowed  supporter  of  the  doctrines  of  the  refor- 

In  1520,  Melancthon  read  leetures  on  St.  Paul's  epistle 
to  the  Romans,  which  were  so  much  approved  by  Luther, 
that  he  caused  them  to  be  printed  for  the  good  of  the 
churchy  and  introduced  them  by  a  preface.  In  the  follow- 
ing year,  hearing  that  the  divines  of  Paris  had  condemned 
the  works  and  doctrine  of  Luther  by  a  formal .  decree, 
Melancthon  opposed  them  with  great  zeal  and  force  of 
•argument,  and  affirmed  Luther's  doctrine  to  be  sound  and 
orthodox.  In  1527  he  was  appointed  by  the  elector  of 
Saxony,  to  visit  all  the  churches  within  his  dominions.  He 
was  next  engaged  to  draw  up,  conjointly  with  Luther,  a 
system  of  laws  relating  to  church  government,  public  wor- 
ship, the  ranks,  offices,  and  revenues  of  the  priesthood,* 
and  other  matters  of  a  similar  nature,  which  the  elector 
promulgated  in  his  dominions,  and  which  was  adopted  by 
the  other  princes  of  the  empire,  who  had  renounced  the 
papal- supremacy  and  jurisdiction.  In  1529  he  accom- 
panied the  elector  to  the  diet  at  Spire,  in  which  the  princes 
and  members  of  the  reformed  communion  acquired  the 
denomination  of  Protestants,  in  consequence  of  their  pro-* 
testing  against  a  decree,  which  declared  unlawful  every 
change  that  should  be  introduced  into  the  established  reli- 
gion, before  the  determination  of  a  general  council  was 
known.  He  was  next  employed  by  the  protestant  princes 
assembled  at  Cobourg  and  Augsburgh  to  draw  up  the  cele- 
brated confession  of  faith,  which  did  such  honour  to  his 
acute  judgment  and  eloquent  pen,  and  is  known  by  the 
name  of  the  Confession  of  Augsburgh,  because  presented  to 
the  emperor  and  German  princes  at  the  diet  held  in  that 
city  in  June  1530.  The  princes  heard  it  with  the  deepest 
attention :  it  confirmed  some  in  the  principles  they  had 
embraced,  and  conciliated  those  who  from  prejudice  or  mis- 
representation, had  conceived  more  harshly  of  Luther's 
sentiments  than*  they  deserved.  The  style  of  this  confes- 
sion is  plain,  elegant,  grave,  and  perspicuous^  sueh  as 
becomes  the  nature  of  the  subject,  and  such  as  might  be 
expected  from  Melaijcthon's  pen.  The  matter  was  un- 
doubtedly supplied  by  Luther,  who,  during  the  diet,  re- 
sided at  Cobourg  ;  and  even  the  form  it  received  from  the 
eloquent  pen  of  his  colleague,  was  authorized  by  his  ap- 
probation and  advice.  This  confession  contains  twenty*' 
eight  chapters,   of  which  twenty-one  are  employed   in 



Representing  the  religious  opinions  of  the  protes tan  ts,  and 
the  other  seven  in  pointing  out  the  corruptions  of  the 
church  of  Rome.  To  the  adherents  of  that  church  it  could 
not  therefore  bq  acceptable,  and  John  Faber,  afterwards 
bishop  of  Vienne  in  Dauphin6,  with  Eckius  and  Cochlseus, 
were  selected  to  draw  up  a  refutation,  to  which  Melanc- 
thon  replied.  In  the  following  year  he  enlarged  his  reply, 
and  published  it  with  the  other  pieces  that  related  to  the 
doctrine  and  discipline  of  the  Lutheran  church,  under  the 
title  of  "  A  Defence  of  the  Confession  of  Augsburgh." 

Melancthon  made  a  very  distinguished  figure  in  the 
many  conferences  which  followed  this  diet.  It  was  in  these 
that  the  spirit  and  character  of  Melancthon  appeared  in 
their  true  colours;  and  it  was  here  that  the  votaries  of 
Rome  exhausted  their  efforts  to  gain  over  to  their  party 
this  pillar  of  the  reformation,  whose  abilities  and  virtues 
added  a  lustre  to  the  cause  -  in  which  be  had  embarked. 
His  gentle  spirit  was  apt  to  sink  into  a  kind  of  yielding 
softness,  under  the  influence  of  mild  and  generous  treat- 
ment Accordingly,  while  his  adversaries  soothed  him 
with  fair  words  and  flattering  promises,  he  seemed  ready 
to  comply  with  their  wishes ;  but,  when  they  so  far  forgot 
themselves  as. to  make  use  of  threats,  Melancthon  appear- 
ed in  a  very  different  point  of  light,  and  showed  a  spirit  of 
intrepidity,  ardour,  and  independence.  It  was  generally 
thought  that  he  was  not  so  averse  to  an  accommodation 
with  the  church  of  Rome  as  Luther,  which  is  grounded 
upon  his  saying  that  they  "  ought  not  to  contend  scrupu- 
lously about  things  indifferent,  provided  those  rites  and 
ceremonies  had  nothing  of  idolatry  in  them  ;  and  even  to 
hear  some  hardships,  if  it  could  be  done  without  impiety." 
But  there  is  no  reason  to  think  that  there  was  any  import- 
ant difference  between  him  and  Luther,  but  what  arose 
from  the  different  tempers  of  the  two  men,  which  con- 
sisted in  a  greater  degree  of  mildness  on  the  part  of  Me- 
lancthon. It  was,  therefore, x  this  moderation  and  pacific 
disposition  which  made  him  thought  a  proper  person  to 
settle  the  disputes  about  religion,  which  were  then  very 
violent  in  France ;  and  for  that  purpose  be  was  invited 
thither  by  Francis  I.  Francis  had  assisted  at  a  famous 
procession,  in  Jan.  1535,  and  had  caused  some  heretics  to 
be  burnt.  Melancthon  was  exhorted  to  attempt  a  mitiga- 
tion of  the  king's  anger ;  he  wrote  a  letter  therefore  to 
John  Sturmius,  who  was  then  in  France,  and  another  to 

Vox.  XXII.  C 


Du  Bellai,  bishop  of  Paris.  A  gentleman,  whom  Francis 
bad  sent  into  Germany,  spoke  to  Melancthon  of  the  jour- 
ney to  France ;  and  assured  him,  that  the  king  would  write 
to  him  about  it  himself,  and  would  furnish  him  with  all  the 
means  of  conducting  him  necessary,  for  his  safety.  TothU 
Melancthon  consented,  and  the  gentleman  upon  bis  re- 
turn was  immediately  dispatched  to  him  with  a  letter.  It 
is  dated  from  Guise,  June  28,  1535,  and  declares  the  plea- 
sure the  king  bad,  when  he  understood  that  Melancthon 
was  disposed  to  come  into  France,  to  put  an  end  to  their 
controversies.  Melancthon  wrote  to  the  king,  Sept.  28, 
aud  assured  him  of  his  good  intentions ;  but  was  sorry,  be 
could  not  as  yet  surmount  the  obstacles  to  his  journey. 
The  truth  was,  the  duke,  of  Saxony  had  reasons  of  state 
for  not  suffering  this  journey  to  the  court  of  Francis  I.  and 
Melancthon  could  never  obtain  leave  of  him  to.go,  although 
Luther  had  earnestly  exhorted  that  elector  to  consent  to 
it,  by  representing  to  him,  that  the  hopes  of  seeing  Me- 
lancthon had  put  a  stop  to  the  persecution  of  the  protestants 
in  France ;  and  that  there  was  reason  to  fear,  they  would 
renew  the  same  cruelty,  when  they  should  know  that  he 
would  not  come.  Henry  VIII.  king  of  England,  had  also 
a  desire  to  see  Melancthon,  but  neither  he  nor  Francis  I. 
ever  saw  him. 

His  time  was  now  chiefly  employed  in  conferences  and 
disputes  about  religion.  In  1539,  there  was  an  assembly 
of  the  protestant  princes  at  Francfort,  concerning  a  refor- 
mation ;  and  another. in  1541,  at  Worms,  where  there 
happened  a  warm  dispute  between  Melancthon  and.  Eckius 
respecting  original  sin.  But,  by  the  command  of  the  em- 
peror, it  was  immediately  dissolved,  and  both  of  them 
appointed  to  meet  at  Reinspurg ;  where  Eckius  proposing 
a  sophism  somewhat  puzzling,  Melancthon  paused  a  tittle, 
and  said,  "  that  be  would  give  an  answer  to  it  the  nexfr 
day."  Upon  which  Eckius  represented  to  him  the  disgrace 
of  requiring  so  long  a  time ;  but  Melancthon  replied,  that 
he  sought  not  bis  own  glory,  but  that  of  truth.  In  1 549 
he  went  to  the  archbishop  of  Cologne,  to  assist  him  in  in- 
troducing a  reformation  into  bis  diocese;  but  without 
effect.  He  attended  at  seven  conferences  in  1548;  and 
was  one  of  the  deputies  whom  Maurice,  elector  of  Saxony, 
was  to  send  to  the  council  of  Trent,  in  1552.  His  last 
conference  with  the  doctors  of  the  Romish  communion' 
was  at  Worms,  in  1557.    He  died  at  WitVemberg,  April 

1?,  1560,  in  bis  sixty  •third  year;  and  was  buried  neat' 
Luther,  in  the  church  of  the  castle,  two  days  after.  Some 
days  before  he  died,  he  wrote  upon  a  piece  of  paper  the 
seasons  which  made  him  look  upon  death  as 'a  happiness ; 
and  the  chief  of  them  was,  that  it  "delivered  him  from 
theological  persecutions."  Nature  bad  given  him  a  peace* 
able  temper,  which  was  but  ill-suited  for  the  tim6  in 
which  he  lived.  iHis  moderation  greatly  augmented  his' 
uneasiness.  He  was  like  a  lamb  in  the  midst  of  wolves. 
Nobody  liked  his  mildness ;  it  looked  as  if  .he  was  luke- 
warm ;  and  even  Luther  himself  was  sometimes  angry  at 
it.  It  was,  indeed,  considering  his  situation,  very  incon- 
venient ;  for  it  not  only  exposed  him  to  all  kinds  of  slan- 
der, but  would  hot  suffer  him  to  "  answer  a  fool  according 
to  his  folly."  The  only  advantage  it  procured  him,  was 
to  look  upon  death  without  fear,  by  considering,  that  it 
would  secure  him  from  the  "  odium  theologicum,n  the 
hatred  of  divines,  and  the  discord  of  false  brethren.  He 
was  never  out  of  danger,  but  might  truly  be  said,  "  through 
fear,  to  be  all  his  life-time  subject  to  bondage."  Thus  he 
declared,  in  one  of  his  works,  that  he  "  had  held  his  pro- 
fessor's place  forty  years  without  ever  being  sure  that  he: 
should  not  be  turned  out  of  it  before  the  end  of  the 
week."  ' 

He  married  a  daughter  of  a  burgomaster  of  Wittemberg 
in  1520,  who  lived  with  him  till  1557.  He  had  two  sons 
and  two  daughters  by  her;  and  his  eldest  daughter  Anne, 
in  1536,  became  the  wife  of  Geopge  Sabinus,  one  of  the 
best  poets  of  his  time.  His  other  daughter  was'  married, 
in  1550,  to  Qaspar  Peucer,  who  was  an  able  physician, 
and  very  much  persecuted.  Melancthon  was  a  very  affec- 
tionate father ;  and  there  is  an  anecdote  preserved  of  him, 
which'  perfectly  agrees  with  his  character  for  humility.  A 
Frenchman,  it  is  said,  found  hint  one  day,  holding  a  book 
in  one  hand,  and  rocking  a  child  with  the  other ;  and  upon 
his  expressing  some  surprise,  Melancthon  made  such  a 
pious  discourse  to  hitti  about  the  duty  of  a  father,  and  the 
state  of  grace  in  which  the  children  are  with  God,  "  that 
this  stranger  went  away/*  says  Bayle,  "  much  more  edified 
than  he  came."  Melchior  Adam  relates  a  curious  dialogue' 
which  passed  between  his  son-in-law  Sabinus,  and  cardinal 
Bembos,  concerning  Melancthon.  When  Sabinus  went  to 
see  Italy,  Melancthon  wrote  a  letter  to  cardinal  Bembus/. 
to  recommend  him  to  hisnotice.     The  cardinal  laid  a  great 

c  2 

26  M  E  L  A  N  C  T  H  O  N. 

stress  upon  the  recommendation ;  for  be  loved  Mefancthon 
for  his  abilities  and  learning,  however  be  might  think  him- 
self obliged  to  speak  of  his  religion.  He  was  very  civil 
therefore  to  Sabinus,  invited  him  to  dine  with  him,  and  in 
the  time  of  dinner  asked  him  a  great  many  questions*  par*- 
ticularly  these  three-:  "  What  salary  Melancthon  had  ? 
what  number  of  hearers  1  and  what  he  thought  concerning 
the  resurrection  and  a  future  state  ?"  To  the  first  ques- 
tion Sabinus  replied,  "  that  his  salary  was  not  above  30O 
ftorins  a  year."  Upon  hearing  this,  the  cardinal  cried  oat* 
"  Ungrateful  Germany !  to  value  at  so  low  a  price  so 
many  labours  of  so  great  a  man.'9  The  answer  to  the 
second  was,  "that  he  had  usually  1500  hearers."  **  1 
cannot  believe  it,"  says  the  cardinal :  "  I  do  not  know,  an 
university  in  Europe,  except  that  of  Paris,  in  which  one 
professor  has  so  many  scholars."  To  the  third,  Sabinus. 
replied,  "  that  Melancthon's  works  were  a  full  and  suffi- 
cient proof  of  his  belief  in  those  two  articles."  "  I  should 
think  him  a  wiser  man,"  said  the  cardinal,  "  if  be  did  not 
believe  any  thing  about  them." 

Melancthon  was  a  man  in  whom  many  good  as  well  as 
great  qualities  were  wonderfully  united.  He  had  great 
abilities,  great  learning,  great  sweetness  of  temper,  mo- 
deration, contentedness,  and  other  qualities,  which  would 
*~tiave  made  him  very  happy  in  any  other  times  but  those 
in  which  he  lived.  He  never  affected  dignities,,  honours, 
or  riches,  but  was  rather  negligent  of  them :  too  much  so, 
in  the  opinion  of  some,  considering  be  had  a  family ;  and 
his  £on~in-law  Sabinus,  who  was  of  a  more  ambitious  dis- 
position, was  actually  at  variance  with  him  upon  this  sub* 
jeot.  Learning  was  infinitely  obliged  to  him  on  many  ac- 
counts ;  on  none  more  than  this,  that  be  reduced  ^almost 
all  the  sciences,  which  had  been  taught  before  in  a  vague 
irregular  manner,  into  systems.  We  have  mentioned  that 
be  compiled  compendiums  for  the  use  of  his  scholars ;  and 
also  a  treatise  "  On  the  Soul,"  the  design  of  which  was, 
to  free  the  schools  from  the  nugatory  subtleties  and  idle 
labours  of  the  scholastics,  and  to  confine  the  attention  of 
young  men  to  useful  studies.  He  industriously  ransacked 
the  writings  of  the  ancients,  to  collect  from  them,  in  eyery: 
branch  of  learning,  whatever  was  most  deserving  of  atten- 
tion. Mathematical  studies  he  held  in  high  estimation,  as 
appears  from  his  declamation  De  Mathematicts  Disciphnis* 
"  On  Mathematical  Learning,"  which-  will  very  well  repay 


the  trouble  of  pefusaL  In  philosophy  he  followed  Aris- 
totle  as,  in  his  judgment,  the  most  scientific  and  methodi- 
cal guide,  but  always  in  due  subordination  to  Revelation, 
and  only  so  far  as  was  likely  to  answer  some  valuable  pur* 
pose.  "  I  would  have  no  one,"  says  he,  a  trifle  in  philo- 
sophising, lest  he  should  at  length  even  lose  sight  of  com- 
mon sense ;  rather  let  him  be  careful  both  in  the  study  of 
physics  and  morals,  to  select  the  best  things  from  the  best 

.  If  the  particular  cast  of  Melancthon's  mind  be  con- 
sidered, it  will  not  be  thought  surprising,  that  in  philoso- 
phy he  preferred  a  moderate  attachment  to  a  particular 
sect,  to  any  bold  attempt  at  perfect  innovation.  Though 
he  possessed  a  sound  understanding  and  amiable  temper, 
he  wanted  that  strength  and  hardiness  of  spirit,  which 
might  have  enabled  him  to  have  done  in  philosophy,  what 
Lather  did  in  religion.  He  therefore  chose  rather  to  cor- 
rect the  established  mode  of  philosophising,  than  to  intro- 
duce a  method  entirely  new.  If  it  be  a  just  occasion  of 
regret,  that  in  consequence  of  the  natural  gentleness,  and 
perhaps  timidity,  of  bis  temper,  he  proceeded  no  further, 
it  ought  not  to  be  forgotten,  that  while  religion  was  iritoch 
indebted  to  his  cool  and  temperate,  but  honest  exertions, 
philosophy  was  not  without  obligation  to  him,  for  the 
paind  which  he  took  to  correct  its  eccentricities,  and  adorn, 
it  with  the  graces  of  eloquence. 

Melancthon  made  use  of  the  extensive  influence,  which 
his  high  reputation,  and  the  favour  of  the  reigning  elector 
of  Saxony,  gave  him  in  the  German  schools,  in  which  he 
was  considered  as  a  kind  of  common  preceptor,  to  unite 
the  study  of  the  Aristotelian  philosophy  with  that  of  an- 
cient learning  in  general.  And  he  was  much  assisted  in 
the  execution  of  this  design,  by  the  labours  of  many 
learned  protestants  of  the  Germanic  schools  from  Italy  and 
Great  Britain,  who  brought  with  them  an  attachment  to 
the  Peripatetic  system,  and,  wherever  they  were  appointed 
public  preceptors,  made  that  system  the  basis  of  tlpeir 
philosophical  instructions.  From  Wittemberg,  Tubingen, 
Leipsic,  and  other  seminaries,  conducted  after  the  man- 
ner which  was  introduced  by  Melancthon,  many  learned 
men  arose,  who,  becoming  themselves  preceptors,  adopted 
the  same  plan  of  instruction,  which  from  Melancthon  was 
called  the  Philippic  method;  and  thus  disseminated  the 
Peripatetic  doctrine,  till  at  length  it  yras  almost  every 

£3  ftf  E  L  A;  N  C  T  If  Q  N. 

where  taught 4a  the  German  protectants  schools,  under  the 
sanction,  of  civil  and  ecclesiastical  authority.  Considering 
the  distractions  of  his  life,  and  the  infinity  of  disputes  and 
tumults  in  which  he  was  engaged,  it  is  astonishing,  bow  be 
could  find  leisure  to  write  so  many  books.  Th^ir  number 
is  prodigious,  insomuch  that  it  was  thought  necessary  to 
publish  a  chronological  catalogue  of  them  in  1582,  They 
are  theological,  moral,  and  philosophical;  some,  however, 
relate  to  what  is  usually  denominated  the  belles  lettres, 
$nd  others  are  illustrative  of  various  classical  authors. 
The  most  complete  edition  was  published  by  the  author'* 
son-in-law,  Jasper  Peucer,  1601,  in  4  vols.  fol.  ? 

MELEAGER,  a  Greek  epigrammatic  poet,  and  the  first 
collector  of  the  epigrams  that  form  the  Greek  Anthologia^ 
was  the  son  of  Eucrates,  and  is  generally  considered  as  & 
native  of  Gadara  in  Syria,  where  be  chiefly  lived ;  but, 
according  to  Hades,  was  born  rather  at  Atthts,  an  incon- 
siderable placa,  in  the  territory  of  Gadara.    The  time  in 
which  be  lived  has  been  a  subject  of  controversy.  Vavassor, 
in  some  degree,  with  the  consent  of  Fabricius,  and  Reiske* 
in  his  Notitia  Poetarum  Anthologicorum,  p.  131,  contend, 
that  he  lived  under  Seleucus  VI.  the  last  king  of  Syria, 
who  began  to  reign  in  olym.  170.  3.  A.  C.  96.    This  is 
confirmed  by  an  old  Greek  scholiast,  who  says,  YiHpoureY.bri 
£«*fws  tS  Icrxom.   "  He  flourished  under  Seleucus  the  last." 
Saxius  accordingly  inserts  his  name  at  the  year  above* 
mentioned.     Some  would  carry  him  back  to  the  1 48th 
olympiad,  A.  C.  186,  which,  however,  is  not  incompatible 
with  the  other  account;  and  Schneider  would  bring  him 
down  to  the  age  of  Augustus,  from  a  supposed  imitation  of 
an  epigram  of  Strato,  who  lived  then.     But,  as  it  may 
equally  be  supposed  that  Strato  imitated  him,  this  argu- 
ment is  of  little  validity.     One  of  his  epigrams  in  praise  of 
Antipater  Sidonius,  seems  to  prove  that  he  wa&  contetn* 
porary  with  hiip  (Epig.  exxiii.  ed.  Brunck.)  and  another*, 
in  which  he  speaks  of  the  fall  of  Corinth  as  a  recent  event, 
which  happened  in  olym.  158.  4.  may  be  thought  to  fix  him 
also  to  that  time.     As  he  calls  himself  xoTvimg,  or  aged,  in 
one  of  his  compositions,  there  will  be  no  inconsistency  be- 
tween these  marks,  and  the  account  of  the  scholiast. 
In  his  youth,  Meleager  lived  chiefly  at  Gadara,  and  inri- 

1'  Melchior  Adam. — Life  of  Melancthon,  by  Camerarius.— .Bru'cker.  We  are 
happy  to  tied  tbat  the  public  may  soon  expect  a  very  elaborate*  life  of  this  great 
reformer,  from  the  rev.  Aulay  Macaulay,  vicar  of  Rotbley,  co.  Leicester. 

ti\  L  E  A  G  fc  R. 


tmted  the  style  and  manner  of  Menippus,  who  bad  lived 
before  him  in  the  same  city.  He  afterwards  resided  at 
Tyre ;  bat  in  his  old  age,  on  account  of  the  wars  which 
then  ravaged  Syria,  be  changed  bis  abode  to  the  island  of 
Cos*  where  he  died.  In  the  Anthologia  are  extant  three 
epitaphs  upon  this  poet,  two  of  which,  at  least,  are  sup- 
posed to  have  befcn  written  by  himself.  Of  one  there  can 
be  no  doubt  from  internal  evidence,  "  No**;  94a,"  &c. 

There  was  a  Cynic  of  Gadara,  of  the  name  of  Meleager, 
whom  some  confound  with  this  poet,<and  others  distinguish ; 
it  seems  very  unlikely  that  this  elegant  writer  was  a  Cynic. 
Meleager  formed  two  collections  of  Greek  verses,  under 
the  name  of  Anthologia ;  one,  it  is  melancholy  to  say,  was 
entirely  dedicated  to  that  odious  passion  of  the  Greeks, 
which  among  us  it  is  a  shame  even  to  mention.  To  tt>is 
infamous  collection  was  prefixed  a  poem,  still  extant,  in 
which  the  youths  whose  beauty  was  celebrated,  are  de- 
scribed as  flowers.  A  poet  named  Strato;  increased  this 
collection,  and  prefixed  to  it  his  own  name :  but  A  gat  bias 
and  Planudes,  to  their  honour,  rejected  this  part  altoge- 
ther, and  formed  their  collections  from  the  second  Antho- 
logia of  Meleager,  #hich  consisted  of  compositions  entirely 
miscellaneous.  On  this  the  present  collections  of  Greek 
epigrams  are  founded.  The  poems  of  Meleager  in  Brunck*s 
edition,  amount  to  129;  the  greater  part  of  which  are  epi- 
grams. They  display  great  elegance  of  genius,  and  do  as 
much  honour  to  thfe  collection,'  as  most  of  those  which  i( 
contains.  Lord  Chesterfield's  indiscriminate  censure  of 
the  Greek  epigrams,  must  be  the  result  of  mere  ignorance, 
since  many  of  them  are  of  the  highest  elegance.  He  had 
seen,  probably,  a  few  of  the  worst,  and,  knew  nothing  of 
tbe  rest.  Of  the  epigrams  of  Meleager,  many  are  truly 
elegant,  but  those  numbered,  in  Brandt's  Analects,  50, 
51,  52,  5Si  57,  58,  61,  63,  109,  lllr  112,  and  several 
others,  have  beauty  enough  to  rescue  the  whole  collection 
from  tbe  unjust  censure  of  the  witty,  but  not  learned  earl.1 

RiELETlUS,  bishop  of  LycopoKs  in  Thebais,  who  is 
known  in  church  history  as  the  chief  of  the  sect  of  Mele- 
tians,  was  convicted  of  sacrificing  to  idols,  during  the  Dio- 
clesian  persecution,  and  imprisoned  and  degraded  by  a 
council  held  by  Peter,  bishop  of  Alexandria.     Upon  his 

1  Hades  in  edit.  Fabric.  Bibl.  Graec.  vol.  IV.  p.  416.— Schneider  Peric.  Criti- 
cum,  p.  65.<— gaxii  Odomast.       . ,  ' 

24  MELETltfS. 

release,  Meletius  caused  a  schism  about  the  year  301,  se- 
parating himself  from  Peter,. and  the  other  bishops,  charg- 
ing them,  but  particularly  Peter,  with  too  much  indulgence 
in  the  reconciliation  of  apostates.  By  the  council  of  Nice, 
A.  D.  325,  he  was  permitted  to  remain  in  his  own  city, 
Lycopolis,  but  without  the  power  either  of  electing,  or 
ordaining,  or  appearing  upon  that  account  either  in  the 
country  or  city ;  so  that  he  retained  only  the  mere  title  of 
bishop.  His  followers  at  this  time  were  united  with  the 
Arians.  Meletius  resigned  to  Alexander,  bishop  of  Alex- 
andria, the  churches  oyer  which  he  bad  usurped  supe- 
riority, and  died  some  time  after.  When  he  was  dying, 
he  named  one  of  his  disciples  his  successor.  Thus  the 
schism  began  again,  and  the  Meletians  subsisted  as  far  as 
the  fifth  century,  but  were  condemned  by  the  first  council 
of  Nice.1 

MELISSUS,   a  philosopher  of  Samos,  of  the  Eleattc 
sect,  who  flourished  about  the  year  444  B.  C.  was  a  dis- 
ciple of  Par  men  ides,  to  whose  doctrines  he  closely  adhered. 
He  was  likewise  a  man  of  political  wisdom  and  courage, 
which  gave  him  great  influence  among  his  countrymen, 
and  inspired  them  with  a  high  veneration  for  his  talents 
and  virtues.     Being  appointed  by  them  to  the  command  of 
a  fleet,  he  obtained  a  great  naval  victory  over  the  Athe- 
nians.    As  a  philosopher,  he  maintained  that  the  principle 
'  of  all  things  is  one  and  immutable,  or  that  whatever  exists 
is  one  being ;  that  this  one  being  includes  all  things,  and 
Is  infinite,  without  beginning  or  end ;  that  there  is  neither 
vacuum  nor  motion  in  the  universe,  nor  any  such  thing  as 
production  or  decay,  that  the  changes  which  it  seems  to 
suffer,  are  only  illusions  of  our  senses,  and  mere  appear- 
ances ;  and  that  we  ought  not  to  lay  down  any  thing  posi- 
tively concerning  the  gods,  since  our  knowledge  of  them 
is  so  uncertain*    Dr.  Cudworth,  in  his  "  Intellectual  Sys- 
tem," has  opposed  these  opinions.' 

MELITO,  an  ancient  Christian  father,  was  bishop  of 
Sardis  in  Asia,  and  composed  several  works  upon  the  doc- 
trine and  discipline  of  the  church ;  of  which'  we  have  no- 
thing now  remaining  but  their  titles,  and  some  fragments 
preserved  by  Eusebius,  in  his  Ecclesiastical  Hist,  book  IV. 
The  most  valuable  of  these  is  part  of  an  humble  petition, 
which  be  presented  to  the  emperor  Marcus  Antoninus ;  in 

i  Cave,  vol.  I.—Dupin.— Lardnert  Works.  f  Bradcer.— Moreru 

MELITO.  &5 

which  be  beseeches  him,"  to  examine  the  accusations 
which  were  brought  against  the  Christians,  and  to  stop  the 
persecution,  by  revoking  the  edict  which  he  had  published 
against  them."     He  represents  to  him,  that  "  the  Roman 
empire  was  so  far  from  being  injured  or  weakened  by 
Christianity,    that  its   foundation  was  more  firmly  esta- 
blished, and  its  bounds  considerably  enlarged,  since  that 
religion  had  taken  footing  in  it ;"  that  "  the  Christian  re- 
ligion had  been  persecuted  by  none  but  the  worst  empe- 
rors, such  as  Nero  and  Domitian ;  that  Adrian  and  Anto- 
ninus had  granted  privileges  in  its  favour ;  and  that  he 
hoped*  from  his  clemency  and  goodness,  that  they  should 
obtain  the  same  protection  of  their  lives  and  propertiea 
from  him.19     This  petition  was  presented,   according  to 
Eusebius,  in  the  year  170;  but  other  authors  give  it  the 
date  of  175  or  177,  and  Dupin  182.     Melito  died  before 
the  pontificate  of  Victor,  probably  about  the  year  192,  as 
we  learn  from  a  letter  of  Polycrates  to  that  pope,  where  he 
speaks  of  Melito  as  of  a  man  dead,  and  in  the  following 
terms  :  "  What  shall  I  say  of  Melito,  whose  actions  were 
aH  guided  by  the  operations  of  the  Holy  Spirit  ?  who  was 
interred  at  Sardis,  where  he  waits  the  resurrection  and  the 
judgment'9     He  passed,  it  seems,  for  a  prophet  in  hit 
day;  that  is,  for  a  man  inspired  by  God;  according  to 
the  testimony  of  Tertullian,  as  Jerome  represents  it.    The 
same  Tertullian  observes  also,    that  he  was  an  elegant 
writer  and  a  good  orator ;  which,  however,  it  would  not 
be  easy  to  discover  from  the  fragments  that  remain  of  him.1 
MELLAN  (Claude),  a  French  engraver  and  designer, 
particularly  celebrated  for  a  mode  of  engraving  peculiar  to 
himself,  and  of  his.  own  invention,  that  of  forming  a  whole 
head  by  one  line  of  the  graver,  swelling  it  in  various  places 
to  produce  the  shades.     A  head  of  our  Saviour,  formed  of 
one  spiral  line,  beginning  at  the  tip  of  the  nose,  is  his 
most  famous  work  in  this  style.    There  are  also  portraits 
by  him,  of  pope  Clement  VIII.  and  of  the  marquis  Justi- 
niani,  and  a  set  of  the  Justiniani  gallery,  all  of  which  are 
highly  esteemed.    Charles  II.  was  desirous  of  inviting  bias 
to  settle  in  England ;  but  an  attachment  to  his  country,  and 
a  happy  marriage  in  it,  fixed  him  at  home.     He  was  bom 
at  Abbeville  in  1601,  and  died  at  Paris  in  1688.* 

1  Dopin.—- Mosheiuu— Lardner'i  Works. 
*  Strait's  Diet.— Moreri.— Diet.  Hist 


MELMOTH  (William*  esq.),   a  learned  fcnd  worthy 
bencher  of  Lincoln's-inn,  was  born  in  1666.     In  conjonc- 
tion  with  Mr.  Peere  Williams,  Mr.  Melmotb  was  the  pub- 
lisher of  "  Vernon's  Reports,"  under  an  order  of  tbfe  court 
vf  chancery.   He  bad  once  an  intention  of  printing  bis  own 
"  Reports ;"  and  a  short  time  before  his  death,  advertised 
thenrat  the  end  of  those  of  bis  coadjutor  Peere  Williams, 
as  then  actually  preparing  for  tbe  press.    Thcfy  have,  bow- 
ever,  not  yet  made  their  appearance.     But  the  perform- 
ance for  which  he  justly  deserves  to  be  held  in  perpetual 
remembrance,  is*  "  The  Great  Importance  of  a  Religious 
Life."     It  is  a  singular  circumstance  that  the  real  authofr 
of  this  most  admirable  treatise  should  never  hate  been 
publicly  known   until  mentioned   in    the  Anecdotes    of 
Bowyer.     It  was  ascribed  by  Walpole  in  his  "  Royal  and 
Noble  Authors,"  to  the  first  earl  of  Egmont.     Of  this  work 
Mr.  Melmoth's  son  says,  in  tbe  short  preface  which  accom* 
panies  it,  that  "  It  may  add  weight,  perhaps,  to  the  re- 
flections contained  in  the  following  pages,  to  inform  the 
reader,  that  the  author's  life  was  one  uniform  exemplar  of 
those  precepts,  which,  with  so  generous  a  zeal,  and  such 
an  elegant  and  affecting  simplicity  of  style,  he  endeavours 
to  recommend  to  general  practice.     He  left  othets  to  con- 
tend for  modes  of  faith,  and  inflame  themselves  and  the 
world  with  endless  controversy ;  it  was  tbe  wiser  purpose 
of  his  more  ennobled  aim,  to  act  up  to  those  clear  rules  of 
conduct  whicb  Revelation  hath  graciously  prescribed.     He 
possessed  by  temper  every  moral  virtue ;  by  religion  every 
Christian  grace.     He  had  a  humanity  that  melted  at  every 
distress;  a  charity  which  not  only  thought  no  evil,  but 
suspected  none.     He  exercised  his  profession  with  a  skill 
and  integrity,  which  nothing  could  equal,  but  the  disin- 
terested motive  that  animated  his  labours,  or  the  amiable 
modesty  which  accompanied  all  his  virtues.     He  employed 
bis  industry,  not  to  gratify  his  own  desire*;  no  man  in- 
dulged himself  less :  not  to  accumulate  useless  wealth ;  no 
man  more  disdained  so  tin  worthy  a  pursuit :  it  was  for  the 
decent  advancement  of  his  family,  for  the  generous  assist- 
ance of  bis  friends,  for  the  ready  relief  of  the  indigent:. 
♦How  often  did  he  exert  his  distinguished  abilities,  yet  re- 
fuse the  reward  of  them,  in  defence  of  the  widow,  the  fa* 
JJicrlesS)  and  him  that  had  none  to  help  him  !    In  a  word,  few 
have  ever  passed  a  rpore  useful,  not  one  a  more  blameless 
life ;  and  his  whole  time  was  employed  either  in  doing 


good,  or.  in  mod ita ting  it.  He  died  on  the  6th  day  of 
April,  1743,  and  lies  buried  under  the  cloister  of  Lincoln's- 
inn  chapel."  This  passage  is  repeated  in  a  short  tract  en* 
titled  "Memoirs  of  a  late  eminent  Advocate,"  published  in 
1796,  in  which  the  character  of  his  father  is  rather  more 
unfolded.  We  learn  from  this  tract,  that  Mr.Melmptk 
**  from  early  youth  performed  the  paipful  but  indispensable 
duty  of  communing  with  his  own  heart,  with  the  severest 
and  most  impartial  scrutiny."  This  appears  by  a  copy  of 
a  letter  from  some  eminent  casuit,  whom  he  had. consulted 
respecting  certain  religious  scruples.  He  was  afterwards 
perplexed  respecting  taking  the  oaths  at  the  revolution, 
which  happened  when  he  had  the  prospect  of  being  ad- 
mitted to  the  bar.  On  this  occasion  he  consulted  the  cele- 
brated Mr.  Norris  of  Bemerton,  and  a  correspondence  took 
place,  part  of  which  is  published  in  the  "  Memoirs."  It 
is  probable  that  he  was  at  last  convinced  of  the  lawfulness 
of  the  oaths,  as  he  was  called  to  the  bar  in  1693.  There 
are  other  letters  and  circumstances  given  in  these  w  Me-* 
moirs,"  which  tend  to  raise  the  character  of  Mr.  Melmoth 
as  a  man  of  sincerity  and  humility,  not,  however,  perhaps, 
unmixed  with  what  may  now  be  reckoned  a  degree  of  su- 
perstitious weakness. 

With  respect  to  his  '<  Great  Importance,"  it  may  be 
added,  to  the  credit  of  the  age,  that  above  100,00,0  copies 
have  been  sold  since  the  author's  death.1 
'  MELMOTH  (William),  son  of  the  above,  by  his  se- 
cond wife,  was  born  in  1710.  Of  his  early  history  little  is 
known.  He  probably  received  a  liberal  education,  although 
we  do  not  find  that  he  studied  at  either  university.  He 
was  bred  to  the  law,  as  appears  by  his  being  appointed  a 
commissioner  of  bankrupts  in  1756,  by  sir  John  Eardley 
Wilraot,  at  that  time  one  of  the  commissioners  of  the  great 
seal,  and  an  excellent  discerner  and  rewarder  of  merit. 
The  greater  part  of  Mr.  Melmoth's  life,  however,  was 
spent  in  retirement  from  public  business,  partly  at  sh*ews~ 
bury,  and  partly  at  Bath,  where  he  was  no  less  distinguished 
for  integrity  of  conduct,  than  for  polite  manners  and  ele- 
gant taste.  He  first  appeared  as  a  writer  about  1742,  m 
a  volume  of  "  Letters"  under  the  name  of  Fitzosborne, 
Which  have  been  much  admired  for  the  elegance  of  thetr 

i  Nichols's  Bowyer.— Memoirs  by  his  son— For  «>  ""«*  <*  a   SocmA1i- 
edition  of  the  Great  Importance,  see  Gent.  Mag.  vol.  LXXA1H. 


language,  and  their  just  and  liberal  remarks  on  various  to- 
pics, moral  and  literary.  In  1747  he  published  "A  Trans* 
lation  of  the  Letters  of  Pliny,"  in  2  vols.  8vo,  which  was 
regarded  as  one  of  the  best  versions  of  a  Latin  author  that 
bad  appeared  in  our  language.  In  1753,  he  gave  a  trans- 
kttion  of  the  "  Letters  of  Cicero  to  several  of  his  Friends, 
with  Remarks,"  in  3  vols.  He  had  previously  to  this,  writ- 
ten an  answer  to  Mr.  Bryant's  attack,  in  his  Treatise  on 
the  Truth  of  the  Christian  Religion,  on  bis  remarks  on 
Trajan's  Persecution  of  the  Christians  in  Bithynia,  which 
made  a  note  to  his  translation  of  Pliny's  Letters.  He  was 
the  translator  likewise  of  Cicero's  treatises  "  De  Amicitia" 
*nd  "De  Senectute,"  which  were  published  in  1773  and 
1777.  These  he  enriched  with  remarks,  literary  and  phi- 
losophical, which  added  much  to  their  value.  In  the  for- 
mer he  refuted  lord  Shaftesbury,  who  had  imputed  it  as  a 
defect  to  Christianity,  that  it  gave  no  precepts  in  favour 
of  friendship,  and  Soame  Jenyns,  who  had  represented  that 
very  omission  as  a  proof  of  its  divine  origin.  The  con-* 
eluding  work  of  Mr.  Melmoth  was  a  tribute  of  filial  affec- 
tion, in  the  Memoirs  of  his  father,  which  we  have  already 
noticed.  After  a  long  life  passed  in  literary  pursuits,  and 
the  practice  of  private  virtue,  Mr.  Melmoth  died  at  Bath, 
March  15,  1799,  at  the  age  of  eighty-nine.  He  had  been 
twice  married  ;  first  to  the  daughter  of  the  celebrated  Dr. 
King,  principal  of  St.  Mary's- hall,  Oxford,  and  secondly  to 
Mrs.  Ogle.  The  author  of  "  The  Pursuits  of  Literature" 
says,  "  Mr.  Melmoth  is  a  happy  example  of  the  mild  in- 
fluence of  learning  on  a  cultivated  mind  ;  I  mean  that 
learning  which  is  declared  to  be  the  aliment  of  yputh,  and 
the  delight  and  Consolation  of  declining  years.  Who  would 
not  envy  this  fortunate  old  man,  his  most  finished  trans- 
lation and  comment  on  Tully's  Cato?  Or  rather,  who  would 
not  rejoice  in  the  refined  and  mellowed  pleasure  of  so  ac- 
complished a  gentleman,  and  so  liberal  a  scholar  ?"  Dr. 
Warton,  in  a  note  on  Pope's  works,  mentions  his  translation 
of  Pliny  as  "  one  of  the  few  that  are  better  than  the  origi- 
nal.9' Birch,  in  his  Life  of  Tillotson,  had  made  nearly  the 
same  remark,  which  was  the  more  liberal  in  Birch,  as  Mel- 
moth had  taken  great  liberties  with  the  style  of  Tillotson. 
To  Mr.  Melmoth' s  other  works  we  may  add  a  few  poetical 
efforts,  one  in  Dodsley's  Poems  (vol., I.  p.  216,  edit.  1782), 
entitled  "  Of  active  and  retired  life ;"  and  three  in 
Pearch's  poems  (vol.  II.)  "  The  Transformation  of  Lycon 

MfcLMOTH.  29 

and  Euphormius }"  a  <*  Tale,"  in  p.  149;  and  u  Epistle  to 
Sappho.'7 1 

MELOZZO  (Francis,  or  Francesco),  called  Melozzo 
of  Forli,  flourished  about  1471,  and  was  probably  the  scho- 
lar of  Ansovino  da  Forli,  a  pupil  of  Squarcione.  The  me- 
mory of  Melozzo  is  venerated  by  artists  as  the  inventor  of 
perspective  representation  and  true  foreshortening  on 
arched  roofs  and  ceilings,  of  what  the  Italians  style  "  dt 
Sotto  in  S6  ;"  the  most  difficult  and  most  rigorous  branch 
of  execution.  A  tolerable  progress  had  been  made  in  per* 
spective  after  Paolo  Uccello,  by  means  of  Piero  delia 
Francesca,  an  eminent  geometrician,  and  some  Lombards  ; 
but  the  praise  of  painting  roofs  with  that  charming  illusion 
which  we  witness,  belongs  to  Melozzo.  Scannelli  and 
Orlandi  relate,  that,  to  learn  the  art,  he  studied  the  best 
antiques;  and,  though  born  to  affluence,  let  himself  as 
servant  and  colour- grinder  to  the  masters  of  his  time.  Some 
make  him  a  scholar  of  Piero  del  la  Francesco :  it  is  at  least 
not  improbable  that  Melozzo  knew  him  and  Agostino  di 
Bramantino,  when  they  painted  in  Rome m  for  Nicolas  V. 
towards  1455.  Whatever  be  the  fact,  Melozzo  painted  on 
the  vault  of  the  largest  chapel  in  SS.  Apostoii,  an  Ascen- 
sion, in  which,  says  Vasari,  the  figure  of  Christ  is  so  well 
foreshortened,  that  it  seems  to  pierce  the  roof.  That  pic- 
ture was  painted  for  cardinal  Riario,  nephew  of  Sixtus  IV. 
about  1472  ;  and  at  the  rebuilding  of  that  chapel,  was  cut 
out  and  placed  in  the  palace  of  the  Quirinal,  171 1,  where 
it  is  still  seen  with  this  epigraphe:  "  Opus  Melotii  Foro- 
liviensis,  qui  summos  fornices  pingendi  artem  vel  primus 
invenit  vel  illustravit."  Some  heads  of  the  apostles  were 
likewise  sawed  out  and  placed  in  the  Vatican.  His  taste 
ton  the  whole  resembles  that  of  Mantegna  and  the  Padouan 
schools  more  than  any  other.  The  heads  are  well  formed, 
well  coloured,  well  turned,  and  almost  always  foreshor- 
tened ;  the  lights  duly  toned  and  opportunely  relieved  by 
shadows  which  give  ambience  and  almost  motion  to  his 
figures  on  that  space;  there  is  grandeur  and  dignity  in  the 
principal  figure,  and  the  Kgbtsome  drapery  that  surrounds 
him ;  with  finish  of  pencil,  diligence,  and  grace  in  every 
part.  It  is  to  be  lamented,  that  so  uncommon  a  genius 
has  not  met  with  an  exact  historian,  of  whom  we  might 
have  learned  his  travels  and  labours  previous  to  this  great 

I  Nichols's  Bowyer. 

59  M  E  L  O  3  Z  Q. 

work  painted  fgr  Riarip*  At  Forti,  they  shew,  as  his  work, 
the  front  of  an  apothecary's  shop,  painted  in  arabesque,  of 
exquisite  style,  with  a,balf-length  figure  over  the  door 
pounding  drugs,  very  well  executed.  We  are  informed 
by  Vasari,  that  Francesco  di  Mirozzo  da  Forli  painted  be* 
fore  Dossq,  in  the  villa  of  the  dukes  of  Urbino,  called 
L'lmperiale  ; — we  ought  probably  to  read  Melozzo,  and  to 
correct  the  word  in  the  text,  as  one  of  that  writer's  usual 
negligences,  of  which  Vasari  gives  another  instance  ift 
Marco  Palmegiani,  of  Forli,  whom  be  transforms  to  Par* 
megiauq ;  a  good  and  almost  unknown  artist,  though  many 
of  his  works  survive,  and  be  himself  seems  to  have  taken 
$very  precaution  not  to  be  forgotten  by  posterity,  inscribing 
*no$t  pf  bis  altar-pieces  and  oil-pictures  with  Marcus  pictor 
Joroliviensis,  or,  Marcus  Palmasanus  P.  Foroliviensis  pin* 
^eb^t.  Seldom  he  adds  the  year,  as  in  two  belonging  to 
prince  Ercplain,  1513  and  1537.  In  those,  and  in  his 
works  at  Forli,  we  recognise  two  styles.  The  first  differs 
little  from  the  common  one  of  Quattrocentist's,  in  the  ex-* 
trjeme  simplicity  of  attitude,  iu  the  gilding,  in  minute  at* 
tension,  and  even  in  anatomy,  which  extended  its  re-» 
&Q$r$hes  at  that  time,  seldom  beyond  a  S.  Sebastian,  or  a 
S.  Jerome.  Of  bis  second  style  the  groups,  are  more  arti-» 
ficial,  the  outline  larger,  the  proportions  grander,  but  the 
beads  perhaps  less  varied  and  more  mannered.  He  used 
to  admit  into  his  principal  subject  others  that  do  not  belong 
to  it:  thus  in  the  crucifix  at  StAgostino,  in  Forli,  he 
placed  two  or  three  groups  in  different  spots ;  in  one  of 
which  is  &  Paul  visited  by  S.  Anthony  ;  in  another,  S.  Au-r 
gu$}ine  convinced,  by  an  angel,  of  the  absurdity  of  his  at* 
tempt  to  fathom  the  mystery  of  the  Trinity  ;  and  in  those 
small  figures  he  is  finished  and  graceful  beyond  belieft 
Nor  is  bis  landscape  or  his  architecture  destitute  of  charms^ 
His  works  abound  in  Romsagna,  and  are  met  with  even  in 
Venetian  galleries :  at  Vicenza  there  is,  in  the  palace  Vi* 
centini,  a  Christ  of  his  between  Nicodemus  and  Joseph ; 
an  exquisite  performance,  in  which,  to  speak  with  Dante, 
t "  ii  morto  par  roorto  e  vivi  i  vivi.1 

MELVIL  (Sir  James),  a  statesman  and  historian,  was  de* 
scended  from  an  honourable  family  in  Scotland,  and  born  at 
Halhill  in  Fifeshire,  in  1530.  At  fourteen,  he  was  sent  by 
the  queen  regent  of  Scotland,  to  be  page  to  ber  daughter 

i  By  Fuselt  in  Pilkington. 


Mary,  who  was  then  married  to  the  dauphin  of  France: 
but  by  her  leave  be  entered  into  the  service  of  the  duke  of 
Montmorenci,  great  constable  and  chief  minister  of  France, 
who  earnestly  desired  him  of  her  majesty,  having  a  high 
opinion  of  his  promising  talents.  He  was  nine  years  em1 
ployed  by  him,  and  had  a  pension  settled  on  him  by  tt)Q 
king-  Then,  obtaining  leave  to  travel,  he  went  into  Ger-? 
ro&ny ;  where  being  detained  by  the  elector  palatine,  h$ 
resided  at  his  court  three  years,  and  was  employed  by  hint 
on  several  embassies.  After  this.)  prosecuting  his  intend 
tions  to  travel,  he  visited  Venice,  Rome,  and  the  mosf 
famous  cities  of  Italy,  and  returned  through  Switzerland 
to  the  elector's  court;  where,  finding  a  summons  frpai 
qu^ en  Mary,  who  had  taken  possession  of  the  crown  of 
Scotland,  after  the  death  of  her  husband  Francis,  If,  he  sel( 
out  to  attend  her.  The  queen-mother  of  France  at  tbft 
same  time  offered  him  a  large  pension  to  reside  at  hec 
court  i  for  she  found  it  her  interest,  at  that  juncture,  to 
keep  up  a  good  understanding  with  the  protestanfc  princes 
of  Gerptany ;  and  she  knew  sir  James  Melvil  to  be  the 
prop^rest  person  to  negotiate  her  affairs,  being  mpst  qq^ 
ceptabl?  to  t hap. all ;  hut  this  he  declined. 

Upon  his  arrival  in  {Scotland,  in  15.6),  he  was  admitted 
a  privy- counsellor  and  gentleman  of  queen  Mary's  bed- 
chamber ;  and  was  employed  by  her  majesty  in  her  mo** 
important  concerns,  till  her  unhappy  confinement  at  L,o<?h^ 
leyen ;  all  which  be  discharged  with  an  exact  fidelity ;  and 
from  his  own  account  there  is  reason  to  think  that,  had  she 
takep  bis  advice,  many  of  her  misfortunes  might  hayq  been 
avoided.  He  maintained  a  correspondence  in  England  in* 
favour  of  Mary's  succession  to  the  crown  of  that  kingdpm  V 
but  upon. the  discovery  of  her  unhappy  partiality  for  Both*? 
well,  after  her  husband's  murder,  be  ventured  upon  the. 
strongest  remonstrances  with  her,  which  she  not  only  dis- 
regarded, but  communicated  them  to  Bothwell,  in  conse- 
quence of  which  MeiviPs  endeavours  were  fruitless,  and 
he  was  himself,  obliged  to  escape  from  Both  well's  fury*. 
He  was,  however,  afterwards  regarded  by  the  four  succes- 
sive regents  in  a  special  manner,  and  trusted  by  them  with; 
i^gociations  of  the  greatest  moment ;  though,  after  the 
qqeep's  imprisonment,  he .  had  ever  adhered .  to  her  son*. 
When  James  came  to  the  government,  Melvil  was  espe- 
cially recommended  to  him  by  the  queen,  then  a  prisoner 
in  England,  as  one  most  faithful,  and  capable  of  doing  him 


service :  and  was  made  by  his  majesty  a  member  of  bis 
privy  council,  of  his  exchequer,  and  a  gentleman  of  his 
chamber.  He  always  continued  in  favour  and  employment? 
and  the  king  would  gladly  have  taken  bim  into  England,  at 
the  death  of  Elizabeth,  promising  him  considerable  pro- 
motion :  but  sir  James,  now  advanced  in  years,  and  desi- 
rous of  retirement  from  business,  begged  his  majesty  to 
excuse  him.  He  thought  it  right,  however,  to  pay  his 
duty  to  his  majesty,  and  accordingly  went  to  England  :  and 
then  returning  to  his  own  house,  be  died  soon  after,  in 

His  "  Memoirs"  were  accidentally  found  in  the  castle  of 
Edinburgh,  in  1660,  somewhat  imperfect,  and  injured  by 
time  and  civil  confusion.  They  passed  thence  into  the 
hands  of  sir  James  Melvil  of  Halhill,  the  author's  grandson, 
from  whom  the  editor  George  Scott  received  them,  and 
published  them  in  1683,  in  folio,  under  this  title,. "  The 
Memoirs  of  sir  James  Melvil,  of  Halhill,  containing  an  im- 
partial account  of  most  of  the  remarkable  affairs  of  state, 
during  the  last  age,  not  mentioned  by  other  historians  r 
more  particularly  relating  to  the  kingdoms  of  England  and 
Scotland,  under  the  reigns  of  queen  Elizabeth,  Maryqueetr 
of  Scots,  and  king  James :  in  all  which  transactions  the 
author  was  personally  and  publicly  concerned.  Now  pub- 
lished from  the  original  manuscript."  There  U  an  epistle 
to  the  reader,  prefixed  by  the  editor,  from  which  we  have 
made  this  extract.  It  is  remarkable,  that  nobody  knew  bow 
these  memoirs  came  to  be  deposited  in  the  castle  of  Edin- 
burgh, or  when  they  were  so :  and  also,  that  they  were 
preserved  almost  entire,  in  a  place  which  cotild  not  secure 
the  public  records  of  the  kingdom  from  the  rude  incur* 
aions  of  civil  discord.  Notwithstanding  some  mistakes, 
owing  to  the  advanced  age  of  the  writer,  they  are  much 
esteemed,  and  have  been  reprinted  both  in  French  and 

MEMNON,  a  Greek  historian,  who  is  thought  to  have 
flourished  in  the  time  of  Augustus,  wrote  a  history  of  the 
affairs  of  Heraclea  in  Pontus,  sixteen  books  of  which  were 
abridged  by  Photius.  They  come  down  to  the  death  of  an 
Horaclean  ambassador  to  Julius  Caesar,  then  emperor.  A 
Latin  translation  of  his  history  was  published  at  Oxford  in 

1  Preface  and  Memoirs.— Robertson's  Hist,  of  Scotland,— Laing's  Prelim**; 
nary  Dissertation  to  his  History  of  Scotland. 

M  E  M  N  O  N.  S3 

1597,  under  the  title  "  Memhonis  histortcorum,  quae  su- 
persunt  omnia,  eGr.  in  Lat.  traducta  per  R.  Brett/9  16 mo. 
Richard  Brett  was  a  fellow  of  Lincoln,  of  whom  we  have 
given  some  account  in  vol.  VI.1 

MENAGE  (Giles,  or  jEgidius),  called,  from  his  great 
learning,  the  Varro  of  his  times,  was  born  at  Angers,  Aug. 
15,  1613.     He  was  the  son  of  William  Menage,  the  king's 
advocate  at  Angers ;  and  discovered  so  early  an  inclinat 
tion  to  letters,    that  his  father  was  determined  to  spare 
no  cost  or  pains  in  his  education.     He  was  accordingly 
taught  the  belles  lettres  and  philosophy,  in  which  his  pro* 
gress  fully  answered  the  expectations  of  his  father,  who, 
however,  thought  it  necessary  to  divert  him  from  too  se- 
vere application,  by  giving  him  instructions  in  music  and 
dancing ;  but  these  were  in  a  great  measure  thrown  away, 
and  he  had  so  little  genius  for  music,  that  he  never  could 
learn  a  tune.  •  He  had  more  success  in  his  first  profession, 
which  was  that  of  a  barrister  at  law,  and  pleaded  various 
causes,  with  considerable  eclat,  both  in  the  country,  and 
in  the  parliament  of  Paris*    His  father  had  always  designed 
him  for  his  profession,  the  law,   and  now  resigned  his 
place  of  king's  advocate  in  his  favour,  which  Menage,'  as 
soon  as  he  became  tired  of  the  law,    returned  to  him. 
Considering  the  law  as  a  drudgery,  he  adopted  the  vulgar 
opinion  that  it  was  incompatible  with  an  attention  to  polite 
•literature.     He  now  declared  his  design  of  entering  into 
the  church,  as  the  best  plan  he  could  pursue  for  the  gra- 
tification of  his  love  of  general  literature,  and  of  the  com- 
pany of  literary  men ;  and  soon  after  he  had  interest  to 
procure  sortie  benefices,  and  among  the  rest  the  deanery 
of  St.  Peter  at  Angers.     In  the  mean  time  his  father,  dis« 
pleased  at  him  for  deserting  his  profession,  *  would  not 
supply  him  with  the  money  which,  in  addition  to  what  bis 
livings  produced,  was  necessary  to  support  him  at  Paris. 
This  obliged  him  to  look  out  for  some  means  of  subsistence 
there,  independent  of  his  family  ;  and  at  the  recommen- 
dation of  Cbapelain,  a  member  of  the  French  academy,  he 
.  was  taken  into  the  family  of  cardinal  de  Retz,  who  was  then 
only  coadjutor  to  the  archbishop  of  Paris.    In  this  situation 
he  enjoyed  the  repose  necessary  to  his  studies,  and  had 
every  day  new  opportunities  of  displaying  his  abilities  and 
learning.     He  lived  several  years  with  the  cardinal ;  but 

v  *  fabric, Bibl.  Gr*c. 

VobXXlf.  D  * 

34  M  E  #  A  Q  & 

having  received  an  affront  frdtn  some  of  his  dependent?,  he 
desired  of  the  cardinal,  either  that  reparation  might  be 
made  him,  or  that  he  might  be  suffered  to  depajrt.  He 
obtained  the  latter,  and  then  hired  an  apartment  in  the 
cloister  of  Notre  Dame,  where  he  held  every  Wednesday 
an  assembly,  which  he  called  his  "  Mercuriale."  Here  hg 
had  the  satisfaction  of  seeing  a  number  of  learned  men, 
French  and  foreigners;  and  upon  other  days  he  frequented 
the  study  of  Messieurs  du  Puy,  anid  after  tb^ir  death  tbajt 
of  Thuanus.  By  his  father's  death,  which  happened  Jaf?. 
IS,  1648,  he  succeeded  to  an  estate,  which  h£  converted 
into  an  'annuity,  for  the  sake  qf  being  entirely  at  leisure 
to  pursue  his  studies.  Soon  after,  he  obtained,  by  a  de- 
cree of  the  grand  council,  the  priory  of  Montdidier ;  which 
he  resigned  alsp  to  the  abb£  de  la  Vieuville,  afterward* 
bishop  of  Rennes,  who  procured  for  him,  by  way  of  amende 
a  pension  of  4000  livres  upon  two  abbeys.  The  king'* 
consent,  which  was  necessary  for  the  creation  of  this  pen- 
sion, was  not  obtained  for  Menage,  till  he  had  given  a**- 
suranpes  to  cardinal  Mazarin,  that  be  had  po  shaft?  in  tbe 
libels  which  had  been  dispersed  against  that  mister  and 
the  court,  during  the  troubles  at  Paris.  This  considerable 
addition  to  his  circumstances  enabled  him  to  prosecute  hi* 
studies  with  more  success,  and  to  publish  a  great  many 
works,  which,  he  generally  did  at  his  Own  expellee*  The 
excessive  freedom  of  his  conversation,  however,  and  hip" 
total  inability  to  suppress  a  witty  thought,  whatever  might 
be  the  consequence  of  uttering  it,  Created  him  many  ene- 
mies ;  and  he  had  contests  with  several  men  of  erJdjlnene^ 
who  attacked  him  at  differeut  times,  as  the  abbe  d'Aiibig- 
nac,  Boileau,  Cotin,  Salo,  Bohours,  and  Bail  let.  But  ail 
these  were  not  nearly  so  formidable  to  him,  as  the  dagger 
which  he  incurred  in  1660,  by  a  Latin  elegy  addne?$ed  t& 
Mazarin ;  in  which,  among  his  compliments  to  bis  emi- 
nence, it  was  pretended,  that  he  had  Satirized  a  deputation 
which  the  parliament  had  sent  to  that  minister,'  Itwbs 
carried  to  the  grand  chamber  by  the  counsellors,  who  pro- 
posed to  debate  upon  it ;  but  the  first  president,  Lamoig- 
non,  to  whom  Menage  had  protested  that  the  piece  had 
been  written  three  months  before  the  deputation,  and  that 
he  could  not  intend  the  parliament  in  it,  prevented  any  ill 
consequences  from  the  affair.  Besides, the  reputation  his 
works  gained  him,  they  procured  him  a  place  in  the  aca- 
demy della  Crusca  at  Florence ;  and  be  might  have  been 

MEN  J^G  E.  35 

a  member  of  the  French  academy  at  its  first  institution,  if 
it  had  not  been  for  his  "  Requite  des  dictiqnnaires."  When 
the  memory  of  that  piece,  however,  was  effaced  by  time, 
and  most  of  the  academicians,  who  were  named  in  it,  were 
<Jeadr  he  was,  proposed,  in  1684,  to  fill  a  vacant  place  in 
tjiat  academy,  aud  was  excluded  only  by  the  superior  inte- 
rest of  his  competitor,  M,  Bergeret ;  there  not  being  one 
Jpember,  of  all  those  who  gave  their  votes  against  Menage, 
who  did  not  own  that  he  deserved  the  place,  After  this  he 
would  not  suffer  his  friends  to  propose  him  again,  nor  in- 
deed was  he  any  longer  able  to  attend  the  academy,  if  he 
bad  been  chosep,.  on  account  of  a  fall,  which  had  put,  bis 
thigh  out  of  joint ;  after  which  he  scarcely  ever  went  out  of 
bis  chajnber,  but  held  daily  a  kind  of  an  academy  there. 
In  July  1692,  be  began  to  be  troubled  with  a  rheum,  which 
was  followed  by  a  defluxipn  on  the  stomach,  of  which  he 
died  on  the  23d,  aged  seventy-nine. 

He  composed  several  works,,  which  had  much  reputation 
in  their  day :  1.  "  Origines  de  la  langue  Frangoise,"  1650, 
4to ;  a  very  valuable  work,  reprinted  in  folio  after  his  death, 
in  1694,  enlarged  by  himself,  but  this  has  sunk  under  the 
much  improved  edition  by  Jault,  Paris,  1750,  2  vols.  fol. 
2,  "  Miscellanea,"  1652,  4tp;  a  collection  of  pieces  in 
Greek,  Latin,  and  French,  prpse  as  well  as  verse,  com- 
posed by  him  at  different  times,  and  upon  different  sub* 
jects ;  among  which  is  "  La  requite  des  dictionnaires,"  an 
ingenious  piece  of  raillery,  in  which  he  makes  all  the  dic- 
tionaries complain  that  the  academy's  dictionary  will  be 
their  utter  ruin,  and  join  in  an  humble  petition  to  prevent 
it.  It  was  not  written  from  the  least  malignity  against  the 
academy,  but  merely  to  divert  himself,  and  that  he  might 
not  lose  several  bon  mots  which  came  into  his  head  upon 
that  occasion.  He  suppressed  it  for  a  long  time ;  but  at 
last  it  was  stolen  from  bim,  and  published  by  the  abb£ 
Montreuil,  without  his  knowledge,  and  prevented  him,  as 
we  have  observed,  from  obtaining  a  place  in  the  academy, 
at  its  £rst  institution  ;  which  made  de  Monmor  say,  "  that 
he  ought  to  be  obliged  to  be  a  member,  on  account  of  that 
piece,  as  a  ma^i,  who  has  debauched  a  girl,  is  obliged  to 
marry  her."  S.  "  Osservazioni  sopra  l'Aminta  del  Tasso," 
1653,  4to.  4. "  Diogenes  Laertius  Qraece  et  Latine. cuna 
comnaentario,"  Lend.  1664,  in  folio.  Menage  published 
his  first  edition  at  Paris,  in  8vo,  1662,  and  sent  it  to  biahop 
Pearson  in  London,  who  wrote  him  a  complimentary  letter 

D2        '       ' 

S6  M  E«  AG  E. 

6f  thanks,  which  is  inserted  in  the  London  edition,  which 
js  now  a  rare  and  expensive  book.  Meibom's  edition  of 
1692  contains  Menage's  annotations,  &c.  5.  "  Poemata," 
1656,  12mo.  They  were  often  reprinted;  and  what  is 
remarkable,  his  Italian  poetry  has  been  said  to  be  esteemed 
*  even  in  Italy,  although  Menage  could  not  speak  two  words 
in  Italian.  Baretti,  however,  condemns  without  mercy 
the  Italian  verses  both  of  Menage  and  Keignier.  Morhoff 
pretends  that  he  has  borrowed  greatly  from  the  Latiu 
poems  of  Vincent  Fabricius;  and  several  have  accused 
him  of  plundering  the  ancients.  We  ought  not,  perhaps, 
to  omit  here>  that  having,  according  to  the  custom  of 
poets,  chosen  mademoiselle  de  la  Vergne,  afterwards  coun- 
tess de  la  Fayette, '  for  his  poetical  mistress,  he  gave  her 
in  Latin,  inadvertently  we  may  suppose,  the  name  of  La* 
verna,  the  goddess  of  thieves ;  aqd  this  gave  occasion  to 
the  following  epigram ; 

"  Lesbia  nulla  tibi  est,  nulla  est  tibi  dicta  Corinna : 
Carmine  Iaudatur  Cynthia  nulla  tuo. 
Sed  cum  doctorum  compiles  scrinia  vatura,  „ 
Nil  mirum,  si  sit  culta  Laverna  tibi/' 

6.  u  Recueil  des  Eloges  faits  pour  M.  Ie  cardinal  Mazarin,'* 
1666,  folio.  7. "  Origine  delta  Lingua  Iialiana,"  1669,  fof. 
He  undertook  this  work  only  to  shew  the  academy  della 
Crusca,  that  he  was  not  unworthy  of  the  place  with  which 
.they  bad  honoured  him.  Dr.  Burney  says  that  in  his. 
'•  Dictionnaire  Etymologique  de  la  Langue  Fransoise," 
and  in  his  "  Origkie  della  Lingua  Itaiiana,"  curious  in- 
quirers after  the  musical  language  of  the  middle  ages  will 
find  more  information  than  in  any  other  lexicons  dr  philo- 
sophical works  with  which  we  are  acquainted,  except  in, 
the  Glossarium  of  Ducange.  8.  "  Juris  civilis  amoenitates," 
Paris,  1677,  8vo,  reprinted  with  a  preface  by  J.  G.  Hoff- 
mann, Francfort,  1737,  8vo.  9.  "  Les  poesies  de  Ma4~ 
herbe,  avec  des  notes,"  1666,"  8vo,  reprinted  .more  thai* 
once.  10.  "  Observations  sur  la  Langue  Francois,"  1675, 
and  1676,"  in  2  vols.  12mo.  11.  H  istoi re  de  Sable,  con- 
tenant  les  seigneurs  de  la  ville  de  Sable,  jusqu'a  Louis  I, 
due  d'Anjou  et  roy  ,de  Sicile:  premiers  partie,"  1686, 
folio.  He  was  very  much  prejudiced  in  favour  of  this  his- 
tory, and  was  engaged  in  the  second  part  at  his  death.  In 
the  "  Menagiana,"  he  is  represented  as  saying,  thai  it  is 
an  incomparable  book ;  that  one  may  find  every  thing  mit; 
and  that  in  every  page  there  are  many  learned  observations; 

HENA'GE.  37 

but  the  public  have  not  been  of  this  opinion.  12.  u  His- 
toria  mulierum  philosopharum,"  Lugd.  1690,  12mo.  This 
is  reprinted  in  Meihom's  Diogenes  Laertius.  13.  "  Anti- 
jfeaillet,"  1690;  a  criticism  of  the  "  Jugemens  des  S$a- 
vans"  of  M.  Baillet,  who  in  that  work  had  spoken  of  Me- 
nage in  a  manner  that  displeased  him.  14.  "  Menagiana,*' 
sot  published  till  after  his  death,  and  printed  at  first  in  one 
volume,  afterwards  in  two.  But  M.  de  la  Monnoye  pub- 
fished  an  edition  with  great  additions,  at  Paris,  1715,  in  4* 
vols.  12 mo.  This  is  a  very  amusing  collection,  but  will 
admit  of  abridgment  without  any  injury  to  the  memory  of 

Menage  was  possessed  of  a  most  tenacious  memory, 
which  he  retained,  except  during  a  short  interval,  to  a 
great  age.  Among  his  *'  Poems"  is  one  addressed  to  the 
goddess  of  memory,  petitioning  her  to  restore  to  him  her 
former  favours ;  and  another,  iii  which  he  pours  forth  his 
gratitude  for  the  welcome  return.  This  uncommon  talent 
of  memory  made  Menage  a  very  agreeable  companion  to 
the  ladies,*  in  whose  company  he  took  delight,  and  for 
fthose  amusement  he  jrepeated,  with  great  readiness  and 
humour,  all  the  anecdotes,  verses,  &c.  which  he  thought 
would  entertain  the  company.  * 

MENANDER,  one  of  the  most  celebrated  of  the  an- 
cient Greek  poets,  was  born  at  Athens  in  the  year  342 
before  the  Christian  aera.  He  was  educated  in  the  school 
of  Theophrastus  the  peripatetic,  Aristotle's  successor,  and 
Began  to  write  for  the  stage  at  the  early  age  of  twenty, 
when  his  passions  seem  to  have  been  no  less  forward  and 
impetuous  than  bis  genius.  His  attachment  to  the  fair 
sex,  and  especially  to  his  mistress  Glycera,  is  upon  record, 
and  was  vehement  in  the  extreme;  several, of  his  epistles 
to  that  celebrated  courtezan,  written  in  a  very  ardent  style, 
were  collected  and  made  public  after  his  decease ;  his 
genius,  howevef,  is  thought:  to  have  been  a  greater  re- 
commendation to  Glycera' s  favour,  than  his  personal  merit, 
which  has  not  been  represented  as  favourable  to  his  ad- 
dresses, although  he  is  said  to  have  added  the  recommen- 
dations of  luxurious  dress  and  manners.  His  intrigues, 
however,  are  of  little  importance  compared  to  the  fanie  he 
acquired  as  one,  if  not  the  principal,  of  the  authors  of  the 
new  comedy,  which  if  it  possessed  less  wit  and  (ire  than  the 

1  Gen.  Diet.— Niceron,  vol.  I.  andX. — Diet.  HisU — Mtnagian^. 

it  menAnder. 

did,  was  superior  to  it  in  delicacy,  regularity,  arid  deco- 
rum, came  nearer  to  nature,  and  to  what  we  conceive  of 
the  legitimate  drama.  Among  his  contemporaries,  who 
wrote  upon  this  reformed  plan,  were  Philemon,  Diphilug, 
Apollodorus,  Philippides  and  Posidippus  ;  and  from  many 
fragments  which  remain,  it  appears  that  they  were  not 
only  bold  dedaimers  against  the  vice  and  immorality  of 
the  age  they  lived  in,  but  that  they  ventured  upon  truths 
and  doctrines  in  religion  totally  irreconcileable  to  the  po- 
pular superstition  and  idolatries  of  the  heathen  world  ;  and 
therefore,  says  Cumberland,  or  rather  Bentley,  we  cannot 
but  admire  at  the  extraordinary  toleration  of  their  pagan 

By  the  lowest  account  Menander  wrote  eighty  plays  ; 
but  some  authorities  more  than  double  them,  an  impro- 
bable number  to  have  been  composed  by  a  jtoet  who  died* 
at  the  age  of  fifty,  or  very  little  after ;  whatever  their 
riumbfer,  it  has  been  thought  that  morality,  taste,  and  li- 
terature, scarcely  ever  suffered  more  irreparably  than  by 
the  loss  of  them.  A  few  fragments  only  remain,  which, 
says  Warton,  ought  "  to  be  as  highly  prized  by  the  curious, 
as  was  the  Coan  Venus,  which  Apelles  left  imperfect  and 
unfinished."  Terence  is  supposed  to  have  copied  all  his 
comedies  from  Menander,  except  the  "  Phormio"  and 
<c  Hecyra  ;**  and  therefore  from  him  we  are  enabled  to 
form  some  idea  of  Menander' s  manner.  His  general  cha- 
racter we  must  still  take  from  his  contemporaries,  or  im- 
mediate successors  ;  for  all  that  we  can ,  deduce  from  his 
fragments  will  not  raise  him  to  the  high  rauk  to  which  he 
belongs.  Some  of  these  are  excellent  morals,  and  some 
of  a  more  elevated  cast,  but  the  greater  part  are  of  a  mo-r 
rose,  gloomy,  and  acrimonious  character. 

We  have  many  testimonies  to  the  admiration  in  which 
he  was  held  during  his  life- time.  Pliny  informs  us  that  the 
kings  of  Egypt  and  Macedon  gave  a  noble  testimony  to  his 
merit,  by  sending  ambassadors  to  invite  him  to  their  courts, 
and  even  fleets  to  convey  him ;  but  that  Menander  pre- 
ferred the  free  enjoyment  of  his  studies  to  the  promised 
favours  of  the  great.  Yet  the  envy  and  corruption  of  his 
countrymen  sometimes  denied  his  merit  the  justice  at  home, 
which  it  found  abroad  ;  for  he  is  said  to  have  won  but  eight 
prizes,  though  be  wrote  at  least  fourscore,  if  not,  according 
to  some  accounts,  above  an  hundred  plays.  Phi lemon,a con- 
temporary and  much  inferior  dramatic  poet,  by  the  partiality 


MtNANDER.  39 

the  judges,  often  disappointed  him  of  the  prize;  which 
made  Meftftttder  once  say  to  him,  "  Tell  me  fairly,  Phile- 
mon, if  you  do  not  blush  when  the  victory  is  decreed  to 
you  against  me  ?"  The  ancient  critics  have  bestowed  the 
highest  praises  on  Menander,  ai  the  true  pattern  of  every 
beauty  and  every  grace  of  public  speaking.  Quintilian 
declares  that  a  carefal  imitation  of  Menander  only  will 
enable  a  writer  to  comply  with  all  the  rules  in  his  Institu- 
tions. It  is  in  Menander,  that  he  would  have  his  oratot 
search  for  copiousness  of  invention,  an  elegance  of  expres- 
sion, and  especially  far  that  universal*  genius,  which  is 
Able  to  accommodate  itself  to  persons,  things,  and  affec* 
tionrf.  Menander's  wonderful  talent  at  expressing  nature 
in  every  condition,  and  under  every  accident  of  life,  gave 
occasion  to  that  extraordinary  question  of  Aristophanes  the 
grammarian :  "  O  Meftander  and  Nature,  which  of  yod 
Copied  your  pieces  from  the  other's  work  V*  And  Ovid  has 
made  choice  of  the  same  excellency  to  support  the  immor* 
tality  he  has  given  him : 

"  Dam  fidlax  servus,  durus  pater,  improba  laena, 
-  Vivet :  dxu&  meretrix  blanda,  Menander  erit." 

Menander  was  drowned  in  the  harbour  of  Piraeus,  in  the1 
year  293  B.  C.  according  to  some  accounts,  which  make 
Bim  only  forty-nine  years  of  age,  but  others,  as  we  have 
noticed,  think  he  was  a  little  above  fifty.  His  tomb,  in 
the  time  of  Pausauias,  was  to  be  seen  at  Athens,  in  the 
way  from  Piraeus  to  the  city,  close  by  the  honorary  monu- 
ment of  Euripidetf  The  fragments  and  sentences  of  Me- 
nander were  first  collected  by  Morel,  1553,  Paris,  and 
a^ain  edited  by  Henry  Stephens,  Grotius,  &c.  but  the 
best  edition  is  that  by  Le  Clerc  at  Amsterdam,  in  1 709'. 
To  which  the  "  Emendationes"  of  Phileleutherus  Lip- 
siensis/'  thatis,Dr.Bentley,  the  "Infamia  emendationum,'* 
Leiden,  1710,  by  J.  Gronovius,  and  "  Philargyrius  Can- 
tabrigiensis,"  by  De  Pauw,  must  be  considered  as  indis- 
pensable supplements,  although  it  is  spmewhat  difficult  to 
collect  the  four.  *  . 

MEN  ANDRINO  (MXasiLlo),  better  known  by  the  name 
of  Marsilius  of  Padua,  the  place  of  his  birtb,  was  one  of 
the  most  celebrated  philosophers  and  lawyers  of  the  14th 

»  Vossius  de  Poet.  Or»c Barman's  preface  to  Bentley's  Emendationes,  &c. 

—See  an  elegant  paper T>y  Warton,  Wo.  105  of  the  Adventurer  j-and  two  by 
Cumberland,  i.  e.  Beattey,  m  the  Observer,  No.  U9,  150.—  Maty'i  Review, 
▼oU  K.  p,  299. 

40  ME  N  A  N  D  R  I  N  O. 

century.  He  was  educated  at  the  university  of  Orleans ; 
was  afterwards  made  counsellor  to  the  emperor  Louis  of 
Bavaria ;  and  wrote  an  apology  entitled  "  Defensor  pacis," 
for  that  prince,  in  1324.  In  this  extraordinary  work,  for 
such  at  that  time  it  might  well  be  deemed,  he  boldly  main- 
tained that  the  pope  ought  to  submit  to  the  emperor,  not 
only  in  temporal  affairs,  but  also  in  what  regards  the  out- 
ward discipline  of  the  church.  He  described  in  strong 
colours,  the  pride,  the  luxury,  and  other  irregularities  of 
the  court  of  Rome;  and  shewed  at  large,  that  the  pope 
could  not,  by  divine  right,  claim  any  powers  or  prero- 
gatives superior  to  those  of  other  bishops.  John  XXII.  at 
that  time  filled  the  papal  chair,  and  was  so  provoked  at  this 
doctrine  of  Marsilius,  as  well  as  his  manner  of  propagating 
it,  that  he  issued  out  a  long  decree,  in  which  he  endea- 
voured to  refute  it,  and  by  which  he  excommunicated  the 
author,  in  1327.  Dupin  relates,  that  on  this  book  being 
translated  into  French  without  the  author's  name,  pope 
Gregory  XL  complained  of  it  to  the  faculty  of  divinity  at 
Paris  ;  when  the  faculty  declared,  by  an  authentic  act,  that 
none  of  their  members  had  any  hand  in  that  translation  ; 
find  that  neither  Marsilius  of  Padua,  nor  John  de  Jancle, 
who  was  likewise  thought  to  have  been  concerned  in  the 
work,  belonged  to  their  body.  Besides  the  "  Defensor 
pacis,  seu  de  re  imperatoria  et  pontifica,  ad  versus  usur- 
patam  Romani  Pontificis  jurisdictionem,  libri  tres,"  Mar- 
silius wrote  a  treatise  entitled  "  De  traqslatione  imperii* ;" 
?nd  also  another,  "  De  jurisdictione  imperial!  in  causis 
matrimonialibus."  He  died  at  Montemalto,  in  1328 ;  and, 
however  his  memory  may  have  been  honoured  elsewhere, 
was  ranked  at  Rome  among  the  heretics  of  the  first  class. 1 

MENARD  (Claude),  a  French  magistrate  and  anti- 
quary, was  one  of  several  authors  of  the  name  of  Menard 
who  obtained  considerable  reputation  in  France. ,  Claude, 
who  was  born  in  1582,  had  a  situation  in  the  magistracy  of 
Angers  (lieutenant  de  la  pr6v&t£)',  and  was  distinguished 
for  his  knowledge  and  virtue.  Having  had  the  misfortune 
to  lose  his  wife  towards  the  latter  end  of  his  career,  he 

*  Tbis  work,  which  we  have  not  ante  trecento*  prepe  amios  teripta :" 

been. able  to  meet  with,  occurs  in  Bra-  Ex  bibliopolio  Comefiniano,  1599,  8vo. 

net's  "Manuel   du  Libraire,"   under  But  this  seems  to  be  the  same  with  the 

the  title  of  ••  Defensor  pacis,  sire  Apo-  "  Defensor  pacis,"  mentioned  abore, 

Jogia  pro  Ludovico  IV.  imperatore  Ba-  with  the  addition  of  the  "  apologia  pro 

▼aro,  tractatus  de  translaiione  imperii,  Ludovico,*' 

>  Gen.  Diet. 

MENARD,  41 

quitted  the  world,  became  an  ecclesiastic,  and  led  a  very 
austere  life.  He  was  passionately  attached  to  the  study  of 
antiquities,  and  rescued  from  oblivion  several  curious 
pieces.  He  died  Jan.  20,  1652,  at  the  age  of  seventy- 
two.  He  published,  1.  "  Joinville's  History  of  St.  Louis/' 
1617,  4to,  with  notes  full  of  erudition  and  judgment.  2. 
"  The  two  books  of  St.  Austin  against  Julian,"  which  he 
discovered  in  the  library  at  Angers.  3.  "  Researches  con- 
cerning the  body  of  St.  James  the  greater,"  who,  as  is 
pretended,  was  buried  in  the  collegiate  church  of  Angers. 
The  credulity  of  this  casts  some  shade  upon  his  other 
works.  It  is  also  heavily  written.  4."  History  of  Ber- 
trand  du  Gueschlin,"  1618,  4(o.  The  learning  of  this 
author  was  great,  but  his  style  was  heavy  and  bad.  * 

MENARD  (Nicholas  Hugues),  a  writer  on  the  history 
of  the  saints,  was  born  at  Paris  in  1587,  and  became  a 
Benedictine  of  the  congregation  of  St.  Maur,  among  whom 
he  was  one  of  the  first  who  applied  severely  to  study.  He' 
died  Jan.  21,  1644,  at  the  age  of  fifty-seven.  We  have 
by  him,  1.  "  Marty rologi urn  Sanm.  ordinis  S.  Benedict!,99 
1€29.  2.  "  Concordia  Regularum,"  a  comparison  of  the 
life  of  St.  Benedict,  with  the  rules  of  his  order.  3.  "  Sa- 
eraraentarium  Sancti  Gregorii  Magni,"  1642,  4to.  4. 
"  Diatriba  deunico  Dionysio,"  1643,  8vo.  All  these  works 
display  a  taste  for  research,  and  a  talent  for  sound  cri- 
ticism. He  found  the  epistle  of  St.  Barnabas,  in  an  an- 
cient manuscript,  in  the  abbey  of  Corbie.  * 

MENARD  (Leo),  a  counsellor  in  the  presidial  court  at^ 
Nismes,  was  born  at  Tarascon,  in  1706,  and  died  in  1767. 
He  lived  chiefly  at  Paris,  and  employed  himself  in  the 
study  of  history  and  antiquities,  and  in  writing  books, 
which,  though  approved  for  their  learning,  did  not  rescue 
him  from  the  inconveniences  of  poverty.  They  are  these : 
1.  u  The  civil,  ecclesiastical,  and  literary  History  of  the 
eity  of  Nismes,"  7  vols.  4to,  published  in  1750,,  and  the 
following  years.  This  work  has  no  fault  but  that  of  pro- 
lixity. 2.  "  Moeurs  et  Usages  des  Grecs,"  1743,  12 mo, 
a  small  and  useful  compilation.  3.  "  The  Amours  of  Ca-' 
listbenes  and  Aristoclea,"  1766,  12mo,  a  novel,  in  which 
the  author  has  skilfully  painted  the  manners  of  Greece.  4, 
"  A  collection  of  fugitive  pieces,  illustrative  of  French  his- 
tory," 3vofe*4to,  published  in  1748.    The  materials  were 

*  MorerL— Diet  Hi*.  *  Niceroo,  to1.  XXII.— Moceri.— Diet.  Hist, 

4<z  MENARD, 

communicated  to  him  by  the  marquia  d'Aubais;  Ther* 
was  also  a  chronologer,  named  Peter  Menard,  who  died 
the  first  year  of  the  last  century ;  a  Barnes  Menard,  a  law- 
yer of  the  sixteenth  century ;  and  one  or  two  more  of  in- 
ferior note.  V 

MENASSEH  (Ben  Israel),  a  celebrated  rabbi,  not  un- 
known in  this  country,  was  born  in  Portugal  about  1604. 
His  father,  Joseph  Ben  Israel,  a  rich  merchant,  having  suf- 
fered greatly  both  in  person  and  property,  by  the  Portu- 
guese inquisition,  made  bis  escape  with  his  family  into 
Holland,  where  this  son  was  educated,  under  the  rabbi 
Isaac  Uriel,  and  pursued  his  studies  with  such  diligence 
stnd  success,  that  at  the  age  of  eighteen  he  was  appointed 
to  succeed  his  tutor  as  preacher  and  expounder  of  the  Tal- 
mud in  the  synagogue  of  Amsterdam,  a  post  which  be 
occupied  with  high  reputation  for  many  years.  He  waa 
Dot  quite  twenty-eight  years  of  age  when  he  published  it| 
the  Spanish  language  the  first  part  of  his  work  entitled 
"Conciliador:"  of  which  was  published  a  Latin  version, 
in  the  following  year,  by  Dionysius  Vossius,  entitled  "  Con- 
ciliator, sive  de  Convenientia  Locorum  S.  Scripturae,  quae 
pugnare  inter  se  videntur,  opus  ex  vetustis  et  recen- 
tioribus  omnibus  Rabbinis  magna  iridustria  ac  fide  con- 
gestum ;"  a  work  wbich  was  recommended  to  the  notice  of 
biblical  scholars  by  the  learned  Grotius.  The  profits  of 
his  situation  as  preacher  and  expounder,  being  inadequate 
to  the  expences  of  a  growing  family,  he  engaged  with  his, 
brother,  Who  was  settled  at  Basil,  in  mercantile  concerns  ; 
and  also  set  up  a  printing-press  in  his  own  house,  at  which 
he  printed  three  editions  of  the  Hebrew  Bible,  and  a  num- 
ber of  other  books.  Under  the  protectorate  of  Cromwell 
he  came  over  to  England,  in  order  to  solicit  leave  for  the 
settlement  of  the  Jews  in  this  country,  and  actually  ob- 
tained, greater  privileges  for  his  nation  than  they  had  ever 
enjoyed  before  in  this  country;  and  in  1656  published  aa 
"  Apology  for  the  Jews,"  in  the  English  language,  which 
niay  be  seen  in  vol.  II.  of  the  "  Phoenix,"  printed  from  this 
edition  of  1656.  At  the  end  of  it  in  the  Phoenix  is  a  list 
of  his  works,  published,  or  ready  for  the  press.  He  like- 
wise informs  us  that  be  had  at  that  time  printed  at  his  owrr 
press,  above  sixty  other  books,  amongst  which  are  many 
Bibles  in  Hebrew  and  Spanish,  &c.     He  died  at  Amster* 

i  Necrologie  des  bommet  celebret  pour  annte  1770. 

M  E  N  A  S  S  E  H.  43 


9  •  * 

dam  about  1659.  The  rabbi  was  esteemed  as  well  for  (its 
riioral  virtues  as  for  his  great  learning,  and  had  been  long 
in  habits  of  correspondence  and  intercourse  with  some  of 
the  most  learned  men  of  his  time,  among  whom  were  the 
Vossii,  Episcopius,  and  Grotius.  The  following  are  his 
principal  works  independently  of  that  already  noticed : 
I.  An  edition  of  the  Hebrew  Bible,  2  vols.  4to.  2.  The 
Talmud  corrected,  with  notes.  3.  "  De  Resurrectionc 
Mortuorum."  .  4.  u  Esperanza  de  Israel,"  dedicated  to  the 
parliament  of  England  in  1 650  :  it  was  originally  published 
in  Spanish,  and  afterwards  translated  into  the  Hebrew,  Ger- 
man, and  English,  one  object  of  which  is  to  prove  that  the 
ten  tribes  are  settled  in  America.  Of  his  opinions  in  this 
$6me  account  is  given  in  the  last  of  oqr  references. ft 

MENCKE  (Otto),  in  Latin  Menckenius,  a  learned! 
German  writer,  was  born  of  a  good  family  at  Oldenburg, 
in  Westphalia,  in  1644.  He  cultivated  his  first  studies  in 
his  native  place ;  and  at  seventeen  went  to  Bremen,  where 
he  applied  himself  to  philosophy.  He  stayed  there  one 
year,  and  removed  to  Leipsic,  where  he  was  admitted  mas- 
ter of  arts  in  1664 ;  and  afterwards  visited  the  other  univer- 
sities, Jena,  Wittemberg,  Groningen,  Franel*;er,  Utrecht^ 
Ley  den,  and  Kiel.  Upon  his  return  to  Leipsic,  he  ap- 
plied himself  for  some  time  to  divinity  and  civil  law.  In 
1668  he  was  chosen  professor  of  morality  in  that  university; 
and,  in  1671,  took  the  degree  of  licentiate  in  divinity. 
He  discharged  the  duties  of  his  professorship  with  great 
reputation  till  his  death,  which  happened  in  1 707.  He  was 
five  "times  rector  of  the  university  of  Leipsic,  and  seven 
times  dean  of  the  faculty  of  philosophy.  He  published 
several  works ;  many  of  his  own,  and  some  of  other  people. 
The  edition  of  sir  John  Marsham's  "  Canon  Chronicus," 
at, Leipsic,  'in  4to,  and  a  new  edition  of  "  Camden's.  An- 
nals of  queen  Elizabeth,"  were  procured  by  him.  But  his 
most  considerable  work,  and  what  alone  is  sufficient  to 
perpetuate  his  name,  is  the  "Acta  eruditorum"  of  Leipsic, 
of  which  he  was  the  first  author,  and  in  which  he  was 
engaged  till  his  death.  When  he  had  formed  that  design, 
he  began  a  correspondence  with  the  learned  men  of  all 
nations,  in  order  to  inform  himself  of  what  passed  in  the 
republic  of  letters.  For  the  same  purpose  he  took  a  jour- 
ney 'to  Holland,  and  thence  to  England.     He  afterward* 

\  Mbreri.— Modern  Universal  Hist.  to!.  XI.  p.  154,  ec!it.  1781. 

44  M  E  N  C  K  E. 

formed  a  society  of  several  persons  of  eminent  abilities,  to 
assist  him  in  the  work,  and  took  all  proper  measures  to 
render  it  lasting.  The  elector  of  Saxony  contributed,  by 
his  generosity,  to  the  success  of  the  design.  The  first 
volume  was  published  at  Leipsic,  in  1682,  in  4to.  Our 
author  continued  to  publish,  with  the  assistance  of  col* 
leagues,  every  year  a  volume  while  he  lived,  with  supple- 
ments from  time  to  time,  and  an  index  once  in  ten  years. 
His  share  ends  with  the  thirtieth  volume. ' 

MENCKE  (John  Burcard),  the  son  of  the  preceding, 
was  born  at  Leipsic,  April  8,  1674,  and  was  admitted  mas- 
ter of  arts  in  that  university  in  1694.  He  spent  some  time 
.there  in  the  study  of  divinity,  and  then  travelled  into  Hol- 
land and  England.  The  reputation  of  his  father,  and  his 
own  great  merit,  procured  him  access  to  all  the  men  of 
learning  in  the  places  through  which  he  passed.  He  spent 
one  year  in  his  travels ;  and  immediately  upon  his  return 
to  Leipsic  in  1699,  was  appointed  professor  of  history. 
His  first  intention  was  to  have  fixed  himself  to  divinity  ; 
but  he  quitted  it  soon  after  for  the  law,  in  which  he  suc- 
ceeded so  well  that  he  received  the  degree  of  doctor  in 
that  faculty  at  Halle,  in  1701.  After  this  he  returned  to 
Leipsic,  to  continue  hitf  lectures  in  history,  by  which  he 
gained  great  reputation  as  well  as  by  his  writings.  Fre» 
deric  Augustus,  king  of  Poland,  and  elector  of  Saxony, 
conceived  so  high  an  esteem  for  him,  that 'in  1708  he  ap- 
pointed him  his  historiographer.  In  1709  he  became  coun- 
sellor to  that  king;  and,  in  1723,  aulic  counsellor.  His 
health  began  to  decline  early  in  life,  and  he  died  April  I, 
1732,  aged  fifty-eight.  He  had  been  chosen,  in  1700,  fel- 
low of  the  royal  society  of  London,  and  some  time  after  of 
that  of  Berlin. 

The  books  he  wrote  were  very  numerous,  and  very 
learned  ;  one  of  which,  in  particular,  bad  it  been  as  well 
executed  as  planned,  would  have  been  very  curious  and 
entertaining.  Its  title  is  the  following :  "  De  Charlata- 
neria  feruditorum  declamationes  duae ;  cum  notis  variorum. 
Accessit  epistola  Sebastian  i  Stadelii  ad  Janum  Philomu- 
sum,  de  circumforanea  (iterator urn  vahitate,  Leipsic,  171 5," 
8vo.  It  has  been  said  that  there  never  was  a  worse  book 
with  a  better  title.  It  has,  however,  been  translated  into 
French,  and  is  entitled  "  De  la  Charlatanerie  des  sgavans, 

1  Gen.  Die*. — Moreri. 

MENCKE.  45 

par  M.  Mencken  :  avec  des  remarques  critiques  de  drffe- 
rens  anteurs,  Hague/'  1721,  in  8vo.  Mencke' s  design  here 
was  to  expose  the  artifices  used  by  false  scholars  to  raise 
to  themselves  a  name  ;  but,  as  he  glanced  so  evidently  at 
certain  considerable  persons  that  they  could  not  escape 
being  known,  some  pains  were  taken  to  have  his  book 
seized  and  suppressed  :  which,  however,  as  usual,  made 
the  fame  of  it  spread  the  faster,  and  occasioned  editions  to 
be  multiplied.  In  1723  he  published  at  Leipsic,  "  Biblio* 
tbeca  Menckeniana,"  &c.  or,  "  A  catalogue  of  all  the 
books  and  manuscripts  in  all  languages,  which  bad  been 
collected  by  Otto  and  John  Mencke,  father  and  son." 
Mencke  himself  drew  up  this  catalogue,  which  is  digested 
in  an  excellent  method,  with  a  design  to  make  bis  library, 
which  was  very  magnificent  and  valuable,  public  :  but  in 
1728  he  thought  proper  to  expose  it  to  sale  ;  and  for  that 
purpose  published  catalogues,  with  the  price  of  every  book 
marked.  Mencke  had  a  considerable  share  in  the  "  Dic- 
tionary of  learned  men,"  printed  at  Leipsic,  in  German, 
in  1715,  folio,  the  plan  of  which  he  had  formed,  and  fur- 
nished the  persons  employed  in  it  with  the  principal  ma- 
terials, and  wrote  the  articles  of  the  Italians  and  English. 
He  continued  the  "Acta  eruditorum,"  as  he  had  promised 
his  father  upon  bis  death-bed,  for  twenty-five  years,  and 
published  33  volumes,  including  the  supplements  and  the 

MENDELSOHN  (Moses),  a  Jewish  philosophical  writer, 
was  born  at  Dessau,  in  Anhalt,  in  1729.  After  being 
educated  under  his  father,  who  was  a  schoolmaster,  he  de- 
voted every  hour  he  could  spare  to  literature,  and  obtained 
as  a  scholar  a  distinguished  reputation  ;  but  his  father  be- 
ing unable  to  maintain  him,  he  was  obliged,  in  search  of 
labour,  or  bread,  to  go  on  foot,  at  the  age  of  fourteen,  to 
Berlin,  where  he  lived  for  some  years  in  indigence,  and 
frequently  in  want  of  necessaries.  -  At  length  he  got  em- 
ployment from  a  rabbi  as  a  transcriber  of  MSS.  who,  at  the 
same  time  that  he  afforded  him  the  means  of  subsistence, 
liberally  initiated  him  into  the  mysteries'  of  the  theology, 
the  jurisprudence,  and  scholastic  philosophy  of  the  Jews. 
The  study  of  philosophy  and  general  literature  became 
from  this  time  his  favourite  pursuit/  but  the  fervours  of 

*  Acta  eruditorum  far  1732.— Bib  1.  Oermaniqae,  vo\  X&V. — Niceron,  re!» 
XXXt— Gen.  Diet. 


application  to  learning  were  by  degrees  alleviated  an4 
animated  by  the  consolations  of  literary  friendship.     He 
formed  a  strict  intimacy  with  Israel  Moses,  a  Polish  Jew, 
who,  without  any  advantages  of  education,  had  become 
an  able,  though  self-taught,  mathematician  and  naturalist. 
He  very  readily  undertook  the  office  of  instructor  of  Men? 
delsohn,  in  subjects  of  which  he  was  before  ignorant ;  and 
taught  him  the  Elements  of  Euclid  from  his  own  Hebrew 
version.     The  intercourse  between  these  youpg  men  was 
not  of  long  duration,  owing  to  the  calumnies  propagated 
against  Israel  Moses,  which,  occasioned  his  expulsion  from 
the  communion  of  the  orthodox ;  in  consequence  of  this 
he  became  the  victim  of  a  gloomy  melancholy  and  de- 
spondence, which  terminated  i-n  a  premature  death.     His 
loss,  which  was  a  grievous  affliction ,  to  Mendelsohn,  was 
in  some  measure  supplied  by  Dr.  Kisch,  a  Jewish  physician, 
by  whose  assistance  he  was  enabled  to  attain  a  competent 
knowledge  of  the  Latin  language.     In  1748  he  became 
acquainted  with  another  literary  Jew,  viz.  Dr.  Solomon 
Gumperts,  by   whose  encouragement  and  assistance   he 
attained  a  general  knowledge  of  the  living  and  modern 
languages,  and  particularly  the  English,  by  which  be  was 
enabled  to  read  the  great  work  of  our  immortal  Locke  in 
his  own  idiom,  which  he  had  before  studied  through  the 
medium  of  the  Latin  language.     About  the  same  period 
he  enrolled  the  celebrated  Lessing  among  his  friends,  to 
whom  he  was  likewise  indebted  for  assistance  in  his  literary 
pursuits.    The  scholar  amply  repaid  the  efforts  of  his  ins- 
tructor, and  soon  became  his  rival  and  his  associate,  and 
after  bis  death  the  defender  of  his  reputation  against  Jar 
cobi,  a  German  writer,  who  had  accused  Lessing  of  atheism. 
Mendelsohn  died  Jan.  4,  1785,  at. the  age  of  fifty-seven, 
highly  respected  and  beloved  by  a  numerous  acquaintance, 
and  by  persons  of  very  different  opinions.    When  his  re- 
mains were  consigned  to  the  grave,  he  received  those  ho- 
nours from  his  nation  which  are  commpply  paid  tP  their 
chief  rabbies.     As  an  author,  the  first  piece  was  published 
in  1755,  entitled  "Jerusalem,"  in  which  he  maintains  tha,t 
the  Jews  have  a  revealed  law,  but  not  a  revealed  religion* 
but  that  the  religion  of  the  Jewish  nation  is  that  of  nature* 
His  work'  entitled  "  Phsedpiv  a  dialogue  on  the  Ipnnwr 
tality  of  the  Soul,"  in  the  manner  of  Plato,  gained  him 
much  honour:  in  this- he  presents  the  reader  with  till  tbp 
arguments  of  modem  philosophy,  stated  with  great  foree 


and  perspicuity,  and  recommended  bf  the  charms  of  ele- 
gant writing.    From  the  reputation  which  he  obtained  by 
this  masterly  performance,  be  was  entitled  by  various  pe* 
riodical  waters  the  "  Jewish  Socrates."     It  was  translated 
into  French  in  1773,  and  into  the  English,  by  Charles 
Cullen,  esq.  in  1789.     Amoh£  his  other  works,  which  we  jutrm^&^L 
all  creditable   to   his  talents,    he   wrote   "  Philosophical  tit  j/ttm*  &> 
Pieces;'7   "  A  Commentary  on  Part  of  the  Old  Testa-  Info  Cinrnxvn 
ment ;"  "  Letters  on  the  Sensation  of  the  Beautiful,"  * 

MENDOZA  (Gonzales  Peter  de),  a  cardinal,  arch- 
bishop of  Seville,  and  afterwards  of  Toledo,  chancellor  of 
Castille  and  Leon,  was.  born  at  Guadalajara,  in  1428,  of 
an  ancient  and  noble  family.  He  made  a  great  progress 
in  the  languages,  in  civil  and  canon  law,  and  in  the  belles 
lettres.  His  uncle,  Walter  Alvarez,  archbishop  of  Toledo, 
gave  him  an  archdeaconry  in  his  church,  and  sent  him  to 
the  court  of  John  II.  king  of  Castille,  where  his  merit  soon 
acquired  him  the  bishopric  of  Calahorra.  Henry  IV.  who 
succeeded  John,  trusted  him  with  the  most  important 
affairs  of  state ;  and,  besides  the  bishopric  of  Siguencft, 
procured  a  cardinal's  bat  for  him  from  Sixtus  IV.  in  1473; 
When  Henry  died  the  year  after,  be  named  cardinal  Men- 
dofca  for  his  executor,  and  dignified  him  at  the  same  time 
with  the  title  of  the  cardinal  of  Spain.  He  did  great  ser- 
vices afterwards  to  Ferdinand  and  Isabella,  in  the  war 
against  the  king  of  Portugal,  and  in  the  conquest  of  the 
kingdom  of  Granada  over  the  Moors.  '  He  was  then  made 
archbishop  of  Seville  and  Toledo  successively ;  and  after 
governing  some  years,  in  his  several  provinces,  with  great 
wisdom  and  moderation,  he  died  Jan.  11,  1495.  It  is  said 
that  in  his  younger  days  he  translated  "  Sallust,"  "  Ho« 
tnerVIIiad,"  "  Virgil,"  and  some  pieces  of  "  Ovid."  •• 

MENJ)OZA  (John  Gonzales),  an  Augustine  friar  of 
the  province  of  Castille,  was  chosen  by  the  king  of  Spain 
«o  be  ambassador  to  the  emperor  of  China,  in  1584.  He 
was  made  bishop  of  Lipari  in  Italy  in  1593,  bishop  of 
•Chiapi  in  New  Spain  in  1607,  and  bishop  of  Propajan  in 
the  West  Indies  in  1608.  He  wrote  "A  History  of  China," 
in  Spanish,  which  has  been  translated  into  several  lan- 
guages. •  A  general  idea  of  it  may  be  taken  from  the  mere 
title  Of  the  French  translation,  published  at  Paris,  in  1 589, 

1  Rett's  Cyclopaedia— Bios.  Sketch  of  the  Jewish  Socrates.— Gent.  Mag. 
1788.  «  Moreri. 

49  M  E  N  D  O  Z  A. 


which  runs  thus :  u  The  history  of  the  great  kingdom  of 
China,  in  the  East  Indies,  in  two  parts :  the  first  contain- 
ing the  situation,  antiquity,  fertility,  religion,  ceremonies, 
sacrifices,  kipg4,  magistrates,  manners,  customs,  laws,  and 
other  memorable  things  of  the  said  kingdom ;  the  second,; 
three  voyages  to  it  iu  1577,  1579,  and  1581,  with  the  most 
remarkable  rarities  either  seen  or  heard  of  there ;  together 
with  an  itinerary  of  the  new  world,  and  the  discovery  of 
New  Mexico  in  1583."  l 

MENEDEMUS,  a  Greek  philosopher,  was  a  native  of 
Eretria  in  the  island  of  Eubc&a,  who,  going  to  study  at 
Athens,  became  first  a  hearer  of  Plato,  and  then  of  Xeno- 
crates ;  but,  not  being  satisfied  with  theif  doctrines,  went 
over  to  the  Cyrenaic  philosopher  Parebates,  and  by  him 
was  lfed  to  the  Megarensian  Stilpo.  Here,  being  delighted 
by  the  free  manner  of  his  new  master,  be  learned  to  despise 
all  scholastic  'forms  and  arts.  He  had  now  become  so 
famous  by  his  studies,  that  his  countrymen,  who  at  first 
had  held  him  in  no  estimation,  now  voluntarily  com* 
mitted  to  him  the  direction  of  the  state,  with  a  large  sti- 
pend ;  and  he  in  return  was  able  to  render  them  essential 
services  by  the  credit  in  which  he  stood  with  the  kings  of 
Macedon.  After  a  time,  however,  he  was  exposed  to  the 
attacks  of  envy,  that  usual  concomitant  of  greatness ;  and, 
being  accused  of  a  design  to  betray  his  country,  died  of 
grief  at  the  imputation.  He  died  in  the  year  264  B.  C. 
in  the  reign  of  Alexander  the  Great ;  and  the  masters 
under  whom  he  studied  mark  sufficiently  the  earlier  pe- 
riod of  his  life.  < 

Menedemus  was  of  a  strong  constitution,  acute  and!  pe- 
netrating in  understanding ;  in  dispute  he  was  vehement, 
but  in  his  manners  gentle.  He  was  fond  of  convivial 
meetings;  but  it  was  those  in  which  philosophy,  not 
luxury,  presided.  His  most  intimate  friend  and  fellow- 
student  was  Asclepiades,  whose  steadiness  of  regard  was 
highly  honourable  to  both.  After  the  death  of  Menede- 
mus, his  countrymen  erected  a  statue  to  his  memory. 
Some  sarcastically  called  him  the  Eretrian  Bull,  from  th$- 
gravity  of  his  countenance.  Being  told  one  day,  that  it  is 
a  great  felicity  to  have  whatever  we  desire,  "Yes,"  said 
he,  "  but  jit  is  a  much  greater  to  desire  nothing  but  what 
we  have."  * 

4  ' 

'     *  Qcn.  Diet— Diet.  Hist 

*  Blocker.— Jtofenas  Lae>tius.— Stanley**  Hut  of  Philosophy. 


.  MENEDEMUS  was  s  Cynic  philosopher,  father  of  a 
later  period,  just  before  chat  sect  sunk  into  disrepute,  and 
Chat  of  the  Stoics  uader  Zeno  rose  oot  of  its  ruins.  It  is 
probable  that  the  extravagance  of  this  very  man  contri- 
buted very  materially  to  bring  his  sect  into  disrepute ;  for 
he  went  about,  says  Diogenes  Laertius,  dressed  like  a 
fury,  and  saying  that  he  was  sent  by  the  infernal  gods,  to 
report  to  them  the  transgressions  of  men.  His  dress  was 
a  long  black  robe,  reaching  to  his  feet ;  a  scarlet  girdle ; 
a  large  Arcadian  cap,  with  the  twelve  signs  of  the  zodiac 
embroidered  ou  it;  tragic  buskins,  a  vast  beard,  and  a 
strong  ashen  staff  in  his  hand.  Laertius  says  that  he  was 
a  pupil  of  Colptes  of  Lampsacus,  of  whom,  however,  he 
gives  no  particular  account  Others  make  him  the  disciple 
of  Ecbecles  an  Ephesian,  another  Cynic.  Suidas,  by  mis- 
take, applies  to  Menippus  the  extravagant  dress  here  at- 
tributed to  Menedemus.  Menippus,  however,  was  a  dis- 
ciple of  Menedemus.  * 

MENESTRIER  (John  Baptist  le>,  of  Dijon,  one  of 
the  most  learned  and  curious  antiquaries  of  his  time,  was 
horn  in  1 564,  and  died  in  1634,  .at  the  age  of  seventy.  His 
principal  works  are,  1.  "  Medals,  Coins,  and  ancient  Mo- 
numents of  the  emperors  of  Rome/*  folio.  2.  "  Illustrious 
Medals  of  the  ancient  emperors  and  empresses  of  Rome/'' 
4to.  They  are  both  written  in  French,  and  are  not  much 
Esteemed,  according  to  the  Diet.  Hist. ;  but  Moreri  says  that 
all  modern  antiquaries  speak  of  them  with  the  highest 
praise  (grands  eloges)* 

MENESTRIER  (Claude  Francis),  a  Jesuit,  was  born 
at  Lyoos  in  1$33.  Besides  his  skill  in  the  ancient  lan- 
guages, and  acquaintance  with  the  classic  authors,  he  had 
a  particular  talent  for  heraldry,  and  for  the  arrangement 
and  marshalling  of- all  splendid  ceremonies,  such  as  ca- 
nonizations, &c.  so  that  his  plans  for  those  occasions  were 
sought  with  great  avidity.  The  fertility  of  his  imagination 
constantly  displayed  itself  in-  an  incredible  variety  of  in- 
scriptions, devices,  medals,  and  other  ornaments.  He  tra- 
velled in  Italy,  Flanders,  Germany,  and  England ;  and  in 
all  places  gained  .improvement  and  amusement.  His  me-' 
ipory  was  so  prodigious,  that,  in  order  to  try  it,  Christina; 
queen  of  Sweden,  pronounced  in  his  presence  at  Lyons, 
and  had  written  down,  %QQ  unconnected  words,  the  strangest 

>  JSond«— Pto9«MB  Lwrtrnf.— 5«kkw  in  verbo  fmu.      *  Mowri*— Diet  Hist. 

Vol.  XXII.  E 




frire  could  think  of,  and  it  is  said  that  he  repeated  them'  alt 
exactly  in  .the  same  order.  '  This  wonderful  memory  sup* 
plied  him  with  an  inexhaustible  fund  of  anecdotes;  and  he 
spoke  Greek  and  Latin  with  as  much  facility  as  French.  - 
He  died  Jan.  31,  1705,  being  then  seventy-four.  His. 
works  that  remain  are,  1. "  History  of  Louis  the  Great,  by 
medals,  emblems,  devices,  &c."  2.  "  Consular  History 
of  the  city  of  Lyons,"  1693,  folia  3.  Several  small  trea- 
tises on  devices,  medals,  heraldry,  &c»  particularly-  his 
"  Metbode  de  Biason,"  an  edition-  of  which  was  published 
at  Lyons,  in  1770,  8vo,  with  many  additions  to  the  ori- 
ginal work.  4.  "  La  Philosophie  des  Images,"  1694,  12mo, 
wkh  several  others  of  smaller  consequence,  which  are  all 
enumerated  by  Niceron.1 

,   MEN  GO  LI  (Peter),  an  able  Italian  mathematician  it* 
the  seventeenth  century,  concerning  whose  birth  there  is . 
jqo  trace,,  studied  mathematics,  under  Cavalieri,  to  whom 
the  Italians  ascribe  the  inventioa  of  the  first  principles  of 
the  infinitesimal  calculus.  Mengol*  was  appointed  professor 
q{  "  mechanics"  in  the  college  of  nobles  at  Bologna,  and 
Required  high  reputation  by  the  success  with  which  he 
filled   that  post.     His  principal  works  are,  "  Geometric 
Speciosre  Elementa;"  "Novae  Quadrature  Arithmetics,- 
seu  de  additione  Fractionum ;"  "  Via  regiaad  Mathema*. 
ticas  ornata;"  "  Refrazzione  e  paralasse  Solare ;"  "  Spe- 
culation! de  Musica ;"  "  Arithmetics  ratioualis  Elementa ;" 
V  Arithmetic*  realis."    Of  these  Dr.  Burney  notices  his 
"  Speculationi  di  Musica/'  a  desultory  and  fanciful  work,, 
published  at  Bologna,  1670.  An  account  of  this  treatise  was. 
given  in  the  Phil.  Trans,  vol.  VIII.  No.  c.  p.  6194,  seem* 
ingly  by  Birchensha.     The  speculations  contained  in  Men- 
goli's  work  are  some  of  them  specious  and  ingenious ;  but 
the  philosophy  of  sound  has  been  so  much  more  scienti-: 
fically  and  clearly  treated  since. its  publication,  that  the 
difficulty  of  finding  .the  book  great  impediment  ta 
the  advancement  of  music.     He  was  Mill  living  in  1678.  *   > 
.  MENGS    (Antony  Raphael),   a  celebrated  modern 
painter,  was  born  at  Aussjg  in  Bohemia,,  in  1726.     H» 
father  was.  painter  to  Augustus  III.  king. of  Poland,  and. 
be,  observing  the  talents  of  his  son.  for  the  same  artr 
took  him  to  Rome  in  1741.     After  studying  about  four 
years,    the  young  painter  returned  to  Dresden,  where* 

)  Nicsron,  toV  I.«!-M©*eri.  *  Jtyrou.— Bunwy  in  Rees's  Cyclojmdi**  i 

^  MENGS.  51 

executed  several  works  for  Augustus  with  uncommon 
success.  But  bis  greatest  patron  was  Charles  III.  king  of 
Spain,  who  having,  while  only  king  of  Naples,  become 
acquainted  with  Mengs  and  his  merits,  in  1761,  within 
two  years  after  bis  accession  to  the  throne  of  Spain,  settled 
upon  him  a  pension  of  2000  doubloons,  and  gave  him  an 
bouse  and  an  equipage.  Mengs,  nevertheless,  did  not  go 
to  Spain,  but  resided  chiefly  at  Rome,  where  he  died  in 
1779.  The  labours  of  his  art,  grief  for  the  loss  of  a  most 
beautiful  and  amiable  wife,  and  the  injudicious  medicines 
of  an  empiric,  his  countryman,  who  pretended  to  restore 
his  health,  are  said  to  have  occasioned  his  death.  His  cha- 
racter was  very  amiable,  with  no  great  fault  but  that  which 
too  commonly  attends  genius,  a  total  want  of  (Economy ; 
so  that,  though  his  profits  in  various  ways,for  the  last  eigh- 
teen years  of  his  life,  were  very  considerable,  he  hardly  left 
enough  to  pay  for  his  funeral.  In  his  address,  he  was  timid 
and  aukward,  with  an  entire  ignorance  of  the  world,'  and 
an  enthusiasm  for  the  arts,  which  absorbed  almost  all  his 
passions.  He  left  five  daughters,  and  two  sons,  all  of 
whom  were  provided  for  by  his  patron  the  king  of  Spain** 
He  was  an  author  as  well  as  a  painter,  and  his  works  were 
published  at  Parma  in  1780,  by  the  chevalier  d'Azara,' 
with  notes,  and  a  life  of  Mengs,  in  2  vols.  4to,  which  were 
translated  into  English,  and  published  in  2  vols.  1796,  8vo. 
They  consist  chiefly  of  treatises  and  letters  on  taste,  on- 
several  painters,  and  various  subjects  connected  with  the 
philosophy  and  progress  of  the  arts.  They  were  partly 
translated  into  Freuch,  in  1782,  and  more  completely  in 
1787.  All  that  is  technical  on  the  subject  of  painting,  in 
the  work  of  his  friend  Winckelman,  on  the  history  of  art, 
was  Supplied  by  Mengs.  He  admired  the  ancients,  but 
without,  bigotry,  and  could  discern  their  faults  as  well  as 
their  beauties.  As  an  artist,  Mengs  seems  to  have  been 
mostly  admired  in  Spain.  In  this  country,  recent  con- 
noisseurs seem  disposed  to  under-rate  his  merit,  merely,  as* 
it  would  appear,  because  it  had  been  over-rated  by 
Azara  and  Winckelman.  .  The  finest  specimen  of  bis  art  in 
this  country  is  the  altar-piece  of  All  Souls  Chapel,  Oxford. 
The  subject  of  this  picture  is  our  Saviour  in  the  garden  : 
it  consists  of  two  figures  in  the  foreground,  highly  finished, 
and  beautifully  painted.  It  was  ordered  by  a  gentleman 
of  that  college*  whilst  on  his  travels  through  Spain ;  but. 
being  limited  to  the  price,  he  was  obliged  to  choose  a  sub- 

£  2 

H  At  C  N  C  5. 

ject  of  few  figures.  This  gentleman  relates  a  aingukt 
anecdote  of  Meags,  which  wtl\  further  ? how  the  profimdity 
of  bis  knowledge  end  discernment  in  things  of  antiquity. 
While  Dr.  fturoey  was  abroad  collecting  materials  for  1ms 
History  of  $4usic,  be  found  at  Florence  an  ancient  statue 
of  Apollo,  with  a  bow  aod  fiddle  in  hb  hand:  this,  he  cop* 
•Wered,  would  be  sufficient  to  decide  the  long-contested 
point,  whether  or  not  the  ancients  had  known  the  use  of  the 
bow.  He  consulted  irnany  people  to  ascertain  the  certainty  if 
statue  were,  really  of  antiquity  ;  and  at  last  Mengs  was 
to  give  his  opinion,  who,  directly  as  he  bad  ex* 
amined  it,  without  knowing  the  cause  of  the  inquiry, 
•aid,  "  there  was  no  doubt  but  that  the  statue  was  of  anti- 
quity, but  thai  the  arms  and  fiddle  had  been  recently 
added."  This  had  been  done  with  such  ingenuity  that  no 
one  had  discovered  it  before  Mengs  5  but  the  troth  of  the 
lame  was  not  .to  be  doubted. '. 

MEN  IN  SKI  (Franciscus  a  MBsevinr),  or  Miwsn,  a 
most  celebrated  Geraum  orientalist,  was  bora  2a  Lorraine, 
then  subject  to  the  emperor,  in  1623;  and  for  copkwwnee* 
of  learning,  elegance  of  genius,  and  profound  knowledge 
of  languages,  part|culariy  those  of  the  East,  proved 
undoubtedly  one  of  the  principal  ornaments  of  the  age  m 
which  be  lived  He  studied  at  Rome  under  Giattino.  When 
be  was  about  thirty,  his  Joore  of  letters  induced  him  4o  ac- 
company the  Polish  ambassador  to  Constantinople,  where 
he  studied  the  Turkish  langaage  under  Bobotiu*  and  Ab- 
ided, two  aery  skilful  teachers.  80  .successful  .was  be  m 
this  study,  that  when  he  had  been  there  only  two  years, 
the  fdaoe  of  first  interpreter  to  the  Polish  embassy  at  the 
forte  was  promised  to. him.  Wiheti  the  place  became  **• 
cant,  be  was  accordingly  appointed  to  it,  and  obtained  so 
much  credit  by  his  conduct,  that,  alter  a  time,  be  was  sent 
for  into  Poland,  and  again  sent  out  with  fall  powers  as  am* 
bassador  to  the  Porte.  For.  his  able  execution  of  this  ofece, 
be  waa,  farther  honoured,  by  being  natuipUaed  in  Poland, 
on  which  occasion  be  added  the  Polish  termination  of  ski 
to  his  .family  name,  which  was  Meniu.  Being  desirous 
afterwards  to  estead  &s  sphere  of  action,  he  went  *to  the 
court  of  the  emperor,  as  interpreter  of  oriental  languages, 
in  16a  I.     Hcreaho,  as  in  other  instances,  his  talents  and 

1  Life  of  M«^.-—Pilk'ujrtoo.— Cumberland  spe*!*  jfC  M**$9  W  .*«  *9*fto*t 
cfSpu'nb  pauttert,  but  tYrttebtly  with  much  prejtdice. 


btbavtotfr  obtained  the  highest  approbation ;  on  which  ac* 
count  be  was  not  only  sent  an  interpreter  to  several  impe- 
rial ambassadors  at  the  Porte,  but  was  entrusted  in  many 
important  and  confidential  services,  and,  in  1669,  hating 
paid  a  visit  to  the  holy  sepulchre  at  Jerusalem,  was  toad* 
One  of  the  knights  of  that  order.  After  his  re  tarn  to  Vifentoi 
he  was  advanced  to  farther  honours j  being  made  one  of 
the  counsellors  of  war  to  the  emperor,  and  first  inter*, 
preter  of  oriental  languages.  He  died  at  Vienna,  at  the 
age  of  seventy-five,  in  16$  8.  Hit  great  work,  1.  Ttte 
"  Thesaurus  linguatum  orientalipm,"  was  published  at 
Vienna,  in  1680,  in  4  vols,  folio:  to  which  was  added,  itt 
1687,  another  volume,  entitled  M  Complementum  The- 
sauri linguarom  brientalium,  sen  onomasticuttt  Latino-Tttr- 
cico-Atabico<»Persicttm.''  The  former  volumes  having 
become  extremely  scarce,  partly  on  account  of  the  de- 
struction of  a  great  part  of  the  impression  in  the  siege  of 
Vienna  by  the  Turks  in  168S,  a  design  was  formed  some 
time  ago  in  England  of  reprinting  the  work,  by  a  society  Of 
learned  men,  among  whom  was  sir  William  Jones.  But  as 
this  undertaking,  probably  on  account  of  the  vast  etpenee 
which  most  have  been  Incurred,  did  not  proceed,  the  em- 
press queen,  Maria  Theresa,  who  had  heard  of  the  plan, 
took  it  upon  herself,  and  with  vast  liberality  furnished  every 
thing  necessary  for  its  completion.  In  consequence  of  this, 
it  was  begun  to  be  splendidly  republished  at  Vienna  in 
1780,  with  this  title,  "Francisci  1st  Mesgnien  Meninski 
Lcsicon  Arabico-Persico-Turcicum,  adjecta  ad  singulas 
Voces  et  phrases  interpretative  Latinft,  ad  mi  tat  lores, 
etiam  ItalicS,"  and  has  been  completed  in  four  volumes 
folio.  In  this  edition,  say  the  editors,  the  Lexicon  of  Me- 
ninski may  be  said  to  be  increased,  diminished,  and 
amended.  Increased*  because  many  Arabic  and  Persian 
words  are  Added,  from  Wankuli  and  Ferhengi,  the  best 
Arabic  and  Persic  Lexicographers  whom  die  East  has  pro- 
duced; and,  from  Herbeiot,  are  inserted  the  names  of. 
kingdoms,  cities,  and  rivers,  as  well  as  phrases  in  common 
use  among  the  Turks,  &c. ;  diminished,  because  many  use- 
less synonyma  are  omitted,  which  rather  puzzled  than  as- 
sisted the  student;  as  well  afc  all  the  French,  Polish,  and  ' 
Gerafean  interpretations,  die  Latin  being  considered  Its  suf- 
ficient for  all  men  of  learning ;  amended,  with  respect  to 
innumerable  typographical  errors  ;  which,  frQm  a  work  of 
this  nature,  no  care  can  per  haps  altogether  exclude.  Brunet 



remarks,  however,  that  this  edition  does  not  absolutely 
supplant  the  preceding,  as  the  grammar  and  onomasticon 
are  not  reprinted  in  it.     There  is  a  Vienna  edition  of  the 
grammar,  entitled  "  Institutiones  linguae  Turcice,"  1756, 
in  quarto,  two  vols,  in  one ;  but  the  onomasticon  must  still 
be  sought  in  the  original  edition.    The  other  works  of 
Meninski  were  occasioned  chiefly  by  a  violent  contest  be- 
tween him  and  J.  B.  Podesta,  in  which  much  acrimony  was 
employed  on  both  sides.    These  it  is  hardly  worth  while  to 
enumerate,  but  they  may  all  be  seen  in  the  account  of  his 
life  from  which  this  article  is  taken.     It  should  be  observed 
however,  that,  in  1674,  Podesta  published  a  book  entitled 
5*  Prodromus  novi  linguarum  OrFentalium  collegii,  jussu 
Aug.  &c.   erigendi,  in  Univ.'Viennensi;"  to  which  Me- 
ninski opposed,  2.  "  Meninskii  Antidotum  in  Prodromum 
novi  ling*  orient  collegii,  &c."  4to.     But  such  was  the  cre- 
dit of  his  antagonist  in  the  university,  that  soon  after  there 
came  out  a  decree,  in  the  name  of  the  rector  and  consis- 
tory, in  which  that  antidote  of  Meninski's  is  proscribed 
and  prohibited,  for  six  specific  reasons,  as  impious  and  in- 
famous." Meninski  was  defended  against  this  formidable  at- 
tack by  a  friend,  in  a  small  tract,  entitled  "Veritas  defensa, 
seujustitia  causae  Dn.  F.  deM.  M.  [Meninski]  Contra  in- 
fame  deoretum  Universitatis  Viennensis,   anno  H574,  23 
>Joverubris,  &c,  ab  Amico'  luci  exposita,  anno  1675,"  iri 
which  this  friend  exposes,  article  by  article,  the  falsehood 
of  the  decree,  and  exclaims  strongly  against  the  arts  of 
Podesta.    This  tract  is  in  the  British  Museum.    Podesta 
was  oriental  secretary  to  the  emperor,  and  professor  of 
those  languages  at  Vienna;  but  is  described  in  a  very 
satirical  manner  by  the  defender  of  Meninski :  "  Podesta, 
natura  Semi-Italus,  statura  nanus,  caecutiens,  balbus,  imo 
bardus  repertus,  aliisque  vitiis  ac  stultitiis  plenus,  adeoque 
ad  discendas  linguas  Orientales  inhabilis."     A  list  of  the 
works  of  Podesta,  is,  however,  given  by  the  late  editors  of 
Meninski.  * 

MENIPPUS,  a  Cynic,  and  a  disciple  of  the  second  Me- 
jiedemus  before  mentioned,  was  a  native  of  Gadara  in  Pa- 
lestine. His  writings  were  chiefly  of  a  ridiculous  kind,  and 
very  satirical ;  so  much  so,  that  Lucian,  himself  no  very 
lenient  satirist,  calls  him  in  one  passage  "  the  most  bark-' 
ing  and  snarling  of  all -the  Cynic  dogs."     For  this  reason 

i  Life  of  Meninski  prefixed  to  bis  Thesaurus. 

lie  is  introduced  into  two  or  three  of  Lucian's  dialogues, 
as  a  vehicle  for  the  sarcasms  of  that  author.    It  appears, 
that  the  satires  of  Menippu?  were  written  in  prose,  with 
Verses  occasionally  intermixed ;  for  which  reason  the  satires 
of  Varro,  who'  wrote  in  the  same  style,  were  called  Menip- 
pean ;  and  the  same  title,  that  of  "  Satyre  M6nipp6e,"  was 
given,  for  the  same  reason,  to  a  famous  collection,  writ- 
ten in  France  against  the  faction  of  the  league ;  in  which 
compositions  Pierre  le  Roy,  Nicolas  Rapin,  and  Florent 
Chretien, bore  a  principal  share.  Varro  himself  has  been  there- 
fore  called  jfenippeus,  and  sometimes  Cynicus  Romanus. 
Menippus  was  imitated  also  by  his  countryman  Meleager, 
of  whom  an  account  bar  been  given  before.     It  is  said  by 
Laertius,  that  Menippus,  having  been  robbed  of  a  large  sunt 
of  money,  which*  he  had  amassed  by  usury,  hanged  himself 
in  despair.    The  same  author  mentions  some  of  his  works, 
of  which,  however, ,  no  part  is  now  extant.     He  had  been 
>  originally  a  slave,  but  purchased  his  freedom,  and  procured 
himself  to  be  made  a  citizen  of  Thebes.1 
,   MENNES,  or  MEN N IS,  (Sir  John,)  a  celebrated  sea- 
man, traveller,. and  poet,  the  third  son  of  Andrew  Mennes, 
esq.  of  Sandwich  in  Kent;  was  born  there  March  1,  1598. 
He  was  educated  at  Corpus  Ohristi  college,  Oxford,  where 
he  distinguished  himself  by  his  literary  acquirements  ;  and 
afterwards  became  a  great  traveller,  and  well  skilled  in 
naval  architecture.    In  the  reign  of  James  I.  he  had  a  place 
'  in -the  Navy-office,  and  by  Charles  I.  was  appointed  its 
comptroller.     Iq  the  subsequent  troubles  be  took  an  active 
part,  both  military  and  naval,  in  favour  of  his  royal  mas- 
ter:'and  being  a  vice-admiral,,  in  1641  was  knighted  at 
Dover.     In  1642,  he  commanded  the  Rainbow:  but  was 
afterwards  displaced  from  his  services  at  sea  for  his  loyalty, 
and  was  implicated  in  the  Kentish  insurrection  in  favour 
of  the  king  in  1 648.     After  the  Restoration  he  was  made 
governor  of  Dover-castle,   and  chief  comptroller  of  the 
navy,  which  he  retained  till  his  death.    In  1661  he  wasap-< 
pointed  commander  of  the  Henry,  and  received  a  com- 
mission to  act  as  vice-admiral  and  commander  in  chief  of 
bis  majesty's  fleet  in  the  North  Seas.     He  died  Feb.  18y 
167CM,    at    the  Navy-office    in  Seething-lane,    London, 
with  the  character  of  an  honest,  stout,  generous,  and  re- 
ligious man,  whose  company  had  always  been  delightful  to, 

l  Bxuekef/— Diogene*  Laertius.— Moreri. 


*f  MENKES. 

the  ingenious  tad  witty*  He  was  buried  id  tbe  church  of 
St.  Olave,  Hart-*treet*  Where  a  monument  and  inscription 
were  erected  oyer  his  grave*  add  are  there  stilL  Wood 
says  be  Was  the  author  of  a  poem  entitled  "  Epsom  Wells/' 
and  several  other  poems  scattered  in  other  men's  works* 
What  can  with  most  certainty  -be  attributed  to  him  are 
contained  in  &  volume  entitled  "  Musarum  Delicisft,  or  the 
Mutes  Recreation/'  second  edit  1656*  12mo.  The  cele* 
brated  sdoffing  ballad  on  sir  John  Suckling,  "  Sir  John  got 
him  an  ambling  nag/'  &c.  was  written  by  Mennes.  The 
poems  in  this  volume  are  the  joint  compositions  of  sir  John 
Mennes  and  Dr.  James  Smith* l 

MENNO,  surriamed  Simon,  or  Simonson,  was  the 
founder  bf  a  iect  called  from  him  Mennoflke**  He  waft 
born  at  Witmarsum*  in  Frifesland*  in  1505.  He  was  at  first 
a  Romish  priest,  and  a  notorious  profligate,  and  resigned 
his  rahk  and  office  in  the  Romish  church*  arid  pehlicly  em* 
braced  the  communion  bf  the  anabaptists*  He  died  in 
1561,  in  the  duchy  of  Hblstein,  at  the  country-seat  of  d 
certain  nobleman,  not  far  from  the  city  of  Oldeslbe,  who,  * 
moved  With  compassion  t>y  a  view  of  the  perils  to  which 
Menno'  was  eJcf>osed,  and  the  spared  that  were  daily  laid 
for  his  ruin,  took  him*  with  certain  of  hit  associates,  tntd 
his  protection,  and  gave  hita  ail  Asylum...  He  began  td 
propagate  his  opinions  In  1656,.  and  had  many  follower**: 
whbse  history  mfcy  be  found  in  Mosheim.  They  split  after* 
wards  into  parties,  but  the  Opinions  that  Are  held  in  com* 
mdn  by  thfc  Menneitibes,  seem  to  be  all  derived  from  this 
fundamental  principle,  that  the  kingdom  which  Christ 
established  upon  earth  is  a  visible  church  or  community 4 
into  which  the  holy  and  just  alone  are  to  be  admitted,  and 
which  is  consequently  exempt  from  all  those  institutions 
and  rules  of  discipline,  that  have  been  invented  by  human 
wisdom,  for  the  correction  and  reformation  of  tbe  Wicked* 
This  principle,  indeed,  was  avowed  by  the  ancient  Menno  * 
nites,  but  it  is  now  almost  wholly  renounced ;  nevertheless* 
from  this,  ancient  doctrine,  many  of  the  religions  opinions, 
that  distinguish  the  Mennonites  from  all  other  Christian 
communities,  seem  to  be  derived  :  in  consequence  of  this 
doctrine,  they  admit  none  to  the  sacrament  of  baptism,  but 
persons  tbat  are  come  to  tbe  full  use  of  their  reason  ;  they 
neither  admit  civil  rulers  into  their  communion,  nor  allow 

1  Atb.  Ox.  vol.  II.— Centura  Literaria,  rol.  IV,— *Rt!it'i  Specimens. 

MEN*KO.  5? 

any  other  members  to  perform  the  functions  of  magistracy ; 
t&ey  deny  the  lawfulness  of  repelling  force  by  forcfe,  and 
qonsider  wdr,  in  ail  its  shapes,  as  unchristian  and  unjust : 
they  entertain  the  utmost  aversion  to  the  execution  of  jus- 
tice, and  more  Especially  to  capital  punishments;  and  they 
also  refuse  to  confirm  thdir  testimony  by  an  oath.  Af  enno'sr 
writings,  in  Dutch,  Were  published  in  1601,  folio.1 

MENOCHIUS  (James),  a  native  of  Pavia,  was  born  in 
1534,  and  acquired  such  skill  in  the  law,  that  he  was  sur- 
named  the  Baldus  and  the  Bartholus  of  his  age.  Hd 
taught  law  in  Piedmont^  at  Pisa,  at  Padua,  and  lastly  at 
Pavia.  Philip  IL  king  of  Spain,  appointed  him  counsellor, 
afterwards  president  of  the  council  at  Milan.  He  died 
Adg.  10,  1607,  aged  seventy-five,  leaving,  "  De  recupe- 
rattdfc  possessione,  de  a^ipiscendi  possessionem"  8vo;  "De 
Pnfesumptionibus,"  Geneva/  1670,  2  vols,  folio;  "  De 
Arbitrariis  Judicum  qufestionibus,  et  causis  Consiliorum," 
folio,  and  other  valuable  works.* 

MENOCHIUS  (John  Stephen),  son  of  the  preceding, 
born  in  1516,  at  Pavia,  entered  "among  the  Jesuits  at  the 
age  of  seventeen,  and  died  at  Rome,  February  4,  1656, 
aged  eighty,  leaving,  «*  Institutions,  political  and  econo- 
mical," taken  from  the  Holy  Scriptures ;  a  good  treatise 
"  On  the  Hebrew  Republic ;"  and  a  "  Commentary  on  the 
Bible,"  the  best  edition  of  which  is  by  Pere  Toarnemine, 
a  Jesuit,  1719,  2  vols,  folio.     All  the  above  are  in  Latin.3 

MENZ1KOFF  (Alexander),  was  a  prince  of  the  Rus- 
sian empire,  deeply  concerned  in  ,  the  politics  of  his  time. 
Tb6  general  opinion  of  the  origin  of  Menzikoff  is,  that  his 
father  was  a  peasaht,  who  had  placed  him  at  Moscow  with 
a  pastry-cook,  and  that  he  carried  little  pies  about  the 
streets,  singing  as  he  went  In  this  situation,  be  was  seen 
fay  the  etftperor  Peter,  who,  pleased  with  the  wit  and  live- 
liness which  on  examination  he  found  in  him,  took  him 
about  his  person,  and  thus  opened  the  way  to  his  fortune. 
Others,  however,  say,  that  his  father  was  an  officer  in  the 
sendee  of  the  czat  Alexis  Miehaelowitz,  and  that,  as  it 
was  not  extraordinary  for  gentlemen  to  serve  in  the  stables* 
of  the  czar,  Menzikoff  was  there  employed  as  one  of  th* 
head  grooms,  and  that  in  this  situation  his  talents  were 
noticed  by  the  caar,  and  his  advancement  begun. 

1  Mosheim.*— Brandt's  History  of  the  Reformation. 

9  Tiraboschh— Diet,  Hl$t.  »  Dupin. — Moreri.1 

€0  M  E  N  Z  I  N  I. 

MENZINI  (Benedict),  an  Italian  poet,  was  born  at 
Florence  in  1646,  of  poor  and  bumble  parents.  Notwith- 
standing the  disadvantage  of  his  circumstances,  he  began 
bis  studies  under  Miglioraccio,  and  pursued  thetii  with  ar- 
dour ;  till,  being  noticed  for  his  talents  by  Vincentio  SaU 
tiati,  he  was  removed  from  the  difficulties  of  poverty,  re- 
ceived into  the  house  of  that  patron,. and  encouraged  to 
indulge  his  genius  in  writing.  In  1674,  he  inscribed  4 
volume  of  poems  to  Cosmo  III.  of  Medicis,  but  obtained 
no  great  approbation  from  that  depraved  man.  In  1679, 
he  published  a  book,  entitled  "  Construzione  irregolarfr 
della  linga  Toscana ;"  on  the  irregular  construction  of  the 
Tuscan  language;  and,  in  the  following  year,  a  volume  of 
lyric  poems,  by  way  of  illustrating  his  own  precepts.  His 
first  patron  seems  now  to  have  deserted  him,  or  not  to  bave 
afforded  him  sufficient  support,  for  we  find  him  at  this 
period,  after  several  disappointments,  and  particularly  that 
of  not  obtaining  a  professorship  at  Pisa,  venting  his  dis-* 
content  in  twelve  satires.  These,  however,  were  not  pub* 
lisbed  in  his  life,  but  given  to  a  friend,  Paulo  Falconeri. 
When  they  did  appear,  they  went  through  several  editions. 
In  1685,  Menzini  obtained  the  notice  and  patronage  of 
Christina  queen  of  Sweden,  whom  he  celebrated  in  Latin 
as  well  as  in  Italian.  Under  her  protection  he  lived  at 
Rome,  and  enjoyed  the  best  period  of  his  life.  It  was  at 
this  period,  in  1688,  that  hie  published  his  "Arte  Poetica," 
which  he  dedicated  to  cardinal  Aszolini.  Being  always 
more  or  less  in  want,  owing  to  mismanagement,  he  contrived 
by  these  dedications  to  lay  some  of  the  chief  nobility  of 
his  country  under  contribution  :  but  he  did  not  so  succeed 
with  cardinal  Atestini,  who  received  his  dedication  of  "  It 
Paradiso  terrestre,"  without  granting  him  any  remunera* 
tion.  As  he  had  a  wonderful  vein  of  ready  eloquence,  one 
of  his  resources  was  that  of  composing  sermons  for 
preachers  who  were  not  equally  able  to  stipply  themselves. 
To  this  there  is  an  allusion  in  one  of  the  satires  of  his  con- 
temporary Sectatnis, 

"  Parte  alia  Euganius,  pulchro  cui  pectus  honesto 
Fervet,  et  Ascraeas  libavit  cominus  undafc, 
Ut  satur  ad  tigilem  posuit  remeare  luctrtiaito, 
Cogitur  indoctts  compofiere  verba  cucullis/' 

We  are  told,  by  his  biographer  Fabroni,  that  being  not 
a  little  in  awe  of  the  satirical  talents  of  that  writer,  he  had 
cultivated  his  kindness  with  no  little  anxiety ;  and  thus,  it 

Jf  E  N  Z  I  H  J-  61 

ijugr  be  supposed,  obtained  dps  cgmpliment.  He.was  now 
appointed  by  the  pope,  canon  of  Sl  Angelo  in  Piscina ; 
an<J  continued  to  publi^b  several  works,,  in  Latin  as  well  as 
in  Italian :  as,  "  Oratipnes  de  morum,  philosophic,  huma- 
naruoqque  literarum  studtis,  et  de  Leonis  X.  P.  M.  laudi- 
bus/'  ^Ujt  bis.  Latin  compositions  did  not  so  well  jsatisfy 
the  learned  ?s  those  be  produced  in  bis  own  language ;  and 
their  criticisms  lpd  him  to  writQ  and  publish  a  tract,  ','  De 
poesis  innocentia,  et  de  literajtorupi  bopiinum  invidia." 
Thi?,  however,  was  prior  to  the  present  period,  as  it  bears 
da(e  in  1675.  He  published  now  a  poetical  version  of  the 
^4ip$ntation?  of  Jeremiah,  in  Italian,  which  was  so  much 
approved  by  pope  Clement  XL  that  he  ordered  it  to  be 
distributed  to  ibe  ordinals  in  passion-week.,  Menzini  was 
admitted  a  member  of  the  society  of  Arqadi,  tinder  the 
name  of  Euganius,  under  which  we  have  seen  him  men- 
tioned by  the  satirist :  and  being  also  admitted  .of  the  aca- 
demy DfiUq.  Crusca,  h?  was  very  anxious  to  have  bis  verses 
cited  in  their  dictionary,  as  authority.  I&  this  be  could 
not  prevai},  except  after  a  time  for  his  satires,'  in  which  he 
had  revived  some  classical  Italian  expressions  then  growing 
obsolete.  In  1731,  however,  long  after  his  death,  and  in 
the  fourth  edition  of  that  vocabulary,  all  bis  Italian  works 
w^re  admitted*  as  affording  classical  citations.  Towards 
the  end  of  life  he  became  dropsical,  and. died  at  the  age  of 
fifty-eight,  in  1704.  He  left  the  fortune  of  a  poet,  his 
vyor^s  only,  which  he  bequeathed  to  a  friend ;  and  they 
war?  ia  1730— 17  34,  .published  collectively,  in  4  vols.  Svo, 
the  contents  of  which  are  recited  by  FabronL  An  edition 
pfjrie  "Art  of  Poetry"  has  lately  been  published  by  Mr. 
Sfcthia%  perhaps  the  most  accomplished  Italian  scholar 
and,  critic  in  thif  kingdom..  His  satires  were  published 
with  Sevan's  noftes,  in  1759,  8vo,  and  with  those  of  Ri- 
qaJ4o  Maria  Bracei,  at  Naples  in  17£3,  4to.1 

JVIERC^TI  (RJlQHAEL),  a  pbyaician  and  naturalist,  the 
son  of  feXer  M^rcati^  a  physician  of  St.  Miniato,  in  Tus- 
cany, was  bom  April  8,  1541.  After  having  finished  his 
scholastic  education  at  his  native  place,  he  was  sent  to 
Pisa,  and  ptaged  under  the  tuition  of  Cesalpini,  from  whom 
fye  derived  hi*  taste  for  the  study  of  nature.  Having  re- 
cSkc4.Ws  degree  of  .doctor  in  philosophy  and  medicine  in 
that  university,  he  went  to  Rome,  where  pope  Pius  V.  ap- 

i  Fatooi  Vto  Ralorua,  wl.  VU.    ,  '     * 

6«  iiERCAT  t. 

*  * 

pointed  bins  superigtendant  of  the  botanical  garden  of  the 
Vatican,  at  the  age  of  twenty-six,  but  Niceron  says  be  . 
Was  not  more  than  twenty.  Afterwards  Ferdinand  I.  the 
grand  duke  of  Tuscany,  raised  him  to  the  rink  of  nobility ; 
and  soon  afterwards  the  same  dignity  was  conferred  upon 
him  by  the  senate  of  Rome.  Among  his  othet  honours, 
Sixtu*  V.  conferred  upon  him  the  office  of  apostolical 
prothonotary,  and  sent  him  into  Poland  with  cardinal  Al- 
dobrandini,  that  be  might  enjoy  the  opportunity  of  in- 
creasing bis  collections  in  natural  history.  The  same  car- 
dinal, when  elected  pope  in  1592,  under  the- title  of  Cle- 
ment VIII.  nominated  Mercati  bis  first  physician,  and  had 
in  contemplation  higher  honours  to  bestow  upon  him,  when 
this  able  physician  died,  in  1593,  in  the  fifty-third  year  of 
his  age.  His  character  in  private  life'  was  universally  es- 
teemed, and  the  regret  of  the  most  distinguished  persons 
of  Rome  followed  him  to  his  grave.     • 

Mercati  wrote  in  Italian,  at  the  request  of  his  patron' 
pope  Gregory,  a  work  "  On  the  Plague,  on  the  Corruption' 
of  the  Air,  on  the  Gout,  and  on  Palsy,1'  Rome,  1576,  4  to; 
and  likewise  a  "  Dissertation  on'  the  Obelisks  of  Rome/9 
1589,  4to.     But  be  is  principally  remembered  for  his  de- 
scription of  the  subjects  of  natural  history,'  particularly  bF 
mineralogy,    contained  in  the  museum   of  the  Vatican,' 
which  was  formed  under  the  auspices  of  Gregory  XIII.  and' 
Sixtus  V.  and  was  afterwards  totally  dispersed.     He  was 
about  to  prepare  engravings  of  the  principal  subjects,  when 
his  disease,  which  terminated  his  life,  interrupted  his  pro- 
gress.    His  manuscript  came  into  the  hands  of  Carlo  Dat'f 
of  Florence,  where  it  remained  till  the  time  of  Clement  XL 
who  purchased  it,  and  caused  it  to  be  splendidly  edited  by 
Lancisi,  his  first  physician,  in  1717,  at  Rome,  under  the- 
title  of  "  Metallotheca,  opus   posthumum  authoritate  et' 
munificentia  ClementigXI.  Pont.  Max.  e  tenebrk  in  lucem 
eductum ;  operft  &  stud.  J.  M.  Lancisi  Archiat.  Prat,  illus- 
tratum,"  folio.     An  "  Appendix  ad  Metallothecam"   was 
published  in  1719;  * 

Besides  his  father  and  grandfather,  both  men  of  learning - 
and  eminence  in  their  day,  there  was  a  Louis  Mercati,  a 
physician  of  the  same  century,  whose  medical  and  surgical' 
works  were  printed  in  1605,  and  often  reprinted,  but  are ' 
not  now. held  in  much  esteem.1  -    •.  %  ; 


1  Eloge  by  Magelli,  prefixed  to  the  Metallotheca.— fckaufepie.— Niceron, 
to!.  XXXVUI.— Eloy  Diet.  Hist,  de  Medicine.— Reel's  Cyclopadia. 



•  MERCATOR  (Gerard),  an  eminent  geographer  and 
mathematician,  was  born  in  1514,  at  Ruremonde  in  the 
Low  Countries.  He  applied  himself  with  such  industry  to 
the  sciences  of  geography  and  mathematics,  that  it  has 
been  said  he  often  forgot  to  eat  and  sleep.  The  emperor 
Charles  V.  encouraged  bim  much  in  his  labours  ;  and  the 
duke  of  Julters  made  him  his  cosmographer.  He  composed 
and  published  a  chronology;  a  larger  and  smaller  atlas; 
apd  some  geographical  tables ;  besides  other  books  in  phi* 
losophy  and  divinity.  He  was  also  so  curious,  as  well  as 
ingenious,  that  he  engraved  and  coloured  his  maps  him- 
self. He  made  various  maps,  globes,  and  other  mathe- 
matical instruments  for  the  use  of  the  emperor ;  and  gave 
tbe  most  ample  proofs  of  his  uncommon  skill  in  what  lie 
professed.  His  method  of  laying  down  charts  is  still  used, 
which  bear  the  name  of  "  Mercatpr's  Charts ;"  also  a  part 
of  navigation  is  from  him  called  Mercatofs  Sailing.  He 
died. at  Duisbourg  in  1594,  at  eighty-two  years  of  age.1 

MERCATOR  (Marius),  a  celebrated  ecclesiastical  au- 
thor of  the  fifth  century,  St.  Augustine's  friend,  who  wrote 
against  the  Nestorians  and  Pelagians,  died  about  tbe  year 
451.  All  his  works,  which  are  in  Labbe's  Councils,  and 
in  the  library  of  the  Fattters,  were  published  in  1673,  by- 
Gar  nier,  a  Jesuit,  with  long  Dissertations,  2  torn,  in  one 
volume,  folio,  M.  Baluze  published  a  new  edition  of  thent 
at  Paris,  1684,  8vo.f 

MERCATOR  (Nicholas),  an  eminent  mathematician 
and  astronomer,  whose  name  in  High-Dutch  was  KaufFteaii, 
was  born  about  1640,  at  Holstein  in  Denmark.  From  his 
works  we  learn,  that  he  bad  an  early  and  liberal  education, 
suitable  .to  his  distinguished  genius,  by  which  he  was  ena- 
bled to  extend  his  researches  into  tbe  mathematical  sciences, 
and  to  make  very  considerable  improvements :  for  it  ap- 
pears from  his  writings,  as  well  as  from  the  character  given 
of  bim  by  other  mathematicians,  that  his  talent  rather  lay 
in  improving,  and  adapting  any  discoveries  and  improve- 
ments, to  use,  than  invention.  However,  his  genius  for 
the  mathematical  sciences  was  very  conspicuous,  and  in- 
troduced him  to  public  regard  and  esteem  in  his  owiy 
country,  ,  and  facilitated  a  correspondence  with  such  as 
were  eminent  in  those  sciences,  in .  Denmark,  Italy,  and 

1  Moreri.— Foppen    Bibl. .  Belg.— Hutton's  Diet,— Bullsrt'i  Academic  de* 
Sciences,  rol.  II. — Saxii  Onomast. 
«*  Cafe,  vqK  I^-Dtipm.— Moreri,— S»xii  Onomast      \ 

.*  .a.        » 


England.     In  consequence,  some  of  bis  correspondents 
gave  him   an   invitation   to  this  country,  which  he  bo 
cepted ;  and  he  afterwards  continued  in  England  till  his 
death.    In  1666  be  was  admitted  F.  E.S.  and  gave  fre- 
quent proofs  of  bis  close  application  to  study,  as  well  as 
of  his  eminent  abilities  in  improving  some  branch  or  other 
of  tbe  sciences.    But  he  b  charged  sometimes  with  bof+ 
rqwing  the  inventions  of  others,  and  adopting  them  as  hi* 
own,  and  it  appeared  upon  some  occasions  that  be  was  not 
pjf  an  over-liberal  mind  in  scientific  communications.  Thus, 
it  had  some  time  before  bim  heen  observed,  that  there  was 
an  analogy  between  a  scale  of  logarithmic  tangents  and 
Wright's  protraction  of  tbe  nautical  meridian  line,  which 
consisted  of  the  sums  of  tbe  secants ;  though  it  does  not 
appear  by  whom  this  analogy  was  first  discovered.     It  ap- 
pears, however,  to  have  been  first  published*  and  intro- 
duced into  the  practice  of  navigation,  by  Henry  Bond,  who 
mentions  this  property  in  an  edition  of  Norwood's  Epitome 
of  Navigation,  printed  about  1645  ;  and  be  again  treats  of 
it  more  fully  in  an  edition  of  Gunter's  works,  printed  in' 
1653,  where  he  teaches,  from  this  property,  to  resolve  all 
the;  cases  of  Mercator's  sailing  by  the  logarithmic  tangents, 
independent  of  tbe  table  of  meridional  parts.  This  analogy 
bad  only  been  found  to  be  nearly  true  by  trials,  but  not 
demonstrated  to  be  a  mathematical  property.    Such  de- 
monstration seems,  to  have  been  first  discovered  by  Mecca* 
tor,  who,  desirous  of  making  the  most  advantage  of  this  and 
awtther  concealed  invention  of  bis  in  navigation,  by  a  paper, 
in  tbe  Philosophical  Transactions  for  June  4,  166 6,  invite* 
the  public  to  enter  into  a  wager  with  bim  on  his  ability  to 
prove  the  truth  or  falsehood  of  the  supposed  analogy.  This 
meueenary  proposal  it  seems  was  not  taken  up  by  any  one^ 
and  Mercator  reserved  his  demonstration.     Our  author, 
however,  distinguished  himself  by  njany  valuable  pieces  on 
philosophical  and  mathematical  subjects.    His  first  attempt 
was,    to  reduce  astrology  to  rational  principles,    yrhioh 
proved  a  vain  attempt.    But  his  writings  of  more  particular 
note,  are  as  follow :  1 .  "  Cosmographia,  sive  Descrtptio 
Coeli  &  Terne  in  Circulos,  qua  fundamentum  steraiier  se- 
quentibus  ordine  Trigonoraetrise   Spbericorum  Logarithm 
micee,  &c  a  Nicolao  Hauffmau  Hoiaato,"  Dantaic,  1651, 
12mo.    2.  "  Rationes  Mathematics  subducts  anno  1653," 
Copenhagen,  4to.     3.  "  De  Emendatione  annua  Diatribe 
duae,  quibus  exponpntur  &  dexnonstrantur  Cycli  Solis  & 



LuiMe,"  £c.  4to.  4.  "  Hypothesis  Astronomica  nova,  06 
Consensus  ejus  cum  Observationibu*,"  Lo.nd.  1664>  folio. 
5.  "  Logarithmotecbnia,  sive  Metbodus  construendi  Lo- 
garitbmos  nova,  accurata,  et  facilis ;  scripto  aotebac  com* 
municata  anno  sc.  1667  nonis  Augusti ;  cui  nunc  ac^edit, 
Vera  Quadratura  Hyperbolae,  &  inventio  summee  Logarithm 
uiorum.  Auciore  Nicolao  Mercatore  Holsato  e  Societal* 
Regia.  Huic  etiam  jungitur  Michaelis  Angeli  Ric/cM  Ex* 
ercitatio  Geometrica  de  Maximis  et  Minimis,  hie  ob  argu 
menti  prsestanti^m  &  exemplarium  raritatem  recusa, 
Lond.  1668,  4to.  6.  "  Institution |*m  Agtronqmicarqm  U- 
bri  duo,  ,de  Motu  Astroruot  communi  &  proprto,  secundum 
hypotheses  veterum  &  recen  riorum  prs&cipuw;  deqme  Hyr 
potheaeon  ex  observatis  constructione,  cum  tabulis  Tycho- 
nianis,  Solaribus,  Lunaribus,  Luns-solaribus,  fy.  Rudoln 
phinia  Solis,  Fix&rum  &  quinque  £rrantium3  earuwque  usi* 
praceptis  et  exemplis  commonstrato.  Quibusaccedit  Ap- 
pendix de  iis,  quae  novissimis  temporibus  coelitus  innotue- 
runt,"  Lond.  1676,  8vo.  7.  "  Euclidis  Elementa  Geome- 
trica, novo  ordine  ac  methodo  fere,  demonstrata.  Una? 
cum  Nic.  Mercatoris  in  Geometriam  Introductione  brevi. 
qua  Magnitudinum  Ortus  ex  genuinis  Principii%  &  Orta- 
rum  Affectiones  ex  ipsa  Genesi  derivantur,"  Lond.  1678, 
12oio.     His  %  papers  in  the  Philosophical  Transactions  are, 

1.  A  Problem  on  some  Points  of  Navigation  ;  vol.  I.  p.  215. 

2.  Illustrations  of  the  Logarithmo-technia ;  vol.  III.  p.  759. 

3.  Considerations  concerning  his  Geometrical  and  Direct 
Method  for  finding  the  Apogees,  Excentricities,  and  Ano~ 
malies  of  the  Planets;  vol.  V.  p.  1168.  Mercator  died  in 
1594,  about  fifty -four  years  of  age.1 

MERCER  (James),  a  major  in  the  army,  and  a  very 
elegant  and  accomplished  scholar,  was  the  son  of  ^  private 
gentleman  in  Aberdeenshire,  who,  having  joined  the  High- 
land army  in  the  year  1745,  retired  to  France  after  the 
battle  of  Culloden,  where  be  resided  till  his  death.  His 
ion,  who  was  born  Feb.  27,  1734,  was  educated  at  Maris^ 
cbal  college,  Aberdeen,  and  afterwards  went  to  reside  with 
his  father  at  Paris.  There  he  spent  his  time  in  elegant 
society,  and  devoted  his  leisure  hours  to  the  cultivation  of 
letters,  and  thus  acquired  those  polished  planners,  and  that 
taste  for  study,  by  which  he  was  ever  after  so  highly  dis- 

1  Button's  Diet. — Martin's  Biog.  Phil. — Usher*  Life  and   Letters,  pp.  607, 
>         <22<~- Letters  of  Eminent  Persons,  1813,  3  Vols.  8to,  where  are  son*  anecdote* 
ef  him  by  Aubrey. 

Vol.  XXIL     '  '        '  '    F 

'  / 

«6  MERCER. 


tingotsbed.  He  possessed,  too,  a  very  high  degree  of 
elegant  and  chastised  wit  and  humour,  which  made  his 
compter  to  be  universally  sought  after  by  those  who  had 
the  bappioess  of  his  friendship  or  acquaintance. 

On  the  death  of  his  father,  he  returned  to  Scotland,  and 
soon  afterwards  entered  into  the  army  at  the  commence- 
ment of  the  seven-years  war,  during  the  greatest  part  of 
which  be  served  in  Germany  under  prince  Ferdinand  of 
Brunswick,  and  was  in  one  of  the  six  British  regiments  of 
infantry,  that  gained  such  reputation  for  their  gallantry  at 
the  memorable  battle  of  Minden.  The  regiment  in  which 
he  afterwards  served,  being  reduced  at  the  peace  of  Paris, 
he  returned  to  Aberdeen,  where  be  married  Miss  Kathe- 
rine  Douglas,  sister  to  the  present  lord  Glenbervie,  a  beau- 
tiful and  accomplished  woman,  with  whom  he  lived  many 
years  in  much  happiness.  In  order  to  fill  up  the  vacant 
hours  of  bis  then  unemployed  situation,  he  devoted  his 
time  chiefly  to  books,  and,  in  particular,  recommenced  the 
study  of  the  Greek  language  (of  which  he  had  acquired  the 
rudiments  at  college)  with  such  assiduity,  that  bis  intimate 
friend,  Dr.  Beattie,  was  of  opinion  there  were  not  six  gen- 
tlemen in  .Scotland,  at  that  time,  Who  knew  Greek  so  well 
as  major  Mercer.  Then  it  was  likewise, '  that  by  attention 
to  the  purest  models  of  antiquity,  he -corrected  that  partia- 
lity for  French  literature,  which  he  had  strongly  imbibed 
by  bis  early  habits  of  study  at  Paris. 

Not  long  after,  be  again  entered  into  the  army,  in  which 
he  continued  to  serve  till  about  1772,  when  he  had  ar- 
rived at  the  rank  of  major;  but  he  then  quitted  the  profes- 
sion, and  only  resumed  a  military  character  when  he  held 
a  commission  in  a  regiment  of  fencibles  (militia)  during  the 
American  war.  On  the  return  of  peace,  he  retired  with 
his  family  to  Aberdeen,  where  he  continued  chiefly  to  re-* 
side  during  the  rest  of  his  life.  An  acquaintance  had  first 
taken  place  between  him  and  Dr.  Beattie,  on  bis  return  to> 
Aberdeen  after  the  seven  years'  war ;  and  as  their  taste  in 
books,  and  their  favourite  studies,  were  in  some  respects 
entirely  similar,  a  lasting  friendship  ensued,  which  proved 
to  both  a  source  of  the  highest  enjoyment.  Of  this  we 
have  many  interesting  proofs  in  sir  William  Forbes' s  "  Life 
of  Beattie," 

Major  Meroer's  acquaintance  with  books,  especially  of 
poetry  and  belles  lettres,*  both  ancient  and  modern,  was 
not  only  uncommonly  extensive,  but  he  himself  possessed- 

MERCER.  67 

a  rich  and  genuine  poetical  vein,  that  led  him,  for  his  own 
amusement  only,  to  the  composition  of  some  highly  finished, 
Jyric  poems.  These  he  carefully  concealed,  however,  from 
the  knowledge  of  his  most  intimate  friends ;  and  it  was 
with  much  difficulty  that  bis  brother- in-law,  lord  Glenber- 
vie,  at  length  could  prevail  on  him  to  permit  a  small  col- 
lection to  be  printed,  first  anonymously,  afterwards  with 
his  name;  the  latter  edition,  with  the  title  of  "  Lyric  Poems. 
By  James  Mercer,  esq.  Second  edition,  with  some  addi- 
tional poems,"  1804,  12mo.  These  beautiful  poems  pos- 
sess much  original  genius,  and  display  a  taste  formed  on 
the  besc  classic  models  of  Greece  aud  Rome,  whose  spirit 
their  author  .bad  completely  imbibed,  especially  that  of 
Horace,  who  seems  to  have  been  the  model  whom  he  had 
proposed  to  himself  for  his  imitation. 

In  1802  major  Mercer  had  the  misfortune  to  lose  his 
wife,  after  a  long  course  of  severe  indisposition,  during 
which  he  had  attended  her  with  the  most  anxious  assiduity. 
Of  this  loss,  indeed,  be  may  be  said  never  to  have  got  the 
better,  and  he  survived  her  little  more  than  two  years. 
He  bad  long  been  in  a  very  valetudinary,  nervous  state,  till 
at  last  his  constitution  entirely  failed  :  and  he  expired  with- 
out a  struggle  or  a  pang,  Nov.  18,  1804,  in  the  seventy- 
first  year  of  his  age.  Besides  possessing  no  ordinary  share 
of  knowledge  both  of  books  and  men  (for  in  the  course  of 
his  military  life  especially,  he  had  lived  much  in  society  of 
various  sorts),  and  being  one  of  the  pleasantest  companions, 
he  was  a  man  of  much  piety,  strict  in  the  observance  of 
ail  the  ordinances  of  religion,  and  of  high  honour  in  every 
transaction  of  life.1 

'MERCIER  (Bartholomew),  a  learned  bibliographer 
and  miscellaneous  writer,  familiarly  knowti  in  France  by 
the  title  of  the  abb£  de  St.  Leger,  was  born  at  Lyons, 
April  1,  1734.  He  entered  when  young,  into  the  congre- 
gation of  St.  Genevieve,  of  which  he  became  librarian,  at 
the  time  that  the  learned  Pingre,  his  predecessor  in  that 
office,  went  to  observe  the  transit  of  Venus.  In  1764, 
When  Louis  XV.  visited  this  library,  he  was  so  much 
pleased  with  Mercier's  intelligent  manner  of  displaying  its 
treasures,  that  he  appointed  him  abb£  of  St.  Leger  at  Sois- 

1  Taken,  with  little  variation,  from  sir  Wm.  Forbes's  Life  of  Dr.  BeaUie. 
We  bad  the  honour  of  knowing  major  Mercer,  and  at  the  end  of  thirty-five  years, 
cherish  the  teoderest  remembrance  of  nil  early  kindness,  his  elegant  manners, 
?*d  well-informed  mind. 

F   2 

69  M  E  R  C  I  E  R. 

son,  a  preferment  which  then  happened  to  be  vacant 
Merrier  often  travelled  to  Holland  and  the  Netherlands  to 
visit  the  libraries  and  learned  men  of  those  countries,  and 
was  industriously  following  his  various  literary  pursuits, 
when  the  revolution  interrupted  his  tranquillity,  and  re- 
duced him  to  a  state  of  indigence.  This  be  could  have 
borne ;  but  the  many  miseries  he  witnessed  around  him, 
.  and  particularly  the  sight  of  his  friend  the  abb6  Poyer 
dragged  to  the  scaffold,  proved  top  much  for  his  constitu- 
tion. He  continued  to  linger  on,  however,  until  May  13, 
1799,  when  death  relieved  him.  He  was  a  man  of  great 
learning  and  research,  as  his  works  evidently  shew,  and  ia 
his  private  character,  social,  communicative,  and  amiable. 
His  works  are,  1.  "  Lettre  sur  la  Bibliographic  de  Debure," 
1763,  8vo.  2.  "  Lettre  a  M.  Capperonier,"  on  the 
same  subject,  which  was  followed  by  a  third,  printed  in 
the  "  Journal  de  Trevoux."  3.  "  Lettre  sur  le  veritable 
auteur  du  Testament  Politique  du  cardinal  de  Richelieu,'* 
Paris,  1765,  8vo.  4.  "  Supplement  a  PHistOire  de  l'im- 
primerie  de  Prosper  Marchand,"  1765,  4to,  reprinted  with 
additions,  &c.  1771.,  5.  "  Lettre  sur  la  Pucelle  D'Or- 
leans,"  1775.  6.  "  Dissertation  sur  I'auteur  du  livre  de 
P Imitation  de  Jesus-Christ."  7.  "  Notice  du  livre  rare, 
intitule  Pedis  Admirandae,  par  J.  d'Artis."  8.  "  Notice 
de  la  Platopodologie  d'Antoine  Fianc6,  medecin  de  Be- 
sangon,"  a  curious  satire  by  Fianc6.  9.  "  Lettre  a  un  ami, 
sur  la  suppression  de  la  Charge  de  Bibliothecaire  du  roi  en 
France,"  (Paris),  17 87,  8vo.  10.  "  Notice  sur  les  torn- 
beaux,  des  dues  de  Bourgogne."  1 1.  "  Lettres  sur  diffe- 
rentes  editions  rares  du  15  siecle,"  Paris,  1785,  8vo,  par- 
ticularly valuable  for  Italian  books.  12.  "  Observations 
surl'Essai  d'un  projetde  Catalogue  de  Bibliotheque."  13. 
41  Description  d'une  giraffe  vue  a  Fano."  14.  "  Notice 
raisonnee  desouvrages  de  Gaspard  Schott,  Jesuite,"  1785,. 
8vo.  15.  "  Bibliotheque  de  Romans  trad u its  du  Grec." 
1796,  12  vols.  12mo.  16.  "  Lettre  sur  le  projet  de  decret 
concernant  les  religieux,  propos£e  a  I1  Assemble  Nationale 
par  M.  Treilhard,"  1789,  8vo.  17.  "  Lettre  sur  un  nou- 
veau  Dictionnaire  Historique  portatif  en  4  vols.  8vo."  This, 
which  appeared  in  the  "  Journal  de  Trevoux,"  contains  a 
sharp  critique  upon  the  first  volumes  of  Chaudon's  Dic- 
tionary. Mercier  bestowed  great  pains  in  correcting  and 
improving  his.  copy  of  this  work,  which  fell  in  the  hands  of 
the  editors  of  the  last  edition  of  the  Diet.  Hist     Mercier 

M  E  R  C  I  E  R.  6» 

was  frequently  employed  in  the  public  libraries  ;  and  those 
of  Soubise  and  La  Valliere  owe  much  of  their  treasures  to 
his  discoveries  of  curious  books.  He  was  also  a  frequent 
writer  in  the  Journal  de  Trevoux,  the  Journal  des  Sgavans, 
the  M&gazin  Encyclopedique,  and  the  An  nee  Litteraire. 
He  left  some  curious  manuscripts,  and  manuscript  notes 
and  illustrations  of  many  of  his  books.1 

MERC1ER  (John  le),  or  Mkrcekus,  a  celebrated 
philologer,  was  a  native  of  Usez  in  Languedoc.  He  was 
bred  to  the  study  of  jurisprudence,  which  be  quitted  for 
that  of  the  learned  languages,  Greek,  Latin,  Hebrew,  and 
Chaldee;  and  in  1549,  succeeded  Vatablus  in  the  pro- 
fessorship of  Hebrew  in  the  royal  college  at  Paris.  Being 
obliged  to  quit  the  kingdom  during  the  civil  wars,  he  re- 
tired to  Venice,  where  his  friend  Arnoul  du  Ferrier  resided 
as  French  ambassador;  but  returned  with  him  afterwards 
to  France,  and  died  at  Usez,  his  native  place,  in  1572. 
He  was  a  little  man,  worn  by  excess  of  application,  but 
with  a  voice  which  he  could  easily  make  audible  to  a  large 
auditory.  His  literature  was  immense,  and  among  the 
proofs  of  it  are  the  following  works:  1.  "  Lectures  on 
Genesis,  and  the  Prophets,"  Geneva,  1 598,  folio.  2. "  Com- 
mentaries on  Job,  Proverbs,  Ecclesiastes,  and  the  Canti- 
cles," 1573,  2  vols,  folio,  which  have  been  much  esteemed, 
3.  "Tables  of  the- Chafdee  Grammar,"  Paris,  1550,  4to. 
These  are  all  written  in  Latin.  He  was  considered  as  in- 
clined to  Calvinism.  His  son  Josiah  le  Mercier,  an 
able  critic,  who  died  December  5,  1626,  published  an  ex- 
cellent edition  of  "Nonnius  Marcellus  ;"  notes  on  Aristac- 
netus,  Tackus,  DictysCretensis,  and  Apuleius's  book  "  De 
Deo  Socratis,"  and  an  "  Eulogy,"  on  Peter  Pithon;  some 
of  his  letters  are  in  Goldast's*  collection.  Salmasius  was 
his  son  -in-law.  • 

MERCURIALIS  (Jerome),  a  learned  and  eminent  phy- 
sician, was  boru  at  Forli,  in  Romagna,  Sept.  30,  1530. 
He  was  educated  according  to  Niceron  at  Padua,  and  ac- 
cording to  Eloy  at  Bologua.  It  seems,  however,- agreed 
that  he  received  his  doctor's  degree  in  1555,  and  began  to 
practice  at  Forli.  In  1562  he  was  sent  as  ambassador  to 
pope  Pius  IV.  at  Rome,  where  he  was  honoured  with  the 
citizenship,  and  upon  a  pressing  invitation  determined  to 
reside  in  a  place  which  presented  so  many  opportunities 

*  Diet.  HUt.  »  Moreri.— Diet.  Hist. 


for  the  pursuit  of  bis  favourite  studies.  During  bis  abode 
at  Rome,  besides'  his  professional  concerns,  be  studied 
classical  literature,  and  the  monuments  of  antiquity,  and 
produced  a  learned  and  elegant  work,  which  acquired  him 
much  celebrity  in  the  literary  world,  and  which  was  first 
published  at  Venice  in  1569,  under  the  title  of  "  De  Arte 
GymnasticS.  Libri  sex,"  4to.  It  was  many  times  reprinted, 
and  its  merit  occasioned  bis  being  appointed  professor  of 
medicine  in  the  university  of  Padua.  In  1573  he  was 
called  to  Vienna  by  the  emperor  Maximilian  IL,  to  con* 
suit  respecting  a  severe  illness  under  which  that  personage 
laboured  ;  and  his  treatment  was  sq  successful,  trjat  be  re* 
turned  loaded  with  valuable  presents,  and  honoured  with 
the  dignities  of  a  knight  and  count  palatine.  In  1 587  he 
removed  to  a  professorstp  at  Bologna,  which  has  been 
partly  attributed  to  a  degree  of  dissatisfaction  or  self-adcu- 
sation,  in  consequence  of  an  error  of  judgment,  which  had 
been  committed  by  him  and  Capivaccio,  .several  years 
before,  when  they  were  called  to  Venice,  in  order  to  give 
their  advice  respecting  a  pestilential  disorder. which  pre- 
vailed in  that  city.  On  this  occasion  both  be  and  bis  col- 
league seem  to  have  fallen  into  the  mistake  of  several 
medical  theorists,  of  denying  the  reality  of  contagion ; 
and  their  counsels  were  said  to  have  been  productive  of 
extensive  mischief.  Nevertheless  his  reputation  appears 
to  have  suffered  little  from  this  error ;  for  be  was  invited 
by  Ferdinand,  the  grand  duke  of  Tuscany,  to  settle  at 
Pisa  in  1599,  where  he  was  ordered  a  stipend  of  eighteen 
hundred  golden  crowns,  which  was  ultimately  raised  to  two 
thousand.  Here  he  died  Nov.  9,  1606,  and  was  interred, 
with  great  honours,  in  a  chapel,  which  be  had  himself 
erected  at  Forli.  He  left  a  large  property  in  money  and 
effects,  among,  which  was  a  valuable  collection  of  pictures  ; 
and  he  made  a  great  number  of  charitable  bequests. 

Mercuriali  was  a  voluminous  writer,  as  the  following 
catalogue  of  his  works  will  evince.  He  was  a  learned  com- 
mentator on  Hippocrates,  and  edited  a  classiBed  collection 
of  bis  works.  Like  the  learned  of  bis  age,  however,  he 
was  bigotted  to  the  doctrines  of  the  ancients,  and  fond  of 
hypothetical  reasoning,  to  the  disparagement  of  sound 
observation ;  and  he  strongly  imbued  his  pupils  with  the 
same  erroneous  principles.  His  first  publication  was  a 
tract  entitled  "  Nomothesaurus,  seu  Ratio  lactandi  Infan- 
tes."    His  second,  the  work  "  De  Arte  Gymnastica,"  be- 


fore- mentioned*  3.  "  Variarum  Lectionum  in  Medicinae 
Scriptoribus  et  aliis,  Libri  iv."  Venice,  1571.  +.  "  De 
Morbis  Cutaneis,  et  omnibus  corporis  humani  Excremenr 
tis,"  ib.  1 572.  5*  "  Tractatus  de  Maculis  pestiferis  et  Hyr 
drophobia,"  Basle,  1577.  6.  "  De  Pestilentia  in  univerr 
sum,  prasertim  verd  de  Veneta  et  Patavina,"  Venice  1577. 
T,  "  Hippocratis  Opera  Graece  et   Latine,"   ibid.    1578. 

8.  "  De  Morbis  Muliebribus  Praelectiones,'!  Basle,  15$2. 

9.  "  De  Morbis  puerorum  Tractatus  locupletissimi,"  Ve- 
nice, 1583.  10v"  De  Veneois  et  Morbis  venenosis,"  ibid. 
1584.  1 1.  "  De  Decoratione  liber,' '  ib.  1585.  12.  "  Qon- 
sultationes  et  Responsa.  Medicinatia,"  Four  volumes  were 
successively  published  in  1587,  1590,  and  1597 ;  and  were 
republished  together  after  bi$  death.  13,  "Tractatus  de< 
Compositione  Medicamentorum,  D-e.  Morbis  oculorum  et 
auriuro,"  ibid.  1590.  14.  "  De  Hominis  Generatione," 
1597.  15.  "  Comnaentarii  in  Hippoc.  Coi  Prognostics^ 
Prorrhetica,"  &c.  ibid.  1597.  16.  «  Medicina  Practica, 
seu,  de  cognoscendis,  discernendis,  et  curandis  omnibus 
humani  corporis  affectibus,"  Francfort,  1602,  folio.  All 
these  works  have  been  several  times  reprinted,  and  some 
of  them  were  selected  after  bh  death,  and  printed  together, 
under  the  title 'of  "  Opuscula  aurea  et  selectiora,"  Venice, 
1644,  folio.1 

MERIAN  (John  Bernard),  perpetual  secretary  of  the 
academy  of  sciences  at  Berlin,  was  born  at  Leichstal,  near 
Basil,  Sept  27,  1723,  of  a  reputable  family,  and  received 
a  learned  education,  with  the  particulars  of  which,  how- 
ever, we  are  unacquainted.  In  1750  he  was  invited  from 
Holland  to  Berlin,  on  the  recommendation  of  Maupertuis, 
a^nd  died  in  that  city  Feb.  12,  1807,  in  the  eighty- fourth 
year  of  his  age.  The  best  known  of  his  works  were  French 
translations  of  Claudian,  and  of  Hume's  Essays,  the  latter, 
published  at  Amsterdam,  1759 — 1764,  5  vols.  12mo,  en- 
riched with  commentaries  and  refutations  of  the  most  ob* 
jectionable  principles.  He .  translated  also  pome  of  Mi* 
<:haelis's  works.  The  Memoirs  of  tl?e  Academy  .of  Berlin 
contain  several  of  his  pieces  on  philosophical  subjects  and 
on  geometry.  One  of  the  best  is  a  parallel  between  the 
philosophy  of  Leibnitz  and  Kant,  which  was  much  noticed 
on  its  first  appearance*    Merian  bore  an  estimable  private 

i  NiceroB,  vol.  XXVI.— Efey,  Diet.  Hjft,  de  Medicine:— Morari  .—Beet's 

Tf  ME  It  IAN.. 

character,  and  preserved-  all  the  activity-  and  rigour  of 
youth  to  a  very  advanced  age.  A  few  day*  before  his 
tieath  he  officiated  as-  secretary  at  a  sitting  of  the  academy, 
to  celebrate,  according  to  custom,  the  memory  of  the 
Great  Frederic. ' 

MERIAN  (Maria  Sibylla),  a  lady  much  and  justly  ce- 
lebrated for  her  skill  in  drawing  insects,  flowers,  and  other 
subjects  of  natural  history,  was  born  at  Francfort  on  the 
Maine,  in  1647;  being  the  grand 'daughter  and  daughter 
of  Dutch  engravers  of  some  celebrity,  whose  talents  were 
continued  and  improved  in  her.  She  was  instructed  by 
Abraham  Mignon.  She  married  John  Andriez  Graff,  a 
skilful  painter  and  architect  of  Nuremberg,  but  the  fame 
she  had  previously  attached  to  her  own  name,  has  pre- 
vented that  of  her  husband  from  being  adopted.  They 
bad  two  children,  both  daughters,  who  were  also  skil-» 
fill  in  drawing.  By  liberal  offers  from  Holland,  this  in- 
genious couple  were  induced  to  settle  there ;  but  Sibylla, 
whose  great  object  was  the  study  of  nature,  had  the  cou- 
rage to  travel  in  various  parts,  for  the  sake  of  delineating 
the  insects*  and  several  other  productions  peculiar  to  each 
country.  She  ventured  to  take  the  voyage  to  Surinam, 
where  she  remained  two  years,  for  the  express  purpose  of 
making  the  drawings  which  have  since  added  so  consider- 
ably to  her  fame;  and,  though  it  does  not  appear  that 
there  was  any  kind  of  disagreement  between  her  and  her 
husband,  she  went,  if  we  mistake  not,  without  him.  His 
own  occupations,  probably,  precluded  such  a  journey. 
Madame  Merian  died  at  Amsterdam  in  1717,  at  the  age  of 

The  drawings  of  this  lady  have  a  delicacy  and  a  beauty 
of  colour,  which  have  seldom  been  equalled,  and  her  de* 
signs  are  still  in  high  estimation,  notwithstanding  the  great 
attention  which  has  since  been  paid  to  the  accurate  execu- 
tion of  such  works.  She  published,  1.  "  The  origin  of 
Caterpillars,  their  nourishment  and  changes;19  written  in 
Dutch;  Nuremberg,  1679 — 1688,  in  2  vols.  4to.  This 
was  afterwards  translated  into  Latin,  and  published  at  Am- 
sterdam, in  1717,  4to.  This  work,  much  augmented  by 
berself  and  daughters,  with  thirty-six  additional  plates 
and  notes,  was  published  in  French  -by  John  Marret,  Am- 
sterdam, 1730,  folio,   under  the  title  of,  "  Histoire  des 

1  Biog.  Diet— Athenaeum,  tqK  II.     . 

M  E  R  I  A  N.  75 

Inieetes  d*  Europe."  2.  "  Dissertatio  de  Generatione  et 
Metamorpbosibus  insectorum  Surinamensium,"  Amst.  1705, 
folio.  This*  contains  only  sixty  plates.  To  some  of  the 
later  editions  twelve  plates  were  annexed,  by  ber  daughters 
Dorothea  and  Helena.  There  is  an  edition  of  tbis  in  folio, 
French  and  Dutch,  printed  at  Amsterdam,'  in  1719.  An- 
other in  French  and  Latin,  1726  ;  and  another  in  Dutch, 
in  1730.  There  have  been  also  editions  of  the  two  works 
united,  under  the  Jitle  of  "  Histoire  des  Insectes  de  l'Eu- 
rope  et  de  PAmerique,"  Atnst.  1730  ;  Paris,  1768 — 1771. 
Many  of  the  original  drawings  of  tbis  artist  are  in  the 
British  Museum,  in  two  large  volumes,  which  were  pur- 
chased by  sir  Hans  Sloane,  at  a  large  price.  The  current 
opinion  is,  that  he  gave  five  guineas  for  each  drawing  ;  but 
tbis  is  not  sufficiently  authenticated.  Of  these  volumes, 
one  contains  the  insects  of  Surinam,  the  other  those  of 
Europe^  and  among  them  are  many  designs  which  have 
never  been  engraved.  Among  those  of  the  Surinam  in- 
sects are  several,  which,  though  very  elegantly  finished, 
appear  evidently,  on  examination,  to  be  painted  on  im- 
pressions taken  from  tbe  wet  proofs  of  the  engravings. 
Those  of  Europe  are,  perhaps,  entirely  original  drawings. 
In  the  engraved  works,  much  less  justice  has  been  done  to 
the  European  insects  than  to  those  of  America.  Matthew 
Merian,  the  father  of  tbis  lady,  published  many  volumes 
of  topographical  engraviugs  and  collections  of  plates  in 
sacred  history.1 

MERLIN  (Ambrose),  a  British  writer,  who  flourished 
towards  the  latter  end  of  the  fifth  century,  but  of  whom 
little  memorial  remains,  except  such  as  is  wholly  disfigured 
by  fictioh,  was  reputed  to  be  both  an  enchanter  and  a 
prophet,  and  to  have  been  begotten  by  an  incubus.  For 
want  of  more  authentic  materials,  we  may  be  allowed  to 
give  the  account  of  Spenser,  in  his  Faery  Queen,  b.  Hi. 
canto  3.  *dhere,  after  speaking  of  his  supposed  magical 
powers,  be  thus  tells  bis  progeny : 

And  sooth  men  say  that  he  was  not  the  sonne 

Of  mortal  syre,  or  other  living  wight, 

But  wondrously  begotten  and  begonne 

By  false  illusion  of  a  guileful  spright 

On  a  faire  lady  noane,  that  whilome  hight 

Matilda,  daughter  to  Pubiclius, 

Who  was  the  lord  of  Mathtraval  by  right, 


*  Moreri.— -Stratt's  Diet,  of  Engravers.— Diet.  Hwt 

74  MERLIN. 

And  coosin,  unto  king  Ambrosius,  -•$ ,  , 

Whence  he  indued  was  with  skill  so  mayveiloip.     ... 

Merlin  is  said  to  have  foretold  the  arrival  and  conquest*:  of 
the  Saxons,  to  which  allusion  is  made  by  Andrew,  of  Wy»f 
town,  in  hi*  fifth  book,  cb.  13,  \ 

The  Saxonys  of  Duche-hmd  .       » 

Arrywyte  that  tyme,  in  Ingiand, 

Merlyne  alsud  mystyly 

That  tyme  made  his  prophecy* 

How  Vortygerne  wyth  hys  falsheede 

Of  Brettane  made  the  kyiigis  dede,  &c> 

It  was  supposed  that  Merlin  did  not  die,  but  was  laid 
asleep  by  magic,  and  was,  after  a  long  period,  to  awake 
and  live  again.  Spenser  alludes  to  this  fable  also.  Ex~ 
travagant  prophecies,  and  other  ridiculous  works  are 
ascribed  to  Merlin,  and  some  authors  have  written  Com* 
mentaries  pn  them,  as  ridiculous  as  the  text.  In  the 
British  Museum  k  "  Le  compte  de  la  vie  de  Merlin  et  de 
ses  faiz,  et  compte  de  ses  prophecies,"  2  vols.  fol.  on 
vellum,  without  date  or  place.  There  is  s>  French  edition, 
3  vols,  sm^ll  folio,  black  letter,  dated  1498.  There  are 
also  other  French  and  Italian  editions.  In  English  we  have 
"  The  Life  of  Merlin,  surnamed  Ambrosius.  His  prophe- 
sies and  predictions  interpreted :  and  their  truth  made 
good  by  our  English  annals,  published  by  T.  Heywood," 
Lond.  1641,  4to.  This  was  Heywood  the  actor,  of  whom 
some  notice  is  taken  in  our  seventeenth  volume.1 

MERLIN  (James),  a  learned  doctor  of  the  Sorbonne, 
born  in  the  diocese  of  Limoges,  was  curate  of  Montmartre, 
and  afterwards  canon  and  grand  penitentiary  of  Paris. 
Having  preached  against  some  persons  belonging  to  the 
court,  who  were  supposed  to  be  favourable  to  the  reformed 
religion,  he  was  confined  in  the  castle  at  the  Louvre,  .1527, 
by  order  of  Francis  I.  and  then  banished  to  Nantes,  from 
whence  he  returned  to  Paris,  1530.  Merlin  was  appointed 
grand  vicar  of  Paris,  and  curate  of  la  Magdelaine.  He 
died  September  26,  1541.  He  was  the  first  who  published 
a  "  Collection  of  Councils;91  of  which  there  are  three  edi- 
tions. It  is  said  to  be  a  compilation  of  great  accuracy  and 
impartiality.  Merlin  also  published  editions  of  *'  Richard 
de  St.  Victor,  Peter  de  Blois,  Durand  de  St  Pourcain,  and 

*  Spenser's  faery  Queen.  — Warton's  Hist,  of  Poetry.— -Afacpherion's  Andrew 
of  Wyntowa,  vol.  1.  p.  118.— Tanner. 

MERLIN.  75 

Origen;*'  and  bas  prefixed  to  the. works  of  the  latter  an 
Apology,  in  which  he  undertakes  to  clear  Origen  from  the 
errors  imputed  to  him.  He  had  a  violent  dispute  on  this 
,subject  with  Noel  Beda.1 

MERRET  (Christopher),  a  physician  and  naturalist, 
born  at  Winchcombe,  in  Gloucestershire, '  in  February 
1614,  was  educated  at  Gloucester-hall,  and  Oriel-college, 
Oxford,  and  after  taking  the  degree  of  M.  D.  in  1642, 
settled  in  London.  He  appears  to  have  bad  a  considerable 
share  of  practice,  was  a  fellow  of  the  college  of  physicians, 
«id  one  of  the  original  members  of  the  philosophical  so* 
ciety,  winch  after  the  restoration  became  the  royal  society. 
He  died  in  1695.  His  first  publication  was  "A  Collection 
of  Acts  of  Parliament,  Charters,  Trials  at  Law,  and  Judges1 
Opinions,  concerning  those  Grants  to  the  College  of  Phy- 
sicians," 1660;  4to<  This  became  the  basis  of  Dr.  Good- 
all's  History  of  the  College*  and  was  followed,  in  1669,. by 
*'  A  short  View,  of  the  Frauds  and  Abuses  committed  by 
Apothecaries,  in  relation  to  Patients  and  Physicians," 
which  involved  him  in  an  angry  controversy,  with  Henry 
fitubbe.  He  also,  in  1662,  published  a  translation  of  Neri's 
work,  "  De arte  vitriaria,"  with  notes;  but  his  principal 
work  was  entitled  "Pinax  Rerum  Natural ium  Britannia 
carum,  continens  Vegetabilia,  Animalia,  et  Fossilia  in  bac 
insula  reperta,"  Lond.  1667,  8vo.  This^  though  incom- 
plete and  erroneous,  was  the  first  of  the  kmo*  relating  to 
this  country,  and  'was  without  doubt  instrumental  in  pro- 
moting the  study  of  natural  history  here*  A  great  portion 
of  his  knowledge  of  plants  was  obtained  through  the  me* 
diura  of  Thoraas  Williselj  a  noted  herbalist,  whom  he  em- 
ployed to  travel  through  the  kiagdom  for  him  during  five 
summers.  Merret  communicated  several  papers  to  the 
royal  society,  which  are  printed  in  the  earlier  volumes  of 
the  Philosophical  Transactions ;  particularly  an  account  of 
some  experiments  on  vegetation ;  of  the  tin  mines  in  Corn* 
wall ;  of  the  art  of  refining;  and  some  curious  observations 
relative  to  the  fens  of  Lincolnshire.1 

MERRICK  (James),  an  English  divine  and  poet,  whom 
bishop  Lowth  characterised  as  one  of  the  best  of  men  and 
most  eminent  of  scholars,  was  the  second  son  of  John 
Merrick,  M.  D.     He  was  born  Jan.  8,  1720,  and  was  edu- 

-  *  Moreri.*— Dapia.— Diet.  Hist. 
*  Ath.  Ox.  woL  lI.~P0ltei»y'i  Sketches,  vol.  U  p.  290, 

76       '  MERRICK. 

cated  at  Reading  school.  After  being  opposed,  (very  un- 
justly according  to  his  biographer)  as  a  candidate  for  a 
scholarship  at  St.  John's,  on  sir  Thomas  White's  founds* 
tion,  he  was  entered  at  Trinity-college,  Oxford,  April  14, 
1736,  and  admitted  a  scholar  June  6,  1737.  He  took  the 
degree  of  B.  A.  in  Dec.  1739,  of  M.  A.  in  Nov.  1742,  and 
was  chosen  a  probationer  fellow  in  May  1744.  The  cele- 
brated lord  North,  and  the  late  lord  Dartmouth,  were  his 
pupils  akthis  college.  He  entered  into  holy  orders,  but 
never  engaged  in  any  parochial  duty,  being  subject  to 
acute  pains  in  his  head,  frequent  lassitude,  and  feverish 
complaints ;  but,  from  the  few  manuscript  sermons  which 
he  left  behind  him,  appears  to  have  preached  occasionally 
in  1747,  1748,  and  1749.  His  life  chiefly  passed  in  study 
and  literary  correspondence,  and  much  of  his  time  and 
property  were  employed  on  acts  of  benevolence.  Few 
men  have  been  mentioned  >  with  higher  praise  by  all  who 
knew  him*.  He  had  an  extraordinary  faculty  of  eiact 
memory ;  had  great  good  nature,  and  a  flow  of  genuine 
wit ;  his  charity  was  extensive,  and  his  piety  most  exem« 
plary.  He  died  after  a  short  illness  at  Reading,  where  he 
had  principally  resided,  Jan.  5,  1769;  and  was  buried  at 
Caversham  church,  near  the  remains  of  hk  father,  mother, 
*    and  brothers.  i 

He  was  early  an  author.  In  1734,  while  he  was  yet  at 
school,  he  published  "  Messiah,  a  Divine  Essay,"  printed 
at  Reading;  and  in  April  1739,  before  be  was  twenty 
years  of  age,  he  was  engaged  in  a  correspondence  with  the 
learned  Reimarus.  The  imprimatur  from  the  vice-chan- 
cellor, prefixed  to  his  translation  of  "  Tryphiodorus,"  is 
dated  Oct  26,  1739,  before  he  had  taken  his  bachelor's 
degree.  In  Alberti's  last  volume  of  Hesychius,  published 
by  Ruhnkenius,  are  many  references  to  Mr.  Merrick's 
notes  on  Tryphiodorus,  which  are  all  ingenious,  and  serve 
to  illustrate  the  Greek  writer  by  historical  and  critical  ex* 
planations;  many  of  them  haye  a  reference  to  the  New 
Testament,  and  show  how  early  the  author  had  turned  his 
thoughts  t6  sacred  criticism.  The  translation  itself  is  cor*- 
rect  and  truly  poetical.     It  is  indeed,  for  his  years,  a  very 

*  Dr.  Hunt,  the  Hebrew  professor,  the  leastof  bis  many  good  qualifications, 

in  a  letterto  Dr.  Doddridge,  dated  Feb.  He  has   every  virtue   which   renders 

1746,   says  of  Mr.  Merrick,  "  There  learning;  amiable  and  useful ;  is  not 

cannot  be  a  more  deserving  man  in  alt  only  a  good  scholar,  bat  (which  Is  in*' 

respects.    His  learning  (which  is  be-    finitely  better)  a  good  Christian." 
yond  comparison  great  for  his  years)  is 


extraordinary  proof  of  classical  erudition  and  taste,  and 
.was  deservedly  supported  by  a  more  numerous  list  of  sub* 
scribers  than  perhaps  any  work  of  the  time. .  It  was  hand- 
somely printed  ip  an  8vo  volume,  at  the  Clarendon  press, 
but  without  date  or  publisher's  name. 

The  rest  of  Mr.  Merrick's  works  were  published  in  the 
following  order :  1.  "  A  Dissertation  on  Proverbs,  chapter 
ix.  containing  occasional  remarks  on  other  passages  in  sa- 
cred and  profane  writers,"  1744,  4to.  2.  "  Prayers  for  a 
time  of  Earthquakes  and  violent  Floods,"  a  small  tract, 
printed  at  London  in  175.6,  when  tbe  earthquake  at  Lisbon 
had  made  a  very  serious  impression  on  the  public  mind. 
3.  "  An  encouragement  to  a  good  life ;  particularly  ad* 
dressed  to  some  soldiers  quartered  at  Reading,9'  J  759* 
His  biographer  informs  us  that  a  list  is  still  preserved  of 
the  names  of  many  thousand  soldiers,  whom  Mr.  Merrick 
bad  instructed  in  religious  duties,  and  to  whom  he  had 
distributed  pious  books.  Among  the  latter,  Granger  men* 
tions  Rawlet's  "  Christian  Monitor,"  of  which  he  says  Mr. 
Merrick  distributed  near  10,000  copies'  "  chiefly  among 
the  soldiers,  many  of  whom  he  brought  to  a  sense  of  reli- 
gion." 4.  "  Poems  on  Sacred  subjects,"  Oxford,  1763, 
4to.  5.  "  A  Letter  to  the  rev.  Joseph  Warton,  chiefly  re- 
lating to  the  composition  of  Greek  Indexes,"  Reading, 
1764.  In  this  letter  are  mentioned  many  indexes  to  Greek 
authors,  some  of  which  were  then  begun,  abd  others  com- 
pleted. Mr.  Robert  Robinson,  in  the  preface  to  his  "  In- 
dices Tres,"  of  words  in  Longinus,  Eunapius,  and  Hiero- 
cles,  printed  at  the  Clarendon  press  in  1772,  mentions 
these  as  composed  by  the  advice  of  Mr.  Merrick,  by  whose 
recommendation  to  the  delegates  of  the  press  they  were 
printed  at  the  expence  of  the  university;  and  they  re- 
warded the  compiler  with  a  very  liberal  present.  6.  "  An- 
notations, critical  and  grammatical,  on  chap.  I.  v.  1  to  14 
of  the  Gospel  according  to  St.  John,"  Reading,  1764,  8vo, 
7.  "  Annotations,  critical,  &c.  on  the  Gospel  of  St.  John, 
to  the  end  of  the  third  chapter,"  Reading,  1767,  8va 
S.  "  The  Psalms  translated,  or  paraphrased,  in  English 
verse,"  Reading,  1765.  Of  this,  which  is  esteemed  the 
best  poetical  English  version  of  the  Psalms  now  extant, 
the  only  defect  was,  that  not  being  divided  into  stanzas. 
it  could  not  be  set  to  music  for  parochial  use.  This  ob- 
jection has  been  removed,  since  the  author's  death,  by  the 
rev.  W.  D.  Tattersall;  who  with  great  and  laudable  zeal 


for  the  improvement  of  our  parochial  psalmody,  has  pub- 
lished three  editions  properly  divided,  and  procured  tune* 
to  be  composed  for  them  by  the  best  masters.  Custom, 
however,  has  so  attached  the  public  to  the  old  versions, 
that  very  little  progress  has  yet  been  made  in  the  intro- 
duction of  Mr.  Tattersall's  psalmody  in  churches  and  cha- 
pels. 9, "  Annotations  on  the  Psalms/'  Reading,  1769, 
4to.  10.  "  A  Manual  of  Prayers  for  common  occasions/* 
ibid;  1768,  12mo.  This  is  now  one  of  the  books  distri- 
buted by  the  society  for  promoting  Christian  knowledge; 
who  have  also  an  edition  of  it  in  the  Welsh  language. 

Mr.  Merrick  occasionally  composed  several  sm^U  poems* 
inserted  in  Dodsley's  Collection ;  and  some  of  his  classical 
effusions  may  be  found  among  the  Oxford  gratulatory 
poems  of  1761  and  1762.  In  the  second  volume  of  Dods^ 
ley's  "  Museum,"  is  the  "  Benedicite  paraphrased"  bjr 
him.  Among  his  MSS,  in  the  possession  of  the  Loveday 
family  at  Willi amscot,  near  Banbury,  are  his  MS  notes  on 
the  whole  of  St.  John's  Gospel,  being  a  continuation  of 
what  he  published  during  his  life.  He  had  begun  an  ela- 
borate and  ingenious  account,  in  English,  of  all  the  Greek 
authors,  in  alphabetical  order,  which  was  left  unfinished  at 
his  death.  It  extends  as  far  as  letter  H  :  the  manuscript 
ending  with  "  Hypsicles."  The  late  rev.  William  EtwaW, 
editor  of  three  dialogues  of  Plato,  with  various  indexes,  in 
1771,  mentions,  in  his  preface,  his  obligations  to  Mr. 
Merrick,  who  was  always  happy  to  communicate  informa- 
tion *,  and  encourage  genius.  The  indexes  of  that  work 
were  composed  according  to  the  plan  recommended  by 
him  in  his  letter  to  Dr.  Warton,  whose  brother,  Thomas, 
in  his  edition  of  "Theocritus,"  in  various  passages,  ex- 
presses his  obligations  to  Mr.  Merrick,  arid  pays  a  just 
compliment  to  his  skill  in  the  Greek  language.  His  know- 
ledge both  of  the  Greek  and  Hebrew  was  truly  critical ; 
and  was  applied  with  great  success  to  the  illustration  of -the 
sacred  writings ;  as  his  annotations-  on  the  Psalms,  and  his 
notes  upon  St.  John,  abundantly  testify.  It  remains  to  be 
mentioned  that  in  the  former  of  these  works,  the  "  Anno- 
tations/' he  was  assisted  by  Dr.  Lowth*  then  bishop  of 

*  In  Larduer's  Works,  vol.  VIII.  corresponded.     See  also  a  letter  from 

p.  167,  we  find  some  curious  obsexra-  him  to  Mr.  Warton  on  "  Theocritus/* 

tions  on  a  fragment  of  Longinus,  com-  in  Wooll's  Life  of  Dr.  Warton,  p.  396, 

municated  by  Mr.  Merrick  to  that  an-  and  another  curious  one  on  Indexes  in 

tfeor,  with  whom  be  appears  lo  hare,  the  same  work,  jx  210. 


Oxford,  who  supplied  many  of  the  -observations,  and  by  a 
person  whom  he  described  as  "  virum  summa  erudition*, 
iummo  loco"  who  was  afterwards  known  to  have  been  arch- 
bishop Seeker.  Some  remarks  introduced  here  in  opposition 
to  Dr.  Gregory  Sharpens  criticism  on  the  1 10th  Psalm,  pro- 
duced from  that  gentleman"  "  A  Letter  to  the  right  rev.  the 
Lord  Bishop  of  Oxford,  from  the  Master  of  the  Temple, 
containing  remarks  upon  some  strictures  made  by  his  grace 
the  late  archbishop  of  Canterbury,  in  the  rev.  Mr.  Mer- 
rick's Annotations  on  the  Psalms,"   1769,' 

MERRY  (Robert),  an  English  poet  of  considerable 
merit,  was  born  in  London,  April  1755,  and  was  descended 
in  a  right  line  from  sir  Henry  Merry,  who  was  knighted 
by  James  L  at  Whitehall.  Mr.  Merry's  father  was  gover- 
nor of  the  Hudson's  Bay  company.  His  grandfather,  who 
was  a  captain  in  the  royal  navy,  and  one  of  the  elder  bre* 
thren  of  the  Trinity-house,  established  the  commerce  of 
the  Hudson's  Bay  company  upon  the  plan  which  it  now 
,  pursues.  He  made  a  voyage  to  Hudspn's  Bay,  and  disco* 
vered  the  island  in  the  North  seas,  which  still  bears7  the 
name  of  Merry's  island.  He  also  made  a  voyage  to  the 
East  Indies,  and  was,  perhaps,  the  first  Englishman  who 
returned  home  over  land ;  in  which  expedition  he  encoun- 
tered inconceivable  hardships.  Mr.  Merry's  mother  was 
the  eldest  daughter  of  the  late  lord  chief  justice  Willes, 
who  presided  for  many  years  with  great  ability  in  the 
court  of  Common  Pleas,  and  was  for  sometime  first  lord 
commissioner  of  the  great  seal.  Mr.  Merry  was  educated 
at  Harrow,  under  Dr.  Sumner,  and  had  the  celebrated 
Dr.  Parr  as  his  private  tutor.  From  Harrow  he  went  to 
Cambridge,  and  was  entered  of  Christ's  college.  He  left 
Cambridge  without  taking  any  degree,  and  was  afterwards 
entered  of  Lincoin's-inu,  but  was  never  called  to  the  bar. 
Upon  the  death  of  his  fattier  he  bought  a  commission  in 
the  horse-guards,  and  was  for  several  years  adjutant  and 
lieutenant  to  the  first  troop,  commanded  by  lord  Lothian. 
Mr.  Merry  quitted  the  service,  and  went  abroad,  where  he 
remained  nearly  eight  years ;  during  which  time  he  visited 
inost  of  the  principal  towns  of  France,  Switzerland,  Italy, 
Germany,  and  Holland.  At  Florence  he  stayed  a  con- 
siderable time,  enamoured  (as  it  is  said)  of  a  lady  of  dis- 

-  i  CMteft  Hitt.  of  Rea4iDg.-~pod<!ridge'4  Letter**  p.  339,-*Wo»U'ti  Ute  <rf 
W*rfcp,  fee.  . 

*0  MERRY. 

tinguished  rank  and  beauty.  Here  he  studied  the  Italian 
language,  encouraged  bis  favdurite  pursuit,  poetry,  and 
was  elected  a  member  of  tbe  academy  Delia  Crusca.  Here 
also  he  was  a  principal  contributor  to  a  collection  of  poetry, 
by  a  few  English  of  both  sexes,  called  "  Tbe  Florence  Mis- 
cellany." The  name  of  tbe  academy  he  afterwards  used 
as  a  signature  to  many  poems  which  appeared  in  the  perin 
odical  journals,  and  the  newspapers,  and  excited,  so  many 
imitators  as  to  form  a  sort  of  temporary  school  of  poets, 
whose  affectations  were  justly  ridiculed  by  the  author  of 
the  "  Baviad  and  Maeviad,"  and  soon  despised  by  the;  pub- 
lic. Mr.  Merry,  however,  bad  more  of  tbe  qualities  of  a 
poet  than  his  imitators,  although  not  much  more  judgment. 
His  taste,  originally  good,  became  vitiated  by  that  love  of 
striking- novelties  which  exhausts  invention.  Of  hit  poems 
published  separately,  scarcely  one  is  now  remembered  or 

In  1791  be  married  miss  Brunton,  an  actress,  who  per- 
formed in  his  tragedy  of  "  Lorenzo,*'  and  a  prospect 
opened  to  him  of  living  at  his  ease,  by  the  joint  produc- 
tion of  that  lady's  talents,  and  bis  own  pen ;  but  tbe 
pride  of  those  relations  upon  wbom  he  had  most  depend- 
ence,, was  wounded  by  tbe  alliance ;  and  he  was  con- 
strained, much  against  Mrs.  Merry's  inclination,  to  take 
her  from  tbe  stage.  This  he  did  as  soou  as  her  engage- 
ment at  the  theatre  expired,  which  was  in  tbe  spring  of 
1792.  They  then  visited  the  continent,  and  returned  in 
the  summer  of  1793.  They  retired  to  America  in  1796, 
and  our  author  died  suddenly  at  Baltimore,  in  Maryland, 
Dec.  2<f,  1798,  of  an  apoplectic  disorder,  which  proceeded, 
as  is  supposed,  from  a  plethora,  and  the  want  of  proper 
exercise.  He  was  author  of  the  following  dramatic  pieces, 
viz.  "  Ambitious  Vengeance  ;"  "  Lorenzo  ;"  "  The  Ma- 
gician no  Conjurer;"  and  "  Fenelon,"  a  serious  drama, 
none  of  which  had  great  success. 

Mr.  Merry  was  an  accomplished  gentleman,  and  for  many 
years  highly  esteemed  by  a  numerous  circle  of  friends  of 
rank  and  learning,  but  in  his  latter  years  be  unfortunately 
became  enamoured  of  those  loose  and  theoretical  princi- 
ples which  produced  tbe  French  revolution;  and  this  change 
gave  a  sullen  gloom  to  his  character,  which  made  him  re- 
linquish all  his  former  connexions,  and  attach  himself  to  * 
company  far  beneath  his  talents,  and  unsuitable  to  hip 
habit*.     There  is  reasoq  to  think,  however,  that  his  min4 



■ecovered  somewhat  of  its  better  frame  after  he  had  resided 
a  few  months  in  America,  and  had  leisure  to  reflect  on  what 
he  bad  exchanged  for  the  gay  visions  of  republican  fancy. 
Mrs.  Merry,  who  married  Mr.  Warren,  the  manager  of  a 
theatre  in  America/  died  in  1808.1 

MERSENNE  (Marin),  a  learned  French  writer,  was 
born  at  Oyse,  in  the  province  of  Maine,  Sept.  8,  1588. 
He  cultivated  the  belles  lettres  at  the  college  of  la  Fleche ; 
and  afterwards  went  to  Paris,  and  studied  divinity  at  the 
'  Sorbonne.  Upon  his  leaving  the  schools  of  the  Sorbonne, 
he  entered  himself  among  the  Minims,  and  received  the 
habit  of  that  order/  July  17,  J  611.  In  1612  he  went  to 
reside  in  the  convent  of  Paris,  where  he  was  ordained  priest* 
He  then  applied  himself  to  the  Hebrew  language,  which 
he  learned  of  father  John  Bruno,  a  Scotch  Minim.  From 
1615  to  1619,  he  taught  philosophy  and  theology  in  the 
convent  of  Nevers;  and  then  returned  to  Paris,  where  he 
spent  the  remainder  of  his  life.  Study  and  conversation 
were  afterwards  his  whole  employment.  •  He  held  a  cor- 
respondence with  most  of  the  principal  men  of  his  time; 
being  as  it  were  the  very  centre  of  communication  between 
literary  men  of  all  countries,  by  the  mutual  correspondence 
which:  he.  managed  between  them ;  and  was  in  France 
what  Mr.  Collins  was  in  England.  .  He  omitted  no  oppor- 
tunity to  engage  them  to  publish  their  works ;  and  the 
world  is  obliged  to  him  for  several  excellent  discoveries, 
which  would  probably  have  been  lost,  but  for  his  encou- 
ragement;'and  on  all  accounts  he,  had  the  reputation  of 
being  one  of  the. best  men,  as  well  as  philosophers,  of  his 
time.  He  was  the  chief  friend  and  literary  agent  of  Des 
Cartes,  in  particular,  with  whom  he  had  contracted  a 
friendship .  while  he  studied  at  la  Fleche,  which  continued 
to  his  death.  He  was  that  philosopher's  chief  agent  at 
Paris.  Thus,  when;  Mersenne. gave  out  in  that. city,  that 
Des  Carter  was. erecting  a  new  system,  of  physics  upon  the 
foundation  of  a;vacuum,  and  found  the  public  very  indif- 
ferent to  it  on  that' very  account,  it  was  said,  that  he  im- 
mediately sent  intelligence  to  Des  Cartes,  that  a  vacuum 
was  not  then  the  fashion  at  Paris';  which  made  that  philo- 
sopher change  his  system,  and  adopt  the  old'  doctrine  of  a 
plenum.  -  In  the  mean  time,  Mersenne's  residence  at  Paris 
did;  not  .hinder  him.  from  making  several  journies  into 
foreign  countries^  for  he<  went  to  Hollaiid  in  1629,  and 


1  Gent.IH.aff.  roi.  LXtX^-Bioj,  D  *». 



stayed  a  year  there ;  and  he  was  in  Italy  fottr  times ;  in 
1639,  1641,  1644,  and  1646.  He  fell  sick,  in  L64&,  o£ 
au  abscess  iu  the  right  side,  which  the  physicians,  took  to* 
be  a  bastard  pleurisy ;  and  bled  him  several  times  to  na 
purpose.  At  last  it  was  thought  proper  to  open  the*  side? 
but  he  expired  in  the  midst  of  the  operation,  when,  he  was 
•almost  sixty  years  of  age*  He  ordered  the  physicians  aft' 
his  death  to  open  bis  body,  which  they  did,  and  found  art 
abscess  two  inches  above  the  place  where  they  had  opened 
his  side ;  sa  that,  if  the  incision*  had  been  made  at  the 
proper  place,  his  life  might  possibly  have  been  saved* 

He  was  a  man  of  universal  learning,  but  excelled  sol 
much  in  physical  and  mathematical1  knowledge,  that  Dee 
Cartes  scarcely  ever  did  any  thing,  or  at  least  was.  not 
perfectly  satisfied  with  any  thing  he  bad  done,  without  finis 
knowing  what  Mersenne  thought  of  it.     He  published  4 
great  many  books,  the  first  of  which  occasioned  him  soma 
trouble*     The  title  is,  "  Qusestiones  celeberriraee  in  Ge«*. 
nesim^  cum  accurata  textus  explication© :  in  quo  voIumine> 
athei  &  deisti  impugnantur^"  &c.  Paris*  16213.     Two  shorts* 
of  this  book,  from  column  669  to  column  676  inclusive* 
were  suppressed  by  him.;  and  it  ia  very  difficult  to  meet 
with  any  copy  in  which  these  sheets  are  not  taken  outv 
He.  bad  given  there  a  list  of  the  atheists. of  his  time,,  men- 
tioned their  different  works,  and  specified  th»i»  opinions*, 
as  appears  from  the  index  in  the  word  Athei*  which  haw 
not  beenr  altered*     Whether  this  detail  was  thought  eft 
dangetous  consequence,  or  whether  Mersenne;  had?  ev~ 
larged  too  much  the  number  of  atheists,   is  was  judged; 
proper  that  he  should  retrench  alii  he  badi  said  upon  that: 
subject.     Baillet  calls  Mersenne*  to  whose  671st  page  he- 
refers,  the  most  credulous;  man  alive-  for  believing*  that 
there  could  be  at  that  time*  as  he- supposes,  50,000  atheist*, 
in  Paris;  and  considers  this  pretended  number,  asaiothiwg* 
more  than  it  fiction  of  the  Hugonota,  that  they  aright  tskfe 
occasion  thence  to  abuse- the  catholics.     In. this  work,  be 
has  undoubtedly  inserted  a  variety  of  things  which  are-  ef* 
at  nature  foreign  to  bis  maifr  subject;    Thus  he  oalls  it  »> 
his  title-page,  <<Opu»ibeologisrphilosophis,  medacis,  juri»». 
consultis,  mathematician  musicis  vero  &  catoptricis  pr«Q<- 
sertim  utile  "     His  largesfrdigression  relates  to  music,,  wbicfr 
he  had  studied,  and  upon  which  he  wrote  several  boobs*  • 
He  attacks  also  Dr.  Robert  Fludd,  fellow  of  the  college  of 
physicians  in  London;  the  severity  of  whose  answers  raised 
up  many  defenders  for  Mersenpe,  and  among  the  rest  the 

M  E  It  S  E  N  H  E.  83 

illustrious  Gassendi,  whose?  tract  on  this  subject  was  printed 
at  Paris  in  16£fy  under  this  title :  *f  Epistolica  exercitatio, 
in  qua  prsecipua  principia  philosophise  Robert!  Fludd  dete* 
guntur,  &  ad  recentes  illius  libros  adversus-  patrem  Mari- 
num  Mersennum  scriptos  respondetur."  This  piece  is  re- 
printed1 in  the  third  volunte  of  Gassendi's  works  at  Paris-, 
in  1658,  under  the  title  of  u  Examen  philosophise  Flud- 
danae,"  &c. 

Mersenne  was  a  man  of  good  invention  ;  and  had  a  pe«* 
culiar  talent  in  forming  carious  questions*  though  be  did 
Hot  always  succeed  in  resolving  them;  however,  he  at 
least  gave  occasion  to.  others  to  do  it.  It  is  said  he  in* 
vented  the  Cycloid,  otherwise  called  the  Roulette.  Pre* 
sently  the  chief  geometricians  of  the  age  engaged  in  the 
contemplation  of  this  new  curve,  among  whom  Mersenne 
himself  held  a  distinguished  rank. 

Mersenne  was  author  of  many  useful  works,  particularly 
the  following  :  1.  "  Questiones  celeberrimae  in  Genesim,** 
already  mentioned.  •  2. ((  Harmonicorum  Libri."  3.  "  De 
Sonorum  Natura,  Causis,  et  Effectibus."  4v  "  Cogitata 
Pbysico-Mathematica,"  2  vols.  4to.  5.  t(  La  Veriti  des 
Sciences."  6.  "  Lesr  Questions  inouies."  He  has  also  many 
letters  in  the  works  of  Des  Cartes,  and  other  authors. * 

MERTON  (Walter  de),  the  illustrious  founder  of 
Morton  college,  Oxford,  which  became  the  model  of  all 
other  societies  of  that  description,  was  bishop  x>f  Rochester 
and  chancellor  of  England  in  the  thirteenth  century.  0£ 
his  personal  history  vei*y  little  is  known.  From.a  pedigree 
of  him,  written  about  ten  years  after  his  death,  we  learn, 
that  he  was  the  son  of  William  de  Merton,  archdeacon  of 
Berksin  1224,  1231,  and  1236,  by  Christina,  daughter  of 
Walter  Fitz-Oliver,  of  Basingstoke.  They  were  botl* 
buried  in  the  church  of  St.  Michael,  Basingstoke,-  where, 
the  scite  erf  their  tomb  has  lately  been  discovered.  Their 
son  was  born  at  Merton,  in  Surrey,  and  educated  at  the 
convent  there*  So  early  as  1239  he  was  in  possession  of  a? 
fenrily  estate,  as  well  a*  of  one  acquired.  From  his*  mo- 
ther he  received  tb$  manor  of  St.  Johh»  with  which' he 
crftnmencetfa  public  benefactor,  by  founding,  in  12$ I,  the? 
hospital  of  xSt;  Johrr,  for  poor  and  infirm  «clergy ;  andafwtf 
Ae  'foundation  of  Merton  college,  it  was-  appointed  itt  tiid 
rtatqtes,  that  ttie  infeurabiy-sick  fellows  or  scholar^  of  ft&£ , 

,J  l^/i/.'Vi 

1  HUarigtuIi  Coste's  Mersenne.— Geu.  D]ct.— Niceron,  vol.  XXXI I JU 
^Holie^'i  Diet:   '*     \  '"'   '■'■■'■  '  *    ■    ;   ' 

84  M  E  R  T  O  N. 

college  should  be  sent  thither;  and  the  office  of  master 
was  very  early  annexed  to  that  of  warden  of  Merton.  Not 
many  years  ago,  part  of  the  chapel  roof  of  this  hospital  re- 
mained, pannelled  with  the  arms  of  Merton  college  in  the 
intersections,  and  one  of  the  gothic  windows  stopped  up  j 
but  all  this  gave  way  to  a  new  brick  building  in  1773. 

According  to  Mr.  Denne  (Custumale  Roffense,  p.  193), 
he  occurs  prebendary  of  Kentish  town,  and  afterwards  bad 
the  stall  of  Finsbury,  both  of  them  in  the  church  of  St. 
Paul's,  London.  He  held  in  1259  a  prebend  in  Exeter 
cathedral ;  and,  according  to  Browne  Willis,  was  vicar  of 
Potton  in  Bedfordshire  at  the  time  of  bis  promotion  to  the 
see  of  Rochester.  Other  accounts  say,  that  he  was  first 
canon  of  Salisbury,  and  afterwards  rector  of  Stratton.  He 
became  eminent  in  the  court  of  Chancery,  first  as  king's 
clerk,  theh  as  prothonotary,  and  lastly  rose  to  be  chancel- 
lor of  England  in  1258.  Of  this  office  he  was  deprived  in 
the  same  year  by  the  barons,  but  restored  in  1261,  with  a 
yearly  salary  of  four  hundred  marks  ;  and  held  it  again  in 
1274,  in  which  year  he  was  consecrated  bishop  of  Roches- 
ter. He  appears  to  have  been  of  high  csedit  in  affairs  of 
state,  and  consulted  on  all  matters  of  importance,  as  a 
divine,  a  lawyer,  and  a  financier.  His  c|€atn  was  occa- 
sioned by  a  fall  from  his  horse,  in  fording  a  river  in  his 
diocese;  soon  after  which  accident  he  died,  Oct  27th, 
1277.  Notwithstanding  his  liberality,  at  his  death  he  was 
possessed  of  goods  valued  by  inventory  at  51 10/.  of  which 
he  left  legacies  to  the  amount  of  2726/.  His  debts 
amounted  to  746/.,  and  he  had  owing  to  him  about  622/. 
He  was  interred  on  the  north  side  of  St.  William's  chapel, 
at  the  north  end  of  the  cross  aile  in  Rochester  cathedral, 
with  a  marble  monument,  which  had  probably  been  in- 
jured or  decayed,  as  in  1598,  the  present  beautiful  ala- 
baster monument  was  erected  by  the  society  of  Merton  J 
college,,  at  the  suggestion  of  the  celebrated  sir  Henry 
Savile,  then  warden  of  the  college. 

.  With  respect  to  the  foundation  of  this  college,  an  opi- 
nion has  long  prevailed,  which  the  inquiries  of  some  re- 
cent antiqi^aries  have  rendered  doubtful.  It  was  stated  by 
Wood  and  others,  that  Walter  de  Merton  first  fqunded  au 
college  at  Maldon,  as  a  nursery  for  that  at  Oxford  ;  that  at 
a  certain  age  the  scholars  were  rempved  from  Maldon.  to 
Oxford,  where  the  founder  provided  a  house  for  them 
on  the  site  of  the  present  -college,  and  that  the  whole 
establishment  was  not  removal  from  Maldon  to  Oxford 

MERTON.  8.5 

until  the  year  1274,  when  the  third  and  last  charter  was 
obtained.  On  the  other  hand,  bis  original  intention  ap- 
pears to  have  been  to  establish  a  religious  house  at  Maldon, 
consisting  of  a  warden  and  priests,  who  were  to  appropri- 
ate certain  funds,  with  which  he  entrusted  them,  to  the 
maintenance  and  education  of  twenty  scholars  at  Oxford  or 
elsewhere,  and  that  when  he  founded  Merton  college,  he 
removed  the  warden  and  priests  thither.  What  seems  to 
confirm  this  account  is,  that  the  founder  appointed  a  fel- 
low of  Merton  college  to  instruct  such  of  his  students  as 
were  ignorant  of  grammar,  which  would  not  probably  have 
been  the  case  had  they  been  brought  from  a  preparatory 

Nothing  could  be  more  satisfactory  than  to  be  able  to 
trace  the  progress  of  this  great  work  from  these  small  be- 
ginnings, but  all  that  can  be  now  collected  is,  that  having 
purchased  several  tenements,  on  the  ground  where  the 
college  stands,  he  began  bis  erection,  and  by  charter  dated 
Jan;  7,  1264,  established  it  by  the  name  of  Domus  Schola- 
riumdc  Merton.  This  first  charter,  with  the  statutes  pre- 
scribed in  it,  continued  in  force  until  1270,  when  it  was 
confirmed  by  a  second,  in  which  great  additions  were 
made  to  the  endowment  by  estates  in  Oxford,  Oxfordshire, 
and  other  counties ;  the  scholars  were  increased,  and  the 
term  fratres  became  used  as  a  farther  step  towards  the 
present  form.  A  third  charter  was  granted  in  1274.  All 
these  which  respect  the  creation  in  1264,  the  enlarge- 
ment in  1270,  and  the  completion  in  1274,  and  refer  to, 
and  confirm  one  another,  are  now  perserved  in  the  library, 
and  were  consulted  as  precedents  in  the  foundation  of 
Peterhouse,  the  earliest  college  of  the  sister  university, 
and  probably  of  others  in  both  universities.  The  first  offi- 
cers of  Merton  were  appointed  in  1276.  It  yet  remains  to 
be  noticed  that  Walter  de  Merton's  preference  of  Oxford 
is  thought  to  have  been  owing  to  his  better  acquaintance 
with  the  place,  there  being  a  tradition  that  he  studied 
some  time  among  the  canons  regular  of  Oseney,  or  in 
Manger  hall,  in  St.  Martin's  parish,  Oxford.  By  the 
assistance  of  subsequent  benefactors,  Merton  college  was 
progressively  raised  to  its  present  state,  in  which  it  consists 
of  a  warden,  twenty-four  fellows,  two  chaplains,  fourteen 
portionista  or  postmasters,  four  scholars,  and  two  clerks.1 

»  Wood1*  College*  and  Hall*.— Chapmen's  HiiL  of  Oxford. 

S6  M  E  R  U  L  A. 

MORULA  (George),  an  Italian  of  very  uncommon  ta- 
lents and  learning,  was  born  at  Alexandria,  in  the  dacby 
of  Milan,  about  1420.     His   family   name   was   Merlani, 
which  he  exchanged  for  Merula.     He  was  the  disciple  of 
Phileyphus,  and  taught  polite  literature  at  Venice  and  at 
Milan  for  forty  years,  and  laboured  with  great  success  in 
restoring  and  correcting  ancient  authors.     Jovius .calls  him 
"  Grammaticorum.  exactissimus,"  the  most  exact  of  gram- 
marians ;  and  Erasmus,  in  his  "  Ciceronianus,"  represents 
him  as  a  man,  who  translated  the  Greek  authors  with  a 
dignity  and  elegance  sufficient  to  rank  him  with  many  of 
the  ancients.     He  died  at  Milan  in    1494.     His  original 
works  are  of  the  historical  kind,  the  most  distinguished  of 
which  is  his  "  Antiquitates  Vicecomitum,  lib.  X."  fol.  with- 
out place  or  date,  but  printed  at  Milan  about  the  begin- 
ning of  the  sixteenth  century.     This  only  extends  to  the 
death  of  Matthew,  whom  the  Italians  are  accustomed  to  call 
"  the  Great."     The  style  is  pure,  but  be  has  adopted  too* 
many  of  the  fabulous  reports  of  the  old  chronicles,  and  is 
in  other  respects  incorrect  as  to  dates  and  facts.     It  is  not, 
however,,  to  this,  or  his  other  historical  pieces  that  he  ow£* 
his  reputation,  which  was  more  substantially  built  on  the 
aid  he  gave  in  the  restoration  of  classical  learning,  as  one 
of  the.  first  editors  of  ancient  authors.     It  is  to  him  we  are 
indebted  for  the  first  edition,  collectively,  of  the  "  Scrip- 
tores  de  re  Rustica,"  Cato,  Varro,  Columella,  and  Palla- 
dius,  which  he  published  at  Venice,   1472,  fol.  with  notes. 
He  also  published  the  first  edition  of  Plautus,  at  Venice, 
1472,  fol.  and  assisted   in   the   publication  of  the  early 
editions  of  Juvenal,  Martial,  and  Ausonius,  and  translated 
several  of  the   Greek  authors.     His  Juvenal  is  entitled 
li  Enarrationes  Satyrarum  Juvenalis,  per  Georgium  Meruloua 
Alexandrinum,"  Tarvisii  (Trevigny)  1478,  fol. 

From  these  works  the  character  of  Merula  justly  stood 
high;  but  whether  he  was  naturally  vain  and  arrogant,  or 
spoiled  by  flattery,  .his  disposition  was  jealous  and  irrita- 
ble, and  he  treated  some  of  his  learned  contemporaries 
with  that*  species  of  harshness  and  contempt  which,  al- 
though in  all  ages  the;  disgrace  of  literature,  seems  reviving 
in  our  own.  In  our  authorities  may  be  found  an  account 
of  his  quarrels  with  bis  old  master  Philephus,  with  Politian, 
whom  he  once  declared  the  only  scholar  in  Italy  that  had 
any  share  of  merit,  and  with  others,  in  whose  cases  his 
provocations  were  so  trifling,  that  we  may  be  justified  in 

MERULA.  <8? 

asctikiftg  the -virulence  of  his  style  in  controversy  to  the 
worst  of  sources.  It.  is  said,  however,  that  at  his  death  he 
repented  of  his  conducttowards  Politian,  at  least ;  earnestly 
desired  'to  be  reconciled  to  him,  and  ordered  that  every 
thing  he  had  written  against  that  illustrious  scholar  should 
be  expunged  from  his  works.1 

MERULA  (Paul),  or  Vah  Merle,  a  very  learned  Hol- 
lander, -was  born  at  Dort,  Aug.  19,  1558;  and  went  to 
France  and  Geneva,  to  study  the  law.  Afterwards  he  tra* 
yelled  to  Italy,  Germany,  and  England ;  -and,  having  been 
absent  nine  years,  returned  to  Dort.  Here  be  frequented 
the  bar  four  years,,  and  then  quitted  it  for  the  professorship 
of  history,  which  was  vacated  by  the  cession  of  Justus  Lip- 
sius  in  1592.  It  has  been  thought -a  sufficient  encomium 
on  him  that  he  was  deemed  worthy  to  succeed  so  great  a 
man.  In  1598,  the  curators  of  the  university  of  Leyden 
joined  to  his  professorship  the  office  of  public  librarian,  va- 
cant by  the  death  of  the  younger  Dousa-  He  married  in 
1589,  andiiad  several  children.  He  hurt  his  constitution  so 
much  by  an  overstrained  .application  to  books,  that  he  died 
July  20,  1607,  when  "he  was  no  more  than  forty-nine. 
Meruia  was  the  author  or  editor  of  several  works,  some  of 
the  principal  of  which  are,  1.  "  Q.  £nnii  annalium  libro- 
ram  xviii.  fragmenta  oollecta  '&  commentariis  illustrata," 
Lfiat.  1595,  4 to.  2.  "  Eutropii  Historiae  Romanse,  libri  x." 
1592,  8vo;  but  more  complete  with  the  entire  notes  of 
Glareanus  and  Merula,  Leyden,  1594,  8ro.  3.  "  Urbis 
RomaB  delineatio  &  methodica  ex  variis  anthoribus  descrip- 
tion* 1529.  ,4.  "Vita  Desiderii  Erasmi  ex  ipsius  manu 
fideliter  representata.  Additi  sunt  epistolarum  ipsius  libri 
duo,"  1607,  4to.  5.  "  Cosmographiae  generalis  libri  tres. 
Item  geographic  particularis  libri  quatuor,  quibus  Europa 
in  genere,  speciatim  Hispania,  Gallia,  Italia  describuntur, 
cum  tabulis  geographicis,"  1605,  4to.  This  work  went 
through  many  editions;  but  its  use  is  now  superseded »by 
the  more .  accurate  labours  of  subsequent  geographers. 
Merula  published  several  other  works  enumerated  in  our 
authorities.  * 

.  MESENGUY  (Francis  Philip),  a  French  divine,  was 
born  at  Beauvais,  August  22,  1677.  After  having  .been 
a  literary  professor  for  several  years,  in  the  college  of 
that  place,  he  was   invited  by  his  friends  to  Paris,  and 

Vossius  de  Hist  Lat— TllPaboschi.^-Gioguene  Hist.  Lit.  D'ltalie,   vol.  III. 
•-Niceron,  vols.  VII.  and  X. — Roscee's  Life  of  Lorenzo,—  3axii  Onomait. 
*  Foppeo  Bibl.  Bel#.— Nicerorf,  vol.  XXVI. 


there  soon  became  coadjutor  to  Coffin,  then  principal  of 
the  college  of  Beauvais.  His  zeal  for  some  points,  not 
approved  at  court,  particularly  his  opposition  to  the  bull 
Unigenitus,  having  undermined  his  favour  there,  he  quitted 
the  college  in  1728,  and  lived  the  remainder  of  his  days  in 
literary  retirement,  though  still  at  Paris;  and  from  this 
time  employed  himself  in  several  considerable  works. 
This  mode  of  life  was  so  congenial  to  his  feelings,  which 
were  of  a  candid  and  tranquil,  kind,  that  he  attained  the 
age  of  eighty-six,  and  died  Feb.  19,  1763.  He  wrote, 
1.  for  the  use  of  his  pupils,  while  employed  in  the  college, 
his  "  Exposition  de  la  doctrine  Chretienne,"  6  vols.  12mo. 
This1  work,  though  written  with  clearness  and  precision, 
contained  some  passages  not  approved  at  Rome,  and 
therefore  was  condemned  by  Clement  XIII.  in  1761.  2. 
*  Abreg6  de  l'Histoire,  &  de  la  morale  de  PAncien  Testa- 
ment,". Paris,  1728,  12mo;  highly  commended  by  Rollin.'. 
a.  "  Abr6g6  de  l'Histoire  de  l'Ancien  Testament,  avec  dea 
Iclaircissemens  et  des  reflexions,"  Paris,  10  vols,  in  l2mo. 
This  is  also  a  useful  work,  and,  as  may  be  supposed, 
chiefly  an  extension  of  the  former  plan.  4..  An  edition  of 
the  New  Testament,  with  short  notes.  5.  "  La  constitu- 
tion Unigenitus,  avec  des  remarques,"  12mo,  6.  "  Let- 
tres a un  Ami  sur  la  constitution  Unigenitus"  also  in  12 mo. 
7.  "  Entretiens  sur  la  Religion,"  12mo.  This  author  had 
also  a  large  share  in  the  lives  of  the  saints,  published  by 
the  abbe  Goujet ;  and  in  the  Missal  of  Paris.1, 


MESTON  (William),  an  ingenious  burlesque  poet  of 
Scotland,  was  born  in  the  parish  of  Midmar  in  Aberdeen- 
shire, about  1688,  He  received  a  liberal  education  at  the 
Marischal  college  in  Aberdeen,  and,  after  finishing  his 
studies,  became  one  of  the  teachers  in  the  high-school  of 
New  Aberdeen.  Thence  he  removed  into  the  family  of 
Marshal,  to  be  preceptor  to  the  young  earl  of  that  name,- 
and  his  brother,  afterwards  marshal  Keith ;  and,  in  1714, 
by  the  interest  of  the  countess,  was  appointed  professor  of 
philosophy  in  the  Marischal  college.  He  did  not  long  re- 
tain this  situation,' for,  when  the  rebellion  broke  out  in 
1715,  be  followed  the  fortunes  of  his  noble  patrons,  who 
made  him  governor  of  Dunotter  castle.  After  the  defeat 
at  Sheriffmuir,  he  lurkfed  among  the  mountains,  till  the  act 
pf  indemnity  was  passed,  with  a  few  fugitive  companions, 

»  Diet.  Hist 


for  whose  amusement  and  his  own,  he  composed  several  of 
the  burlesque  poems,  which  he  called  "  Mother  Grim's 
tales.99  He  appears  to  have  remained  steady  to  his  princi- 
ples, and  consequently  was  not  restored  to  his  professor- 
ship; but,  while  the  countess  of  Marshal  lived,  resided 
chiefly  in  her  family ;  where  his  great  pleasantry  and  live-* 
liness  made  him  always  an  acceptable  guest.  After  her 
death,  he  must  have  been .  for  some  time  without  much 
provision,  till  he  commenced  an  academy  at  Elgin,  in  con- 
junction with  his  brother  Mr.  Samuel  Meston.  He  was, 
however,  little  formed  for  prudence  and  regularity,  but 
much  more  given  to  conviviality  ;  for  which  cause  proba- 
bly, among  others,  this  academy  at  Elgin  after  a  time 
began  to  decline.  He  then  successively,  settled  at  Turiff, 
in  Aberdeenshire*  and  at  Montrose,  where  he  lost  his 
brother  and  coadjutor.  He  made  the  same  attempt  at 
Perth,  but  soon  after  entered  as  preceptor  into  the  family 
of  a  Mr.  Oliphant.  Here  he  qontinued  till  his  health  de- 
clined, when  he  removed  to  Peterhead  for  the  benefit  of 
the  mineral  waters.  There  be  was  chiefly  supported  by 
the  bounty  of  the  countess  of  Errol,  under  whose  patron- 
age he  had  formerly  undertaken  the  academy  at  Turiff. 
At  length  he  removed  to  Aberdeen,  where  he  was  taken 
care  of  by  some  relations,  till  he  died  of  a  languishing  dis- 
temper in  the  spring  of  1745.   . 

Meston  is  said  to  have  been  one  of  the  best  classical 
scholars  of  his  time,  and  by  no  means  a  contemptible  phi- 
losopher and  mathematician.  His  wit  also  was  very  lively, 
and  shone  particularly  in  jovial  meetings,  to  which  un- 
happily he  was  rather  too  strongly  addicted.  His  poems 
were  first  published  separately,  as  they  were  written,  and 
doubtless  by  way  of.  assisting  him  in  bis  necessities. 
That  called  "  the  Knight,9!  appears  to  have  been  first 
printed  in  1723;  and,  after  it  bad  received  several  cor- 
rections, a  second  edition  was  printed  at  London.  The 
first  decade  of  "  Mother  Grim's  Tales,"  afterwards  ap- 
peared; and  next,  the  second  part,  by  Jodocus,  her  grand- 
son. Some  years  after,  the  piece  called,  "  Mob  contra 
Mob.'* .  The  whole  were  first  collected  in  a  small  volume, 
12 mo,  at  Edinburgh,  in  1767,  to  which  a  short  account  of 
his  life  is  prefixed,  whence  the  present  memoirs  have  been 
extracted.  "The  Knight,"  and  several  others  of  hi* 
poems,  are  in  the  style  of  Butler,  whom  he  greatly  ad- 
mired and  imitated,  perhaps  too  servilely!  yet  with,  some 

$0  M.ES.T  ON. 

ftucbess.  In  the  -second  decade,  written  under  the  name 
of  Jodocus,  there  are  several  poems  in  Latin,  and  tbe 
title  was  in  that  language.  It  runs  thns :  "  Decadem  al- 
teram, ex  probatissimis  auctoribus,  in  usum  Jtrventtttis 
Knguse  Latins,  praesertim  veroe  poeseos  studios®,  selectarn, 
et  in  scholis  ad  propagandam  fidem  iegendam:  admrxtis 
subinde  nonoullis,  in  gratiam  Pulchrioris  Sexus,  vernaculis, 
subjunxit  Jodocus  Gpimolns  Aniculae  nostras  pronepos." 
His  Latin  poetry  is  of  no  great  excellence.1 

METASTASIO  (Peter),  the  most  illustrious  poet  of 
modern  Italy,  whose  true  name  was  Trapassi,  was  born 
at  Rome  Jan.  6,  1698,  the  second  son  of  Felice  Trapassi 
of  Assisi.  Felice,  though  a  free  citizen  of  Assisi,  was  very 
poor,  and  settled  at  Rome  in  a  small  way  of  business.  His 
son  was  very  early  distinguished  for  an  extraordinary  talent 
at  speaking  extemporary  verses ;  and,  at  ten  years  old, 
used  to  attract  a  little  audience  in  the  street  by  the  melody 
of  his  voice,  and  the  sweetness  of  his  unpremeditated 
poetry.  The  celebrated  Gravina,  among  others,  acci- 
dentally heard  him,  and  was  so  charmed  with  his  talents, 
that,  with  the  consent  of  his  parents,  he  undertook  to  give 
him  an  education  ;  and  changed  his  name  from  Trapassi  to 
Meta&tasio,  a  kind  of  Italianized  Greek  translation  of  the 
former  na/ne  :  and  so  much  was  he  pleased  with  his  dispo-' 
sition  and  talents,  that  he  finally  adopted  him,  and  made 
kirn  his  heir. 

Though  Gravina  had  first  noticed  his^  young  friend  for 
tps  extraordinary  poetical  talents,  be  was  very  desirous 
afterwards  to  wean  him  from  that  delightful  art,  and  fix 
him  to  his  own  profession  of  the  law ;  an  attempt  which 
has  equally  failed  in  the  case  of  many  other  celebrated 
poets.  Metastasio  struggled  hard  to  obey  his  patron  ;  but 
bis  passion  for  poetry  was  insuperable,  and  Gravina  was 
obliged  to  give  way  a  little,  and  put  the  best  poets  into  his 
hands.  Thus  indulged,  he  produced  at  fourteen  the  tra- 
gedy of  "  Giustiho,"  written  to  please  his  master,  exactly 
on  the  Greek  model.  Gravina  appears  to  have  been  so 
mollified  by  this,  as  to  be  still  more  indulgent  to  his  na- 
tural propensity,  and  carried  him  at  eighteen  to  Naples, 
that  he  might  contend,  in  singing  extemporaneous  verses, 
with  the  most  celebrated  improvisstori  of  Italy.  This  he 
did  with  a  success  that  confirmed  and  much  extended  his 

1  Life,  af  above. 


fMrie.'  The  order,  clearness,  and  learning,  with  which  he 
treated  the  subjects,  the  sweetness  of  his  voice,  the  grace 
<^f  his  action,  his  modest  deportment,  with  the  expression, 
j^eauty,  and  dignity  of  his  countenance,  gained  'him  uni- 
versal admiration.  But  with  his  poetical  studies,  Meta* 
stasio  continued  to  pursue  that  of  the  law ;  and  in  order  to 
obtain  a  passport  to  the  two  most  promising  roads  to  pre* 
ferment  in  'Rome,  assumed  the  clerical  habit,  and  took  the 
minor  order  of  priesthood.  Hence  he  is  usually  styled 

<  At  the  age  of  twenty  be  lost  his  excellent  preceptor  and 
patron,  Gravina,  who  died  in  1718.  Metastasio,  whose 
writings  evince  him  to  have  been  all  tenderness,  bewailed 
bis  death  in  the  celebrated  elegy  called  "  La  strada  della 
Gloria,"  and  found  when  the  will  was  examined,  that  he 
was  made  heir  to  all  his  fortune.  Being  now  become  a 
patron,  instead  of  a  dependant,  he  kept  a  handsome  table, 
?t  which,  as  may  be  supposed,  he  easily  obtained  guests : 
he  abandoned  the  law,  and  cultivated  poetry  ;  and  in  about 
two  years  found  himself  nearly  at  the  end  of  bis  15,000 
crowns,  Which  had  been  the  bequest  of  his  patron.  He 
flow  went  to  Naples,  with  a  serious  intention  to  return  to 
the  study  of  the  law ;  but  his  instructor  Paglietti  was  harsh, 
the  admirers  of  his  poetry  were  numerous,  and,  in  1721, 
we  find  him  addressing  an  epithatamium  to  the  marquis 
Pignatelli,  at  the  desire  of  the  countess  of  A 1  than.  His 
drama  of  Endymion,  the  first  that  he  produced  expressly 
for  music,  was  written  about  the  same  time.  He  went  on, 
though  partly  by  stealth,  on  account  of  the  inexorable 
lawyer  under  whom  he  was  studying ;  till  the  acquaintance 
of  the  Romaniua,  the  greatest  singer  and  actress  of  the 
time,  finally  determined  him  to  quit  both  his  preceptor 
and  that  profession  which  he  had  ever  studied  so  unwill- 
ingly- The  effect  of  his  first  opera,  "  The  Garden  of  the 
Hesperides,"  upon  the  audience,  is  described  as  singular 
in  the  extreme.  By  the  beauties  of  the  verse,  the  excel* 
lence  of  the  sentiments,  and  every  species  of  merit,  the 
audience,  usually  noisy,  was  charmed  into  profound  atten- 
tion, and  the  whole  was  heard  with  a  silence  then  perfectly 
Uncommon  in  the  Italian  theatres. 

From  this  time  Metastasio  united  his  family  establishment 
frith  that  of  the  Romanina  and  her  husband,  and  lived  the 
Hfe  of  a  poet,'  amidst  harmony  and  poetry.  Thus  situated, 
he  wrote  within  a  short  period,  three  more  dramas;  "  Catone 



in  Utica,"  a  Ezio,"  and  "  Semiramide  riconosciata." 
But  it  was  now,  in  1729,  the  thirty-second  year  of  Meta- 
stases life,  that  he  was  to  change  his  country.  A  letter, 
dated  Aug.  31,  in  that  year,  from  prince  Pio  of  Savoy* 
invited  him  to  the  court  of  the  emperor,  as  coadjutor  to 
signior  Apostolo  Zeno,  in  the  office  of  imperial  laureat. 
All  matters  of  appointment  being  settled  to  his  mind,  be 
resolved,  though  with  reluctance,  to  quit  Italy,  and  his 
Italian  connections,  for  this  new  country:  and  he  actually 
arrived  at  Vienna  in  July  1730.  From  this  time  the  life 
of  Metastasio  was  uniform,  even  beyond  what  is  usual  to 
men  of  letters.  He  resided  continually  in  one  city,  Vienna; 
and  in  one  house,  that  of  M.  Martinetz  :  with  the  /excep- 
tion only  of  a  visit  in  the  autumn,  which  for  a  long  time 
was  annual,  to  the  countess  of  Althan  in  Moravia,  where 
he  sought  health  from  the  bracing  air  of  the  mountains. 
To  make  the  uniformity  of  his  life  more  singular,  he  was 
naturally  and  habitually  attached  to  an  exact  regularity, 
and  passed  one  day  precisely  as  he  passed  another,  al- 
lotting particular  hours  for  particular  occupations.  His 
usual  routine  was  this,  according  to  the  report  of  Dr.  Bur~ 
ney.  "  He  studied  from  eight  in  the  morning  till  noon  ; 
then  he  visited  his  friends,  and  those  families  and  indi- 
viduals from  whom  he  had  received  civilities.  He  dined 
at  twb ;  and  at  five  received  his  most  familiar  and  intimate 
friend 3.  At  nine,  in  summer,  he  went  out  in  his  carriage, 
visited,  and  sometimes  played  at  ombre >  a  game  which 
he  liked  better  than  those  of  mere  chance,  as  it  afforded 
him  exercise  of  mind  in  calculation.  He  returned  home 
at  ten  o'clock,  supped,  and  went  to  bed  before  eleven." 
This  monotonous  mode  of  life  has  by  some  been  ridiculed, 
and  certainly  would  not  be  expected  in  a  poet;  but  the 
varieties  of  human  nature  are  endless,  and  in  him  the  love 
of  order  had  superseded  the  more  common  passion  for 
change  and  variety.  A  very  interesting  part  of  the  history 
of  Metastasio,  is  his  long  and  steady  friendship  with  the 
celebrated  Farinelli.  From  appearing  first  before  the  pub- 
lic about  the  same  time,  the  one  as  a  singer,  the  other  as 
a  poet,  in  1723,  they  called  each  other  Gemelli,  or  twins  ; 
and  their  attachment,  which  was  of  the  most  sincere  and 
ardent  kind,  ended  only  with  tbeir  lives,  which  were  ex- 
tended nearly  to  the  same  period.  His  other  tuneful  friend 
died  early,  namely,  in  the  beginning  of  1734,  and,  as 
a  mark  of  her  regard,  left  him  heir  to  all  her  property, 


after  the  death  of  her  husband,  to  the  amount  of  25,000 
crowns  ;  but  Metastasio,  with  his  usual  sense  of  propriety, 
and  with  great  generosity,  relinquished  the  whole  bequest, 
*nd  restored  it  to  the  disposal  of  her  husband. 

"  Whether  Metastasio's  connection  with  the  Romanina 
.was  purely  Platonic,"  says  Dr.  Burney,  "  or  of  a  less  se- 
raphic kind,  I  shall  not  pretend  to  determine;  but  the 
husband  residing  in  the  same  house  with  them,  both  at 
Naples  and  at  Rome,  and  the  friendly  manner  in  which  the 
poet  always  mentioned  htm  in  his  letters  to  the  wife,  with 
the  open  manner  in  which  he  expressed  his  affliction,  in 
writing  to  him  after  her  death,  would,  in  England,  be 
thought  indications  favourable  to  conjugal  fidelity.  But  a 
chaste  actress,  and  opera  singer,"  he  adds,  "is  a  still 
more  uncommon  phenomenon  in  Italy,  than  in  Britain." 
The  ideas  of  that  country  are  indeed  totally  different  from 
those  which  we  entertain  on  these  subjects  ;  and  it  is  very 
probable,  that  the  mutual  attachment  of  Metastasio  and 
his  wife  gave  great  pleasure  to  the  husband  Bulgarini,  as 
£n  honour  conferred  upon  his  family. 

In  1738  Metastasio  was  honoured  by  the  voluntary  gift 
of  nobility,  from  the  city  of  Assisi.  In  1740  he  lost  his 
patron,  the  emperor  Charles  VI.  His  place  was,  however, 
continued  under  Charles  VII.  and  Francis  I.  the  successor 
•f  that  prince.  Through  the  interest  of  Farinelli  he  after* 
wards  enjoyed  also  the  regard  and  patronage  of  the  court 
of  Spain,  for  which,  though  he  did  not  visit  the  country, 
he  was  often  employed  to  write. 

-  Thus  lived  Metastasio.  Always  employed  in  writing, 
sometimes  by  imperial,  sometimes  by  regal  command :  al- 
ways anxious  about  the  merit  of  his  productions,  and 
always  composing  such  as  ought  to  have  removed  all 
anxiety.  He  died,  after  a  short  illness,  on  the  12th  of 
April,  1782,  being  just  eighty-four.  Farinelli,  a  letter  to 
whom,  from  mademoiselle  IVJartinetz,  gives  the  most  ^ex- 
act account  of  his  death,  lived  only  to  September  of  the 
same  year.  Metastasio  was  interred  in  the  parish  church 
of  St.  Michael,  in  Vienna.  His  funeral  rites  were  per- 
formed with  splendor  by  signior  Joseph  Martinetz,  whom 
he  had  made  his  heir.  The  inheritance  he  left,  "consisted 
in  a  well  furnished  habitation,  a  coach,  horses,  a  great 
quantity  of  princely  presents,  a  very  ample  and  select  col- 
lection of  books,  with  a  capital  of  130,000  florins ;  from 
which;  however,  were  to  be  deducted  twenty  thousand  for- 



each  of  Metastases  sisters,  and  three  thousand  for  each  of 
bis  younger  brothers.'!  The  circumstances  of  his  life  are 
chiefly  preserved  by  means  of  his  letters,  a  large  collec- 
tion of  which  has  been  published ;  and  they  are  used  by 
his  English  biographer  for  amplifying  the  narrative.  His 
correspondents  are  among  the  most  extraordinary  men  of 
his  time,  and,  in  all  points  of  view,  his  character  vfcas  re- 
spectable, and  indeed  amiable.  Hist  life  has  frequently 
been  written,  and  his  works  appear  united  in  edition*  pub* 
lished  in  several  parts  of  Europe.  He  was  an  enemy  t<> 
that  pompous,  verbose,  and  obscure  style  which  prevailed 
in  his  country  a  few  years- ago  ;  and  he  was  persuaded  that 
the  first  duty  "of  a  writer,  in  prose  or  verse,  is  to  be  un- 
derstood. "  The  style  of  Metastasio,"  says  an  Italian  cri* 
tic,  "  never  fails  to  please  those  who  give  way  to  their  own 
feelings,  more  than  persons  of  profound  meditation ;  and 
I  would  rather  be  accused  of  partiality  to  him  whom  I  ve- 
nerate and  love,  than  ranked  with  cold  philosophers  and 
deep  thinkers,  whom  I  may  respect  but  cannot  love/9  He 
regarded  "  Atilio  Regolo,"  as  his  best  opera ;  "  Betulia 
liberata,"  as  his'  best  oratorio  ;  and  "  Artaserse,"  as  the 
most  fortunate  of  bis  dramas ;  for,  however  set  or  sung,  it 
was  always  successful.  To  give  a  list  of  his  works,  as  they 
are  always  found  collectively,  would  be  superfluous.  Dr. 
Burney.  has  given  one  that  is  very  ample,  and  arranged  in 
chronological  order,  with  the  character  and  peculiarities  of 
each.  Hence  it  appears,  that  he  produoed  twenty-six 
operas,  eight  oratorios,  or  sacred  dramas,  besides  occa- 
sional pieces,  such  as  we  should  call  masques,  in  great 
numbers;  with  cantatas,  canzonets,  sonnets,  and  every' 
kind  of  miscellaneous  poetry.  He  wrote  also,  sometraos- 
lations  from  classics ;  an  excellent  analysis  of  Aristotle'* 
poetics,  entitled  "  Estrato  dell1  Arte  Poetica  d'Aristotiie* 
et  oonsiderationi  sue  la  medesima ;"  with  short  accounts  of 
all  the  Greek  dramas,  tragic  and  comic,  and  bis  own  cri- 
tical remarks.  Few  authors  have  been  more  prolific,  «  and 
none,  perhaps,  so  completely  successful  in  every  effort  of 
the  mind.  It  is  a,  pleasing  reflection  that  Metastasio  wa& 
always  as  much  beloved  for  his  amiable  qualities-,  as  ad-4 
mired  for  those  by  which  he  was  constituted  a  poet,  and! 
one  of  the  most  enchanting  of  all  poets.  Perfectly  master 
of  the  resources  of  his  art,  he  reduced  the  opera  to  rules. 
He  banished  from  it  machines,  and  other,  improbabilities** 
which  amuse  the  eye  without  affecting  the  heart;  substi* 

M  E  T  A  STASIO.  98 

tuting  natural  situations  of  interesting  personages,. which, 
often  produce  the  full  effect  of  tragedy.  His.  actions  ar* 
great,  bis  characters  well  conceived  and  supported,  and 
his  plots  conducted  with  address.  There  are  scenes  of 
Metastases,  says  Voltaire,  worthy  of  Corneille  when  he 
avoids  declamation,  or  of  Racine  when  he  is  not  languid. 
Never,  therefore,  was  patronage  better  bestowed  thart  that 
of  Grayina;  and  though  such  talents  could  not  have  been 
bidden,,  their  early  maturity  and  final  perfection  must  be 
in  a  great  part  attributed  to  the  culture  and  attentions  of 
that  able  roaster.  * 

METEREN  (Emanuel  de)  a  protestant  historian,  was 
born  at  Antwerp  July  9,  1535.  His  father,  Jacob  de  Me- 
taeren,  was  of  Balda;  his  mother,  Ortelia,  was  the  daughter 
of  William  Ortelis,  or  Ortelius,  of  Augsburgh,  grand* 
father  of  the  celebrated  geographer,  Abraham  Ortelius. 
He  wps  carefully  educated  in  the  languages  and  sciences, 
and  when  a  youth,  is  reported  to  have  attempted  to  trans* 
late  the  Bible  into  English,  which,  says  fiullart,  made  his 
x&ligious  principles  to  be  suspected.  His  father,  who  had 
embraced  the  protestant  religion,  being  obliged  to  take 
refuge  in  England,  took  this  son  with  him,  and  gave  him? 
the  choice  of  continuing  his  studies,  or  embarking  in  com- 
mence. Emanuel,  having  preferred  the  latter,  was  sent  to 
Antwerp,  and  engaged  with  a  merchant  in  that  city,  where 
he  continued  about  ten  years,  but  his  father  had  not  the' 
happiness  to  witness  his  progress,  as  he  and  his  wife  were 
drowned  in  their  passage  from  Antwerp  to  London.  Ema- 
nuel, during  his  residence  at  Antwerp,  after  this  disaster, 
employed  his>  leisure  hours  in  collecting  information  re- 
specting the  history  of  the  Netherlands;  and  having  ac- 
qvured'  the  confidence  of  various  persons  of  eminence  in 
the  government*  he  succeeded  in  obtaining  much  secret 
history  of  the  times,  which  be  published  under  the  title  of 
"t  Hwtowa.rernm  potissitnum  in  Belgio  gestarum,"  &c.  It' 
appears  that  he  had  sent  some  copies  of  this  work  in  Ger- 
man to  a  friend,  who  was  to  procure  engravings  for  it,  but* 
who  caused  it  to  lie  printed  for  his  own  benefit  in  Latin 
and  German,  yet  with  the  name  of  the  author,  whose  re- 
putation? he  did  not  value  so  much  as  the  profits  of  the 
wotfki  Meteven,  on  hearing  this,  procured  an  order  from 
the*  States  ta  suppress  this  .edition,  which  is  dated  1599, 

■*  Burney's  fcife  df  MctMtesta 


and  afterwards  published  it  himself.  He  was  enabled  t<fc 
revisit  London  again  in  the  reign  of  James  I.  as  consul  for 
the  Flemings.  In  this  office  he  acquitted  himself  with 
spirit  and  ability,  and  wrote  an  ample  volume  of  the  trea- 
ties of  commerce  which  formerly  subsisted  betwixt  the 
English  nation,  the  house  of  Burgundy,  and  the  states  of 
Holland.  He  died  at  Loudon,  April  8,  1612,  and  was 
interred  in  the  church  of  St.  Dionis  Back-Church,  Ferr- 
church-street,  where  his  relict  erected  a  monument  to  his 
memory,  which  was  destroyed  in  the.  great  fire.  * 

METHODIUS,  a  father  of  the  church,  bishop  of  Olym- 
pus,  or  Patera,  in  Lycia,  and  afterwards  of  Tyre  in  Pa- 
lestine, suffered  martyrdom,  at  Cbalcis,  a  city  of  Greece* 
towards  the  end  of  Dioclesian's  persecution  in  the  year  $02 
or  303.     Epiphanius  says  "  that  he  was  a  very  learned 
man,  and  a  strenuous  asser tor  of  the  truth."     St,  Jerome 
lias  ranked   him  in  his  catalogue  of  church  writers;  but 
Eusebius  has  not  mentioned  him ;  which  silence  is  attri* 
buted  by  some,  though  merely  upon  conjecture,  to  Me-. 
thodius's  having  written  very  sharply  against  Origeny  wlw. 
was   favoured   by    Eusebius.     Methodius   composed  in <  a< 
clear  and  elaborate  style  several  works :  a  large  one  "  Against 
Porphyry  jthe  philosopher;"  u  A  Treatise  on  thelResur- 
rection,"  against  Origen;  another  on  "  Pythontssa,"  against 
the  same ;-  a  book  entitled  "  The  banquet  of  Virgins ;"  one 
on  "  Free-will ;"  "  Commentaries  upon  Genesis,  and  the 
Canticles;9'  and  several  other  pieces  extant  in  St  Jerome's 
time.    Father  Combesis  collected  several  considerable  frag* 
ments  of  this  author,  cited  by  Epiphauius,  Photius,  rand. 
others,  and  printed  them  with  notes  of  bis  [own  at  Paris,  in. 
1644,  together  with  the  works  of  Amphilochius  and  An- 
dreas C  re  ten  sis,  in  folio.    But  afterwards  Possious,.  a  Jesuit, 
found  "„  The  Banquet  of  Virgins"  entire,  in  a  manuscript, 
belonging  to  the  Vatican  library ;  and  sent  it,  with  a  Latin:* 
version  of  his  own,  into  France,  where  it  was  printed  in' 
1657,  folio,  revised  and  corrected  -  by  another  manuscript 
in    the   library  of  cardinal  Mazarin.  .  We   cannot  doubt, 
that  this  is  the  true  and  genuine  work  of  Methodius;, as; 
it  not  only  carries  all   the  marks  of  antiquity  in  it,  but: 
contains  word  for  word  all  the  passages  that  Photius  had 
cited  out  of  it     It  is  written  in  the  way  of  dialogue,  after 
the  manner  of  "  Plato's  Banquet  of  Socrates  ;"  with  this 

1  Rallart's  Academie  des  Sciencts,  rol.  I.— Granger.*— Foppen  Bibl,  Belg. 

ME  T  HO  D  I  U  g.  97 


difference,  that  the  speakers  here  are  women,  who  indeed 
talk  very  learnedly  and  very  elegantly.1 

(Adolphus),  a  learned  writer,  was  born  at  Bruges  in  1528, 
and  passed  the  greater  part  of  his  life  in  the  service  of 'the 
revolted  states  of  the  Low  Countries,  as  counsellor  of  state, 
aftd  envoy  to  the  foreign  potentates.  He  was  employed 
on  an  embassy  to  queen  Elizabeth  in  the  latter  part  of  his 
life,  an  office  which  was  probably  very  agreeable  to  him,  as 
lie  was  a  protestant,  and  had  resided  here  for  the  quiet  en- 
joyment of  his  religion  for  some  time  before  he  was  ap- 
pointed on  the  embassy.  He  appears  to  have  been  an  or- 
nament and  delight  of  the  age  in  which  he  lived,  second  to 
none  in  literary  accomplishments,  and  was  a  man  also  of 
great  benevolence  and  amiable  temper.  Grief  for  the  loss 
of  his  son  is  said  to  have  hastened  his  death,  which  took 
place  at  London  in  1591,  in  his  sixty-fourth  year.  He  was 
buried  in  the  church  of  St.  Botolph,  Aldersgate,  under  a 
monument  which,  when  that  church  was  rebuilt,  was  con- 
veyed to  Julians,  near  Buntingford,  in  Hertfdrdshire,  the 
seat  of  his  descendants  who  settled  in  this  country,  and 
where  some  of  them  are  still  living.  The  present  owner 
of  the  estate  is  in  possession,  among  others,  of  a  folio  MS. 
of  Greek  and  Latin  poetry  »by  his  ancestor,  the  subject  of 
this  article,  with  additions  by  his  son  Adolphus,  who  died 
without  issue,  and  by  his  son  Edward,  D.  D.  of  Christ- 
church,  Oxford,  professor  of  Hebrew  in  that  university,  and 
prebendary  of  Winchester.  He  became  professor  in  1621, 
and  died  in  1660.  Foppen  asserts  that  sir  Adolphus,  as 
the  ambassador  was  called,  declared  in  writing,  on  his 
death -bed,  that  there  was  no  true  religion  out  of  the  ca- 
tholic church,  and  that  his  daughter  was  so  struck  with  this 
as  to  return  to  Bruges,  arid  to  the  Roman  catholic  religioa: 
As  far  as  respects  the  daughter,  this  may  be  true,  but  her 
father  certainly  died  in  the  protestant  faith,-  as  appears  by 
the  inscription  on  his  monument,  which  Fopplen  is  ob- 
liged to  confess,  is  written  "  stylo  acatholico."  '  Sir  Adol- 
phus published  in  1565,  not  a  translation  of  sortie  pieces  of 
ffitfn  and  Moschus,  as  it  hks*  been  erroneously  Called,  b\x% 
tfee-first  edition  of  "  Bion  and  Rioschus,"  printed  at  Bruges* 
in  1565,  4to,  Gr.  and  Lat.  It  has  a  double  Latin  version 
with  the  Variorum  scholia,  the  elegies  of  PhanocHs,  and 

1  Cave,  vol,  I,*-Dupin. — Lardrier's  Works.  • 

Vol..  XXII.  H 



sonre  fragments  of  propertius.  It  is  a  very  rare  and  curious 
edition.  He  translated  into  Latin  verse  "  Theocriti  EpU 
grammata,"  and  published  a  treatise/'  De  veteri  et  recta 
pronuntiatione  lingua  Graecae  Commentarius,"  Bruges,. 
J56.5,  and  Antwerp,  1576,  8vo.  He  contributed  also  to 
editions  of  the  "  Fasti  Consulares,"  "  Vitae  Cfiesarum,*7 
"  Magna  Graecia,"  &c;  and  in  his  political  character  pub- 
lished "A  Collection  of  the  Proceedings  at  the  Peace  of 
Cologne,  in  1579."  * 

METO,  or  METON,  a  celebrated  mathematician  of 
Athens,  who  flourished  43.2  B.  C.  was  the  son  of  Pausanias* 
He  observed^  in  the  first  year  of  the  87th  olympiad,  the 
solstice  at  Athens,  and  published  his  cycle  of  19  years,  by 
which  he  endeavoured  to  adjust  the  course  of  the  sun  anil 
moon^  and  to  make  the  solar  and  lunar  years  begin  at  the 
same  point  of  time.  This  is  called  the  Metouic  period,  ox 
cycle.  It  is  also  called  the  golden  number,  from  its  great 
use  in  the  calendar.  Meton  was  living  about  the  year  412 
B.  C.  for  when  the  Athenian  fleet  was  sent  to  Sicily,  be 
escaped  from  being,  embarked  on  that  disastrous  expedition, 
by  counterfeiting  an  appearance  of  idiotism.* 
\  METOCHITA  (Theodore),  of  Constantinople,  was. 
one  of  the  most  learned  Grecians  in  the  fourteenth  cen- 
tury. He  held  considerable  offices  under  the  emperor  An- 
dronicus  the  Elder,  but  in  the  reign  of  his  successor,  was. 
banished,  and  hisVoods  confiscated.  He  was  afterwards 
recalled,  and  died  in  1332,  in  a  monastery  which  he  had 
founded.  He  was  called  a  living  Library,  from  his  great 
erudition  ;  and  left  several  valuable  works,  the  principal 
among  which  are,  "An  Abridgement  of  the  Roman  History,, 
from  Julius  Caesar  to  Constantine  the  Great,"  1628,  4to;. 
*/  The  Sacred  History,"  iu  two  books,,"  translated  by  Herve* 
Paris,  1555,  4to;  "The  History  of  Constantinople  ;"  and. 
^A  Paraphrase  on  Aristotle's  Physics."  In  1790,  was 
published  "  Specimina  operum  Theod.  Metochitae,  cum* 
praefatione  et  notis  primum  vulgata  ab  Jano  Blocb,"  Hau-. 
fiioe,  in.8vo.  * 

'  METROPHANES  CRITOPYLUS,  the  patriarch  o£ 
Alexandria  in  the  seventeenth  century,  was  sent  into  Eng^ 
land  by  Cyrillus  Lucar,  to  be  instructed  in  the  doctrine  and* 

''  *  Foppen  Bib).  Bel^.— Freh'eri  Theatrum;— Gent.  Mag.  vol  LXVlh  where  i&- 
^portrait  of  hipi  copied  from  Foppen'r;*— Saxii  Onomast.  .  * 

8  Moreri.-— Rees's  Cyclopaedia.— Hutton's  Diet. 

3  Vossius  de  Hist.  Gracap-Moreru— • -Saxii  Onomast..  • 

METROPHANES.       9» 

discipline  of  our  church,  and  to  learn  the  English  and' La- 
tin languages.  For  these  purposes  he  applied  to  archbishop 
Abbot,  who  procured  him  admission  into  Baliol  college, 
Oxford,  where  he  remained  until  1622,  at  which  time  be 
was  chancellor  to  the  patriarch  of  Constantinople ;  but  on 
his  return  .to  his  .own  country,  was  chosen  patriarch  of 
Alexandria.  On  his  way  home,  and  while  in  Germany,  he 
drew  up  "  A  Confession  of  Faith  of  the  Greek  Church," 
printed  at  Heimstadt,  Gr.  and  Lat.  in  1661.  It  inclines 
chiefly  to  the  protestant  doctrines ;  but  catholic  writers 
have  declared  themselves  satisfied  with  some  parts  of  it. 
The  time  of  his  death  is  not  known,  but  he  is  said  to  have 
been  living  in  1640.1  < 

,  METTRIE  (Julibn  Ofpray  de  la),  a  very  eccentric 
French  author  and  physician,  was  born  at  St.  Maloes  in 
1709.  He  studied  physic  under  Boerhaaye,*  after  which 
he  removed  to  Paris,  and  became  an  army-surgeon  in  the 
French  guards.  The  duke  of  Grammont,  who  was  his  pro- 
tector, being  takep  very  ill  at  the  siege  of  Fribourg,  he 
began,  in  his  attendance  upon  him,  to  speculate  upon  the 
nature  of  the  soul,  and  to  perceive,  as  he  fancied,  that  it 
is  mortal.  He  wrote  "  The  Natural  History  of  the  Soul," 
which  being  highly  impious  in  its  doctrines,  raised  a  storm 
against  him  from  which  his  patron  with  difficulty  could 
defend  him.  He  then  turned  his  pen  against  his  brethren, 
atyd  wrote  "  Penelope,  or  the  Machiavel  in  medicine,"  in 
3;  vols.  12mo.  The  rage  of  the  faculty,  in  consequence  of 
this  satire,  drove  him  out  of  France ;  and  he  retired  to 
Leyden,  where  he  published  u  L'Homme  Machine,"  .a 
treatise  of  materialism,  in  which  the  philosophy  is  as'  in- 
correct and  ill  argued  as  it  is  pernicious.  But  lie  declaims 
with  an  ardour  too  likely  to  captivate  weak  minds,  and 
draw  them  over  to  his  opinions.  This  book  could  not  de- 
tain toleration  even  in  Holland ;  it  was  publicly  burnt,  and 
the  author  obliged,  in  1748,  to  fly  for  refuge  to  Berlin, 
and  at  this  court  he  was  protected,  made  a  member  of  the 
academy,  and  honoured  with  places  under  the  king.  Here 
he  lived  in  tranquillity,  till  his  violent  system  of  bleeding, 
very  like  that  of  Dr.  Sangrado,  put  an  early  period  to  his 
life,  as  it  had  to  those  of  several  patients ;  and  he  died  in 
1751,  being  then  only  48.  ,  His  works  were  published  col- 
lectively at.  Berlin  the  same  year,  in  one  vol  4to,  and  two  * 

}  Sazii  Onomsst*  in  Critopylus.— Ath.  Ox.  vol.  I. 

H  2 

1Q9  METTRIEi    ' 

12 mo.  The  same  kind  of  false  philosophy  pervades  then* 
all.  The  king  of  Prussia,  however,  conferred  on-  him  a 
very  singular  honour,  even  after  his  death;  for  he  wrote 
his  funeral  oration,  which  he  caused  to  be  pronounced  in* 
the  academy  by  one  of  his  secretaries.  Voltaire  said  of 
him,  that  he  was  a  madman  who  wrote  in  a  state  of  intoxi- 
cation. f 

METZU  (Gabriel),  a  Dutch  painter  of  small  portraits, 
was  bqrn  at  Ley  den  in  1615.     His  master  is  not  known, 
Itut  he, studiously  imitated  Gerard  Dow,  and  Mieris.     The 
beauty  of  bis  colouring  is  particularly  esteemed,  and  he 
finished  his  paintings  with  great  labour.     His  subjects  were 
usually  taken  from  low  life,  but  they  were  alL  designed' 
after  nature,  and  represented  with  astonishing  skill ;  such 
as  women  selling  fish,  fowls,  or  game;  sick  persons  at-' 
tended  by  the  physician ;  chemists  in  their  laboratories  ; 
painters  rooms,  shops,    and  drawing-schools,    hung  with 
prints  and  pictures ;  all  which  he  finished  with  extraordi- 
nary neatness,     They  are  not  scarce  in  this  country,  al- 
though highly  valued.     By  confining  himself  so  closely  to 
a  sedentary,  life,  he  became  violently  afflicted  with  the 
stone.     He  submitted  to  the  operation  of  cutting  for  it, 
but  had  not  strength  of  constitution  to  survive  the  opera-  ' 
tion,  and  died  in  1658,  at  the  age  of  forty-three.9 
.  MEULEN  (Anthony  Francis  Vander),  an  eminent'' 
artist,  was  born  at  Brussels  in  1634.     He  was  a  disciple  of 
Peter  Snayers,  a  battle  painter  of  considerable  note,  and 
his  early  progress  gave  strong  promise,  of  his  future  emi- 
nence.    His  ingenious  pictures  attracted  the  attention  of 
M.  Colbert,  the  minister  of.  Louis  XIV.,  who  induced  V. 
Meulen  to  settle  in  Paris;  and  soon  afterwards  introduced 
him  to  the  king,  who  appointed  him  to  attend  and  paint 
the  scenes  of  his  military  campaigns,  gave  him  a  pension  * 
of  2000  livres,  and  paid,  him  besides  for  his  performances* 
He  made  sketches  of  almost  all  the  most  remarkable  events  * 
that  occurred  in  these  expeditions  of  Louis;  designing  upon, 
the  spot  the  encampments,  marches,  sieges,    &c.  of  the 
armies ;  the  huntings  of  the  king  ;*  the  assembling  of  tlje 
officers,  &c:  from  these  he  composed  his  pictures,  which  ' 
are  skilfully  arranged,  with  great  bustle,  animation,  anil 
spirit,  and  executed  with  a  very  agreeable,  thoifgh  hot 
always  a  natural  tooe  of  colour,  and  with  a  sweet  and  • 

i  Diet,  flfet.  *  Argentine,  voK  HI.— Pilkrogtdrtv 

MEULEN.  noi 

/delicate  pencil.  Some'  of  his  pictures  exhibit  uncommon 
fikill  and  taste  in  composition.  Frequently  the  scene  he 
had  to  paint. wa$  flat  and  insipid,  such  as  a  marshy  country 
before  long  extended  walls ;  even  these  he  contrived  to 
render  Agreeable  by  his  judicious  management  of  tbechiarq-r 
scuro,  and  the  pleasiug  groups  which  he  displayed  with 
his  figures*  which,  though  dressed  in  the  stiff  uncouth 
frippery  of  the  French  court  of  that  period,  are  handled 
with  so  much  delicacy  and  corresponding  taste,  that  they 
never  fail  to  please.  He  was  particularly  skilful  in  pouv- 
traying  the  actions  of  the  horse,  of  which  he  has  left  be- 
hind hi®  ,a  nuitober  of  excellent  studies,  drawn  with  great 
care  from  nature.  His  pictures  frequently  include  a  great 
extent  of  country,  and  an  immense  number  of  objects. 
His  perfect  knowledge  of  perspective  enabled  him  to 
manage  the  objects  and  distances  with  the  greatest  ease 
and  effect,  so  that  the  eye  accompanies  the  figures  without 
confusion,  and  assigns  to  each  its  due  action  and  distance. 
He  lived  not  beyond. the  age  of  56,  but  left  a  great  num- 
ber of  pictures,  most  of  which  are  in  France,  but  they  are 
not  very  unfrequent  in  this  country.  * 

MEUN,  or  MEUNG  (John  de),  was  born  at  a  little 
town  of  that  name,  situated  on  the  rivet  Loire,  near  Orleans, 
in  1280,  and  on  account  of  his  lameness  acquired  the  name 
of  Clopinel.  His  range  of  study  appears  to  have  been 
very  extensive,  including  philosophy,  astronomy,  chemis- 
try, arithmetic,  but  above  all,  poetry.  His  talents  recom- 
mended him  to  the  court  of  Philip  le  Bel,  which  he  en- 
livened by  his  wit,  but  often  at  the  same  time,  created 
.enemies  by  his  satirical  remarks.  He  is  supposed  to  have 
/died  about  1364.  His  name  is  preserved  on  account  of 
the  share  he  bad  in  the  celebrated  "  Roman  de  la  Rose*' 
.{see  LoaRis),  which  the  French  efrteem  the  most  valuable 
piece  of  their  old  poetry.  It  is,  says  Warton,  far  beyond 
the  rude  efforts  of  jdl  their  preceding  romancers.  John  of 
Meuo's  share  in  this  poem,  however,  is  inferior  in  poetical 
merit  to  that  of  Loiris,  as  he  had  little  of  his  predecessor's 
inventive  and  poetical  vein ;  but  it  has  strong  satire  and 
great  liveliness.  Chaucer,  who  translated  all  that  was 
written  by  William  of  Lorris,  gives  only  part  of  the  con- 
tinuation of  John  de  Meun.  Some  other  works  are  attri- 
buted to  the  latter,  which  are  of  little  value  unless  as  cu- 
riosities. •. 

*  Argenville,  vol.  III.. — Kees*§  Cyclopaedia.— -Walpole's  Anecdotes. 
f  JWct  HiBU^Bfnnet'i  Manuel  da  Libmk«w--»Warioa't  Hist.  »f  Poetry. 

102  M  E  U  R  S  I  U  S. 

MEURSIUS  (John),  a. learned  Dutchman,  was  born 
in  1579  at  Losdun,  a  town  near  the  Hague,  where  bis 
father  was  minister.  At  six  years  of  age  his  father  began 
•  to  teach  hitti  the  elements  of  the  Latin  language4;  and  the 
year,  after  sent  him  to  a  school  at  the  Hague,  where  he 
continued  four  years.  He  was  then  removed  to  Leyden, 
and  made  so  great  a. progress  in  literature,  that  at  twelve 
be  could  write  with  fluency  in  Latin.  He  advanced  with, 
-no  less  rapidity  in  the  Greek  language,  for  which  he  con- 
ceived a  particular  fondness ;  insomuch  that  at  thirteen  he 
made  Greek  verses,  and  at  sixteen  wrote  a  "  Commentary 
upon  Lycophron,"  the  most  obscure  of  all  the  Greek 
authors.  When  he  had  finished  the  course  of  his  studies; 
and  gained  the  reputation  of  a  person  from  whom  much, 
might  be  expected,  the  famous  John  Barnevelt  intrusted 
him  with  the  education  of  his  children  ;  and  he  attended 
them  ten  years,  at  home  and  in  their  travels.  This  gave 
him  an  opportunity  of  seeing  almost  all  the  courts  in  Eu- 
rope, of  visiting  the  learned  in  their  several  countries,  and 
of  examining  the  best  libraries.  As  he  passed  through 
Orleans,  in  1608,  he  was  made  doctor  of  law.  Upon  hte 
return  to  Holland,  the  curators  of  the  academy  of  Leyden 
appointed  him,  in  1610,  professor  of  history,  and  after- 
ward of  Greek;  and  the  year  following,  the  States'  of 
Holland  chose  him  for  their  historiographer.  In  1612  he 
married  a  lady  of  an  ancient  and  good  family,  by  whom. 
be  had  a  son,  called  after  his  own  name,  who  died  in  the 
flower  of  bis  age,  yet  not  till  he  had  givdn  specimens  bf 
bis  uncommon  learning,  by  several  publications. 

Barnevelt  having  been  executed  in  1619,  they  pro- 
xeeded  to  molest  all  who  had  been  any  way  connected  with 
him,  and  who  were  of  the  party  of  the  Remonstrants', 
which  he  had  protected.  Meursius,  as  having  been  pre- 
ceptor to  his  children,  was  unjustly  ranked  in  this  number, 
although  he  had  nevet  interfered  in  their  theological  dis- 
putes :  but  as  he  had  always  acquitted  himself  well  in  his 
professorship,  they  had  not  even  a  plausible  pretence  to 
remove  him  from  the  chair.  They  used,  however,  all  the 
means  of  ill  treatment  they  could  devise,  to  make  him  quit 
it  of  himself:  they  reproached  him  with  writing  too  many 
books,  and  said  that  the  university,  on  that  account,  did 
not  reap  any  benefit  from  his  studies.  -  Meursius,  thus 
ill-treated,  only  waited  for  an  opportunity  of  resigning  his 
post  with  honour;  and,  at  last,  in  1625,  the  following  fair 
one  presented  itself.    Christiem  IV.  king  of  Denmark, 

M.  £  U  R  S  1  U  S.  103 

offered  him  at  that  time  the  professorship  of  history  ancl 
"politics,  in  the  university  of  Sora,  which  he  bad  just  re- 
established ;  and  also  *  the  place  of  his  historiographer. 
These  Meursius  accepted  with  pleasure,  and  went  imme- 
diately to  Denmark,  where  he  tally  answered  all  the  ex- 
pectations which  had  been  conceived  of  his  capacity,  and 
was  highly  respected  by  the  king  and  the  chief  men  at 
court.  .  He  was  greatly  afflicted  with  the  stone  at  the 
latter  end  of  his  life,  and  died  Sept.  20,  1639,  aji  his 
epitaph  at  Sora  shews;  and  not  in  1641,  as  Valerius  An- 
dreas says  in  his  *'  Bibiiotheca  Belgica." 

^fost  authors  have  agreed  in  extolling  the  ingenuity, 
learning,  and  merit  of  Meursius  :  he  excelled  particularly 
in  the  knowledge  of  the  Greek  language  and  antiquities; 
and  applied  himself  with  such  indefatigable  pains  to  cor- 
rect, explain,  translate,  and  publish  many  works  of  the 
ancients,  that  John  Imperialis  asserted  that  more  Greejc 
authors,  with  Latin  versions  and  emendations,  had  been 
published  by  Meursius  alone  than  by  all  the  learned  to- 
gether for  the  last  hundred  years.  He  was  the  author  and 
editor  of  above  sixty  works,  many  of.  which  are  inserted  in 
the  collection  of  Greek  and  Latin  antiquities  by  Gravius 
and  Gronovhis.  His  "  Eleusinia,  sive  de  Cereris  Eleusinse 
♦sacro  et  festo,"  to  which  all  who  have  since  written  upon 
that  subject  have  been  greatly  indebted,  is  a  very  valuable 
work,  but  now  become  scarce.  We  do  not  know  that  it 
has  been  printed  more  than  twice :  first  at  Leyden,  1619, 
in  4to,  and  afterwards  in  the  seventh  volume  of  Grono- 
vius's  Greek  Antiquities.  The  entire  works  of  Meursius, 
however,  edited  by  Lami,  were  published  in  twelve  large 
volumes  in  folio,  at  Florence,  in  1741 — 63. 

It  seems  almost  heedless  to  observe,  that  the  shamefully 
obscene  Latin  work,  entitled  "  Meursius  de  elegaotiis  La- 
tinae  linguae,"  was  not  written  either  by  this  author  or  his 
"son;  but  was,  as* the  French  biographers  assures  us,  the 
production  of  Nicolas  Chorier,  an  attorney  at  Grenobl^. 
It  probably  had  the  name  of  John  Meursius  prefixed  by 
way  of  throwing  a  ridicule  upon  the  grave  and  learned  pro- 
fessor. His  son  produced,  as  we  have  said,  some  learned 
works,  but  not  such*  as  to  rival  those  of  his  father. ' 

MEXIA  (Peter),  a  historian  of  some  note  in  Spain, 
-when  history  was  mere  compilation,  was  a  native  of  Seville, 

J  Kjcerou,  vol.  XII. — Moreru 

.ia*  '  ■    ■■      M  E  X  I  A*    - 

*.  '  •  * 

.of  a.  family  of  some  rank,  aqd  liberally  educated,  Hv» 
inclination  being  principally  for. historical  studies,  be  w^s 
made  chronograi>her,  perhaps,  what  we  should  call,  histo- 
riographer to  Charles  V.  He  is  also  said  to  have  been  a 
jpoej.  Antonio  has  collected  from  various  authors,  his  con- 
temporaries, opinions  highly  favourable  to  bis  learning  aod 
knowledge....  The  only  fault  imputable  seems  to  be  that  of 
mixing  Latin  words  too  frequently  with  his  Spanish.  He 
died  about.  1532.  His  principal  work,  for  which  he  is 
known  in  this  country,  is  entitled  "  Silvade  varia  l*eccion," 
which  with  the  additions  of  the  Italian  and  French  trans^ 
Jators>  was  published  at  London  under  the  title  of  the 
'"  Treasury  of  ancient  and  modern  Times," .  fol.  TJae 
original  was  first  printed  at  Seville,  in  black-letter,  in  1542, 
fol.  often  reprinted,  and  translated  into  most  European 
languages,  with  additions.  His  other  writings  were,  a 
**  History  of  the  Csesars,"  Seville,  1545,  fol.  likewise  trans- 
lated by  W.  T.  and  enlarged  by  Edward  Grimestoq, 
Xond.  1623.  foL  2.  «  Colloquios  o  Dialogos,"  or  "  Laos 
Asini,"  in  imitation  pf  Lucian  and  Apuleius,  Seville  1547, 
Svo,  often  reprinted  and  translated  into  Italian.  3.  "  Pa- 
rentis de  Isocrates,"  He  }eft  some  MSS.  and  an  utv- 
{inished  life. of  Charles  V. ! 

MEYER  (James),  a  Flemish  historian- of  some  note, 
was  born  near  Bailleul  in  Flanders,  Jan.  7,  1491,  whence 
.he  is  sometimes  called  Baliolanus.  He  became  an  ecclesi- 
astic, and  finally  rector  of  Blackenbergh,  but  had  under- 
taken the  education  pf  youth  as  an  additional  source  of  sup- 
port. *  He  died  Feb.  5,  1552,<  Hb  principal  productions 
are,  1.  "Annates  rerum  Flandricarura,"  folio,  published 
at  Antwerp,  in  J56K  These  annals  are  carried  as  far  as 
,1477,  and  have  been  esteemed,  not  only  for  their  matter, 
but  for  ease  and  purity  of  style,  2.  "  Flandricarum  rerum 
decas,"  printed  at  Bruges,  in  1531,  4to.* 

MEYER,  or  MEYERS  (Jeremiah),  an  excellent  minia- 
ture painter,  was  born  at  Tubingen,  in  the  duchy  of  Wir- 
temberg,  in  1735,  and  came  to  England  in  1749,  with  his 
father,  who  was  portrait-painter  to  the  duke  6f  Wirtem- 
berg,  a  painter,  says  Edwards,  of  small  subjects,  but  of.  no 
great  talent.  His  son  studied  two  years  (1757  and  1758), 
under  JSink,  the  eminent  painter  in  enamel,  to  whom  he 
paid  two  hundred  pounds  for  instruction,  and  two  hundred 

J  Antonio  Bib].  Hist,  •  tficeron*  vol.  X^XIX.— Moreri. 

..  ME  YE;R.  rios 

♦pounds  more  for.  materials  of  his  art;  but  Meyer  soou  sur- 
passedbis  master,  in  (he  elegance  and  gusto  of  his  por- 
traits, a  superiority  which  he1  acquired  by  bis  attention  to 
.the  works  of  sir  Joshua  Reynolds,  who,  as  well  as  himself, 
was  at  that  time  rising  to  fame.  In  1761,  the  Society  far 
.the  Encouragement  of  Arts,  offered  a  premium  of  twenty 
.guineas  for  the  best,  drawing  of  a  profile  of  the .  king,  for 
.the  purpose  of  having  a  die  engraved  from  it ;  and  Meyer 
.obtained  the  prize*  He  was  afterwards  appointed  miniature 
.painter  to  the  queen.  In  1762»  he  was  naturalized  by  act 
of  parliament,  and  in  the  following  year  married  a  lady  of 
considerable  fortune  and  great  accomplishments.  In  1764, 
be  wa$.,appointed  painter  in  enamel  to  his  majesty. 

.He  wrought  both  in  enamel  and  water-colours,  and  bad 
^bo  competitor  until  Mr.  Humphrey,  in  the  latter  process, 
.produced  some  performances  of  exquisite  merit:  but  as 
that  gentleman  soon  quitted  miniature  painting,  be  left 
Meyer  without  a  rival  in  his  department.  Meyer  was  many 
years  a  member  of  the  academy  in  St.  MartinVlane;  and 
at  the  institution  of  the  royal  academy  he- was -chosen  one 
of  the  founders.  He  long  resided  in  Covent-garden,  but 
at  the  latter  part  of  his  life  he  retired  to  Kew,  where  be 
.died  Jan.  2Q,  1789.  This  event  was  the  consequence  of  a 
fever  contracted  by  friendly  zeal,  in  the  service  of  a  gen- 
tleman in  a  contested  election.  Mr.  Hayley  says  he  was 
no  less  admirable  as,  a  friend  than  as  an  artist :  and  endeared 
to  all  who.  knew  him  by  a  pleasant  social  vivacity,  and  by 
an  indefatigable  spirit  of  extensive  beneficence.  "  Were 
I  required,"  adds  Mr,  Hayley,  "  to  name  the  individual 
whom  I  believe  to  have  been  most  instrumental  in  pro- 
moting tbe  prosperity  of  others  (without  the  advantages  of 
official  authority,  or  of  opulence),  I  should  say, .  without 
hesitation,  Meyer."  ' 

MEZERAI  (Francis  Eudes  de),  a«  eminent  French  his* 

-torian,  was  born  at  Ry,  near  Argentau  in  Lower  Normandy, 

in  1610.  He  was  educated  in  the  university  of  Caen,  where 

.he  discovered  an  early  inclination  for  poetry  ;  and  had  him- 

<*ell  so  high  an  opinion  of  bis  talent  in  that  art,  that  he 

thought  be  should  be  able  to  raise  both  a  character  and  a 

fortune  by  it.   But,  upon  going  to  Paris,  be  was  dissuaded 

from  pursuing  poetry,  by  Vauquelin  des  Yveteaux,  who  bad 

1  Edwards's  CouHowtion  of  Wal pole's  Anecdotes.~»JJayley,g  Life  of  Rom* 
P*7t  PPf  6&  138, 

106  M  E  Z  E  R  A  I. 

*t>een  the  preceptor  of  Louis  XIII.  and  advised  to  apply 
'  himself  earnestly  to  history  and  politics,  as  the  surest  means 
of  succeeding  in  life.  In  the  mean  time,  that  gentleman 
procured  him  the  place  of  commissary  of  war,  which  he 
held  for  two  or  three  campaigns,  and  then  quitted  it. 
Upon  his  return  to  Paris,  he  resolved  to  spend  the  remainder 
of  bis  life  there;  and,  changing  the  name  of  his  family  as 
t>eing  an  obscure  one,  he  took  the  name  of  Mezerai,  which 
is  a  cottage  in  the  parish  of  Ry.  But  his  little  stock  tff 
money  made  him  apprehensive  that  he  should  not  be  able 
to  continue  long  at  Paris ;  and  therefore,  to  support  him-* 
«elf,  he  bad  recourse  to  writing  satires  against  the  ministry, 
articles  which  were  then  extremely  well  received,  and  for 
-which  he  had  naturally  a  turn.  M.  Larroque,  in  his  Life  of 
Mezerai,  assures  us,  that  he  was  author  of  all  the  piece* 
published  against  the  government  under  the  name  of  San- 
dricourt  They,  are  written  in  a  low  and  burlesque  style, 
jand  adapted  merely  to  please  the  populace.  Larroque  has 
given  us  the  titles  of  nineteen  of  these  pieces,  but  would 
1aot  give  those  of  others  which  Mezerai  wrote,  either 
during  the  minority  of  Louis  XIV,  or  against  cardinal 
Richelieu ;  u  because,"  he  says,  "  they  ought  to  be 
forgotten,  out  of  reverence  to  the  persons  whom  they  at- 

By  these  satires  Mezerai  gained  a  considerable  sum  in 
less  than  three  years;  and  being  now  in  easy  circumstances, 
applied  himself,  at  the  age  of  twenty- six,  to  compile  an 
"  History  of  France."  Cardinef  Richelieu,  hearing  of  hw 
character  and  circumstances,  made  him  a  present  of  two 
hundred  crowns,  with. a  promise  to  remember  him  after- 
wards. He  published  the  first  volume  of  his  history  ih 
1643,  which  extends  from  Pharamond  to  Charles  VI. ;  thte 
second  in  1646,  which  contains  what  passed  from  Charles 
VI.  to  Charles  IX.;  and  the  third  in  1651,  which  com- 
prehends the  history  from  Henry  IH.  till  the  peace  of  Ver- 
vins,  in  1598;  all  in  folio.  This  history  procured  him* 
pension  from  the  king.  It  was  received  with  extraor- 
dinary applause,  as  if  there  had  been  no  history  of  France 
before :  and  perhaps  there  was  none  more  agreeable  as  to 
veracity/  In  1668,  he  published,  :  in  3  vols.  4to,  an 
u  Abridgement  of  the  history  of  France  :"  in  which  there 
being  several  bold  passages,  which  displeased  Colbert,  that 
minister  ordered  Perrault,  of  the  French  academy,  to  tqjl 
Mezerai,  in  his  name,  that  "  the  king  had  not  given  him 

MEZERAi.  107 

Si  pension  of  4000  Hvres  to  write  in  so  free  a  manner ;  that 
hismajesty  had  indepd  too  great  a  regard  to  truth,  to  require 
bis  historiographers  to  disguise  it,  out  of  fear  or  hope ;  but 
that, he  did  not  think  they  ought  to  take  the  liberty  of  re- 
flecting, without  any  necessity,  upon  the  conduct  of  his 
ancestors,  and  upon  a  policy  which  had  long  been  estab- 
lished, and  confirmed  by  the  suffrages  of  the  whole  na- 
tion." Upon  this,  remonstrance,  the  author  promised  to 
retouch  the  passages  complained  of,  which  he  did  in  a 
new  edition,  1672,  in  6  vols.  12mo.  In  this,  however,  he 
was  so  unfortunate  as  neither  to  satisfy  the  public,  who 
were  displeased  to  see  the  truth  altered,  nor  the  minister, 
who  retrenched  half  his  pension.  Mezerai  was  extremely 
piqued  at  this,  and  complained  of  Colbert  in  such  severe 
terms,  as  induced  that  minister  to  deprive  him  of  the  re- 
mainder of  his  pension.  Mezerai  then  declared  that  he 
would  write  history  no  longer;  and  that  the  reason  of  his 
silence  might  not  be  concealed,  he  put  the  last  money 
which  he  recieved  as  historiographer,  into  a  box  by  itself, 
with  this  note :  "  Here  is  the  last  money  I  have  received  of 
the  king ;  he  has  ceased  to  pay  me,  and  1  to  speak  of  hini 
either  good  or  ill."  Mezerai  had  designed  at  first  to  revise 
his  great  work  ;  but  some  friends  giving  him  to  understand 
that  a  correct  abridgement  would  be  more  acceptable,  he 
followed  their  advice,  as  we  have  related*  and  spent  tea 
whole  years  in  drawing  it  up.  The  first  edition  of  it  met 
with  greater  applause  than  even  his  larger  work,  and  wai 
much  sought  after  by  foreigners  as  well  as  Frenchmen; 
Learned  men,,  and  critics  in  historical  matters,  have  re^ 
marked  *many  errors  in  it ;  but  he  did  not  value  himself  at 
all  upon  correctness ;  and  used  to  tell  his  friends,  who  re- 
proached him  with  the  want  of  it,  that  "  very  few  persons 
could  perceive  the  difference  between  a  history  that  is  cor- 
rect and  one  that  is  not  so';  and  that  the  glory  which  he 
might  gain  by  greater  accuracy  was  not  worth  the  pains  it 
would  cost."  ' 

In.  1649,  he  was  admitted  a  member  of  the  French  aca*» 
demy,  in  the  room  of  Voiture;  and,  in  1675,  chosen  pen- 
peflual  secretary  of  that  academy.  Besides  the  works  above- 
mentioned,  he  wrote  a  "  Continuation  of  the  general  his- 
tory of  the  Turks,"  in  which  he  is  thought  not  to  have  suc- 
ceeded ;  "  U  Origine  des  Frangbis,"  printed  at  Amster- 
dam, in  1632  ;  "  Les  Yanit&  de  la  Cour,"  translated  from 
the  Latin  of  Johannes  Sarisburie n sis,  in  164-0;  and  a  French 

to*  ME  Z  E  R  A  L 

translation  of  "Grotius  de  Veritate  Christians  Religionist 
in  1644.    He  died  July  10,  1683,  aged  seventy-three.    He 
A? as,,  according  to  Larroque,  a  man  who  was  subject   to 
strange  humours.     He  was  extremely  negligent  in  his  per- 
son, and  so  careless  in  his  dress,  that  he  bad  more  the  ap» 
pearance  of  a  beggar  than  a  gentleman.     He  was  actually, 
seized  one  morning  by  the  archers  des  pauvrts,    or  .parish 
officers  ;  with  which  mistake  he  was  highly  diverted,,  and 
told  them,  that  "  he  was  not  able  to  walk  on  foot,  but  that, 
as  soon  as  a  new  wheel  was  put  to  his  chariot,  he  would 
attend  them  wherever  they  thought  proper."     He  used  to 
study  and  write  by  candle-light,  even  at  noon-day  in  sum- 
mer; and  always  waited,  upon  hfs  company  to  the  door 
whh<a  candle  in  his  band.  He  had  a  brother,  father  Eudes, 
a  man  of  great  simplicity  and  piety,  whom  he  insidiously 
drew  in  to  treat  of  very  delicate  points  before  the  queen- 
mother,  regent  of  the  kingdom,  who  was  of  the  Medici 
family ;  and  to  lay  down  some  things  relating  to  govern- 
ment and  the  finances,  which  could  not  fail  of  displeasing 
that  princess ;  and  must  have  occasioned  -great  trouble  to 
father  Eudes,  if  the  goodness  of  the  queen  had  not  excused 
the  indiscretion  of  the  preacher.     But  of  all  his  humodrs, 
none  lessened  bim  more  in  the  opinion  of  the  public,  thart 
the  unaccountable  fondness  he  conceived  for  a  man   who 
kept  a  public t  house  at  Chapelleio,  called  Le  Faucbeur. 
He  was  so  taken  with  this  man's  frankness  and  pleasantry, 
that  he  used  to  .spend  whole  days  with  him,  notwithstancU 
ing  the  admonition  of  his  friends  to  the  contrary ;  and  not 
only  kept  up  an  iotimate  friendship  with  htm  during  his 
Jife,  but  made  him  sole  legatee  at  bis  death.     With  regard 
to  religion,  be  affected  Pyrrhonism ;  which,  however,  was 
..not,  it  seems,  so  much  in  his  heart  as  in  his  mouth.    This 
appeared  from  his  last  sickness ;.  for,  having  sent  for  those 
friends  who  had  been  the  most  usual  witnesses  of  his  Licen* 
jtious  talk  about  religion,  he  made  a  sort;  of  recantation, 
which  he  concluded  by  desiring  them  "  to  forget  what  he 
•might  formerly  have  said  upon  the  subject  of  religion,  and 
to  remember,  that  Mezerai  dying,  was  a  better  believer 
than  Mezerai  in  health."  These  particulars  are  to  be  found 
in  his  life  by  M.  Larroque:  bat  the  abb6  Olivet  tells  us, 
•that  he  *?  was  surprised,  upon  reading  this  life,  to  find  Me- 
•zerai'*  character  drawn  in  such  disadvantageous  colours*" 
Mezerai  was  certainly  a  man  of .  many  singularities,,  and 
though  agreeable  wheu  he  pleased  in  his  conversation,'  yet 

MEZERA  t  lot 

full  of  whim,  and  not  without  ill-nature.  It  was  a  constant 
way  with  him,  when  candidates  offered  themselves  for  va- 
cant places  in  the  academy,  to  throw  in  a  black  ball  instead 
of  a  white  one  :  and  when  his  friends  asked  him  the  reason 
of  this  unkind  procedure,  he  answered,  "  that  it  was  to 
leave  to  posterity  a  monument  of  the  liberty  of  the  elec- 
tions in  the  academy."  As  an  historian,  he  is  valued  very 
highly  and  deservedly  for  his  integrity  and  faithfulness,  hi 
relating  facts  as  he  found  them  ;  but  for  this  solely  :  for  as 
to  his  style,  it  is  neither  accurate  nor  elegant,  although  he 
had  been  a  member  of  the  French  academy  long  before  he 
wrote  his  "  Abridgment."  * 

MEZIRIAC  (Claude  Gaspar  Bachet,  Sieur  de),  a 
very  able  scholar,  was  born  at  Bresse  in  1581.  At  the  age 
of  twenty  he  was  admitted  into  the  order  of  Jesuits,  but  out 
his  recovery  from  an  illness,  he  returned  to  a  secular  life 
again.  About  this  time,  he  resided  occasionally  both  at 
iParis  and  Rome ;  and  at  Rome  wrote  a  small  collection 
of  Italian  poems,  in  competition  with  Vaugelas,  who  was 
there  at  the  same  time;  among  which  there  are  imitations 
of  the  most  beautiful  similies  in  the  eight  first  books  of  the 
iEneid.  He  published  also  Latin  and  French  poetry  in 
1621,  and  translated  some  of  Ovid's  epistles,  which  he 
illustrated  with  commentaries,  esteemed  more  valuable 
than  his  translation.  He  is  also  said  to  have  been  welt 
versed  in  the  controversies,  both  in  philosophy  and  reli- 
gion j  and  an  able  algebraist  and  geometrician..  Of  the 
fatter  we  have  a  proof  in  his  edition  of  "  Diophantus,"  en- 
riched with  a  very  able  commentary  and  notes,  Paris, 
1621,  and  reprinted  several  times  in  Germany.  Des  Cartes 
had  a  very  high  opinion  of  his  knowledge  in  mathematical 
science.  Such  was  his  fame  at  one  time,  that  he  was  pro- 
posed as  preceptor  to  Louis  XIII.  upon  which  account  he 
left  the  court  in  great  haste,  and  declared  afterwards,  that 
he  never  felt  so  much  pain  upon  any  occasion  in  his  life : 
for  that  he  seemed  as  if  he  had  had  already  upon  his 
shoulders  the  weight  of  a  whole  kingdom.  He  was,  though 
absent,  made  a  member  of  the  French  academy,  when  in 
its  infancy;  and,  when  it  came  to  his  turn  to  make  a  dis- 
course in  it,  he  sent  up  one,  which  was  read  to  the  assem- 
bly by  Mr.  de  Vaugelas.     He  died   at  Bourg  in  Bresse, 

*  • 

1  Bibl.  Anc.,et  Moderne,  vol.  XXV.  p.  440. — Niceron,  vol.  V.  an  I  X.— *Mo» 
reri,-»Hnft.  de  rAcad±mie  Francoise  deptiis.  16$2  jusqti'a  17-00,  p.  221,  edit. 

p«»;  1730.— aw*  ai*t.  -  i 


Feb.  26,  1638.  He  left  several  MSS.  in  a  finished  stcltg, 
but  which  have  never  been  printed,  and  had  brought  a 
translation  of  all  Plutarch's  works  with  notes  almost  to  a 
conclusion  when  he  died.1 

MICHAEL  ANGELO.      See    BUONARROTI,    and 

MICHAELIS  (John  David),  a  celebrated  biblical  cri- 
tic,  and  professor  of  divinity  and  the  oriental  languages, 
was  born  at  Halle,  in  Lower  Saxony,  in  1717.  His  first 
education  was  private,  out  in  1729  he  was  sent  to  the  pub- 
lic school  of  the  orphan-house,  where  he  studied  divinity 
and  philosophy,  and  at  the  same  time  he  occasionally  at-* 
tended  the  lectures  of  his  father,  who  was  professor  of  di- 
vinity and  the  oriental  languages.  During  the  latter  part 
of  his  time  at  school,  he  acquired  a  great  facility  in  speak* 
ing  Latin/  and  in  thinking  systematically,  from  the  prac- 
tice of  disputation,  in  which  one  of  the  masters  frequently- 
exercised  him.  In  1733,  he  entered  into  the  university  of 
Halle,  where  he  applied  himself  to  the  study  of  mathe- 
matics, metaphysics,  theology,  and  the  oriental  languages. 
He  also  prepared  himself  for  pulpit  services,  and  preached 
with  great  approbation  at  Halle  and  other  places.  In  1739 
he  took  a  degree  in  philosophy,  and  soon  after  was  ap- 
pointed assistant  lecturer  under  his  father,  having  shewn 
how  well  qualified  he  was  for  that  situation,  by  publishin 
a  small  treatise  *'  De  Antiquitate  Punctorum  Vocalium. 
In  1741  he  left  his  own  country  with  a  view  of  visiting 
England,  and  passing  through  Holland,  became  acquainted 
with  the  celebrated  Schultens,  from  whom  he  received 
many  marks  of  the  most  friendly  attention.  Upon  his  ar- 
rival in  England,  he  engaged  to  officiate  for  the  German 
chaplain  to  the  court,  who  was  at  that  time  in  an  infirm, 
state  of  health,  and  continued  to  preach  at  the  palace-cha- 
pel nearly  a  year  and  a  half.  During  this  period  he  visited 
the  university  of  Oxford,  greatly  increased  his  knowledge 
of  the  oriental  languages,'  and  formed  an  intimacy  with 
some  of  the  first  literary  characters  of  that  age,  particularly 
with  Dr.  Lowth,  afterwards  bishop  of  London,  on  some  of 
whose  lectures  "De  Sacra  Poesi  Hebraeorum"  he  attended. 
Upon  his  return  to  Halle,  he  resumed  his  labours  as  assist- 
ant to  his  father,  and  delivered  lectures  ou  the  historical, 
books  of  the  Old  Testament,  the  Syriac  and  Chaldee*  Ian- 

,  *  Niceron,  vol.  VI.— » Gen,  Plct.J-Pelision  Hist,  de  1'Academie  Fraacoise, 
p.236.  •  4 




guages,  and  also  upon  natural  history,  and  the  Roman 
classics  ;  but  seeing  no  prospect  of  a  fixed  establishment, 
be  left  Halle  in  1745,  and  went  to  Gottingen,  in  the  capa- 
city of  private  tutor.  In  the  following  year  he  was  made 
professor  extraordinary  of  philosophy  in  the  university  of 
Gottingen,  and,  in  1750,  professor  in  ordinary  in  the  same 
faculty-  In  1751  be  was  appointed  secretary  to  the  newly 
instituted  Royal  Society  of  Gottingen,  of  which  he  after- 
wards became  director,  and  about  the  same  time  was  made 
aulic  counsellor  by  the  court  of  Hanover.  During  175QF 
he  gained  the  prize  in  the  Royal  Academy  of  Berliny  by  a 
piemoir  "On  the  Influence  of  Opinions  on  Language,  and 
Language  on  Opinions."  While  the  seven  years'  war 
lasted,  Micbaelis  met  with  but  little  interruption  in  his* 
studies,  being  exempted,  in  common  with  the  other  pro* 
feasors,  from  military  employment;  and  when  the  new  re* 
gulations  introduced  by  the  French  in  1760,  deprived  them 
Qf  that  privilege,  by  the  command  of  marshal  Broglio  it 
was  particularly  extended  to  M.  Michaelis*  Soon  after 
this,  he  obtained  from  Paris,  by  means  of  the  marquis  de. 
Lostange,  the  manuscript  of  Abulfeda's  geography,  from, 
which  he  afterwards  edited  bis  account  of  the  Egyptians;, 
and  by  the  influence  of  £he  same  noblemanr,  he  was  chosen 
correspondent  of  the  "  Academy  of  Inscriptions  at  Paris," 
in  1764,  and  elected  one  of  the  eight  foreign  members  of 
that  institution*  In  1 760,  the  professor  gave  great  offence 
to  the  orthodox  clergy,  by  publishing  his  "  Compendium 
of  dogmatic  Theology,"  consisting  of  .doctrinal  lectures- 
which  he  had  delivered  by  special  licence  from  the  govern- 
ment. Shortly  after  this,  Micbaelis  shewed  bis  zeal  for 
the  interests  of  science  and  literature,  by  the  part  which 
he  took  in  the  project  of  sending  a  .mission  of  learned  me  a 
into  Egypt  and  Arabia,  for  the  purpose  of  obtaining  such 
information  concerning  the  actual  state  of  those  countries, 
as  might  serve  to  throw  light  on  geography,  natural  history, 
philology,  and  biblical  learning.  He  first  conceived  the 
idea  of  such,  a  mission,  which  he  communicated  by  letter 
t.o.  the  privy  counsellor  Bernstorf,  who  laid  it  before  his* 
sovereign  Frederic  V.  king,  of  Denmark.  That  sovereign 
was  so  well  satisfied  of  the  benefits  which  might  result  from, 
the  undertaking,  that  he  determined  to  support  the  expence 
of  it,  and  he  even  committed  to  Micbaelis  the.  management 
of  the  design,  together  with  the  nomination  of  proper  tra- 
vellers, and  the  care  of  drawing  up  their  instructions.  Upon 

11*  MICfiAELU 

the  death  of  Gesner  in  1761,  Michaelis  succeeded  ifi  th* 
office  of  librarian  to  the  Royal  Society,  which  he  held 
about  a  year,  and  was  then  nominated  to  the  place  of  di- 
rector, with  the  salary  for  life  of  the  post,  which  he  theri 
resigned.  Two  years  afterwards  he  was  invited  by  thef 
tins:  of  Prussia  to  removeto  Berlin,  but  his  attachment  to' 
Gottingen  led  htm  to  decline  the  advantages  which  were? 
held  out  to  him  as  resulting  from  the  change.  In  1766  he 
was  visited  at  Gottingen  by  sir  John  Pringle,  whom  he  had 
known  in  England,  and  Dr.  Franklin.  With  the  first  he 
afterwards  corresponded  on  the  subject  of  the  leprosy, 
spoken  of  in  the  books  of  Moses,  and  on  that  of  Daniel's 
prophecy  of  the  severity  weeks.  The  latter  subject  was 
disscussed  in  the  letters  which  passed  between  them  during 
1771,  and  was  particularly  examined  by  the  professor. 
This  correspondence  was  printed  by  sir  John  Pringle  in* 
1773,  under  the  title  of  "  Joan.  Dav.  Michaelis  de  Epis*. 
tolae,  &c.  LXX.  Hebdomadibus  D&nielis,  ad  D.  Joan.  Prin- 
gle, B&ronettum  ;  primo  privatim  misses,  nunc  vero'utri- 
usque  consensu  publice  editue."  In  1770,  some  differ- 
ences having  arisen  between  Michaelis  and  his  colleague* 
in  the  Hoyal  Society,  he  resigned  his  directorship.  In 
1775  his  well-established  reputation  had  so  far  removed  the 
prejudices  which  had  formerly  been  conceived  against  him 
in  Sweden,  that  the  count  Hopkin,  who  some  years  before 
had  prohibited  the  use  of  his  writings  at  Upsal,  now  pre- 
vailed upon  the  king  to  confer  upon  him  the  order  of  the 
polar  star.  He  was  accordingly  decorated  with  the  en-.1 
signia  of  that  order,  on  which  occasion  he  chose  as  a  motto 
to  his  arms,  "  libera  Veritas."  In  1782  his  health  begain  to7 
decline,  which  he  never  completely  recovered;  in  1786  he 
was  raised  to  the  rank  of  privy  counsellor  of  justice  by  the 
court  of  Hanover ;  in  the  following  year  the  academy  of 
inscriptions  at  Paris  elected  him  a  foreign  member  of  that 
body;  and  in  1788  he  received  his  last  literary  honour  by 
beiftg  elected  a  member  of  the  Royal  Society  of  London. 
He  continued  his  exertions  almost  to  the  very  close  of  life, 
and  a  few  weeks  before  his  death,  he  shewed  a  friend  seve-- 
ral  sheets  in  MS.  of  annotations  which  he  had  lately  writ-: 
ten  on  the  New  Testament.     He  died  on  the  22d  of  At*- 


gust,  1791,  in  the  seventy-fifth  year  of  his  age.  He  wis- a* 
man  of  very  extensive  and  profound  erudition/  as  well  as-' 
of  extraordinary  talents,  which  were  not  less  brilliant?  that*' 
solid,  as  is  evident  from  the^.  honours  which  were  paid  t<y 

M  I  C  H  A  E  L  I  S.*  113, 


tys  merits/  and  the  testimony  of  his  acquaintance,  and  con* 
temporaries.     His  application  and  industry  were  unwea-. 
rjed,  and  his  perseverance  in  such  pursuits  as  he  conceited; 
would  pjrove  useful  to  the  world,  terminated  only  with  the  . 
declension  of  his  powers.     His  writings  are  distinguished 
not  only  by  various  and  solid  learning,  but  by  a  profusion 
of  ideas,  extent  of  knowledge,  brilliancy  of  expression, 
and  a  frequent  vein  of  pleasantry.     In  the  latter  part  of  his 
life  (ie  was  regarded  not  only  as  a  literary  character,  but  as 
a  man  of  business,  and  wa,s  employed  in  affairs  of  consider- 
able importance  by  the  courts  of  England,  Denmark,  and 
Prussia.     I^is  .works  are  very  numerous,  and  chiefly  upon , 
the  subjects  of  divinity  and  oriental  languages.     A  part  qf , 
them  are  written  in  Latin,  but  by  far  the  greater  number] 
in   German,      Of  the  former  class  there  are  these  :    1. 
"Commentatio  de  Battologia,  ad  Matth.  vi.  7.'*  Bremen, 
1753,  4to.    2,"  Paralippmena  contra  Polygamiam,''  ibid*. 
1758,  4to,  .3..."  Syntagma  commentationum,"  Goett.  1759 
77-1767,  4(o.     4.  "  Curse  in  versionem  Syriacam  Actuum 
Apostolqrum,"  Goett.  1755,  4to.    5.  "  Compendium  The-t 
ologiae  dogmatipae,"  rb.  1760,  8  vo,     6.  "Cpmmentationes 

*regiae  soc.  Scientiarum  Goettingensis,  per  annos  1758— 
176,2,"  Bremen,  1775,  4to.  7.  "  Vol.^  II.  Ejusdem,  1769.". 
8.  ."  £5picilegium  Geographic  Hebraeorum  exterae,  post, 
Bochartum,"  Goett.  1769 — 1780,  2  torn.  4to.  9.  "  Gram- 
matica  Chaldaica,"  ib.  1771,  8vo.  10.  "  Supplementa  ad 
Lexicon  JJebraicum,"  1784 — 1792,  6  torn.  4to.  11. 
"  Grammatica  Syriaca,"  Halae,  1784,  4to..  The  following 
are  in  German;  12.  "Hebrew  Grammar,"  Halle,  1778, 
8yo.  JL3.  "  Elements  of  Hebrew  accentuation,"  ib.  1741, 
8vo.  14.  "Treatise  on  the  Law  of  Marriage,  according 
to  Moses,"  Qoett.,  1768,  4to.  15.  "Paraphrase  and  Re- 
marks on  tfye  Epistles  of  Paul  to  the  Galatians,  Ephesians, 
Colqssians,  Thessalonians,  Titus,  Timothy,  and  Philemon," 
Bremen,  1769,  4to.  16.  "  Introduction  to  the  Holy  $crip- 
tyres  of  the  New  Testament,"  Bremer),  1750,  8vo.     17. 

.  "  ProphetiQal  plan  of  the  preacher  Solomon,"  ib.  176{2, 
8va  .18.  "  Thoughts  on. the  Doctrine  of  Scripture  con- 
cerning Sin,"  tfenab.  1752,  8yo.  19.  "Plan  of  typical  Divi- 
nity," Brem.  1*763,  8vo.  20.  "  Criticism  of  the  means^ 
employed  to  understand  the  Hebrew  language."  21.  "  Cri- 
-tic^l  Xectures  on  the  principal  Psalms  which  treat  of 
Christ,"  Franfcf.  1759,  8 vq.  22.  "  Explanation  of  the* 
Epistle  to  the  Hebrews,"  Frank f.  1784,  2  vols.  $to.  23, 
Vol.  XXII.  v  I 

II*  ai  I  C  H  A  E  L  I  s. 


Questions  proposed  to  a  socifety  of  learned  Men,  whd» 
went  to  Arabia  by  order  of  the  king  of  Denmark/9  ib.  1762, 
8Vo.  24.  "  Introduction  to  the  New  Testament,"  a  second 
edition,  Goett.  1788,  2  vols.  4tc*.  25.  *'  MisceNaneotrs 
Writings,"  two  parts,  Frankf.  1766 — 8,  8-vo.  26.  "Pro* 
gramma  concerning  the  seventy-two  translators/ r  Goett. 
1-767,  8 vo.  .27.  "Dissertation  on  the  Syriac  language,, 
and  its  use,"  Qoett.  1768,  8vo*  28.  "  Strictures  concern- 
ing the  Protestant  Universities  in  Germany,"  Frankf.  1775, 
8vo.  29.  "  Translation  of.  the  Old  Testament,"  Goett. 
1769 — 8$,  13  parts.  30.  "  Fundamental  Interpretation  of 
the  Mosaic  Law,"  Frankf.  1770-5,  6  parts,  with  additions, 
Svo.  3!.  "  Of  the  Seventy  Weeks  of  Daniel,"  Goett. 
1772,  £vo.  32.  "  Arabic  Grammar  and  Chrestomathy,*r 
ib'.  1781,  8i*o.  33.  "Oriental  and  exegetical  Library,**' 
Frankf.  1771 — r89,  24  parts,  and  two  supplements,  8vo. 
34.  "  New  Oriental  and  exegetical  Library,"  Goett.  1786—; 
91,  9  parts.  35.  "  Of  the  Taste  of  the  Arabians  in  their 
Writings,"  ib.  1781,  8vo.  36.  "  Dissertation  otf  the  Syriac 
Language  and  its  uses,  together  with  a  Chrestomathy,"  ib, 
1;786,  8vo.  37.  "  On  the  Duty  of  Men  to  speak  Truth,'* 
Kiel,  1773,  8Vo.  38.  "  Commentary  on  the  Maccabees/*" 
Frankfort,  1777,  4to.  39.  "  History  of  Horses,  and  of  the* 
Breedkig  of  Horses  in  Palestine,"  &c.  ib.  1776,  8vo.  4Q„ 
**  Thoughts  on  the  doctrine  of  Scripture  concerning  Sir* 
and  Satisfaction,"  Bremen,  1*779,  8vo.  41.  "Illustration- 
of  the  History  of  the  Burial  and  Resurrection  of  Christ/* 
JIalle,  1783,  8vo.  42.  "  Supplement,  or  the  fifth  Frag- 
ment  of  Lessing's  Collections,"    Halle,  1785,    8vo.     43^ 

*  German   Dogmatic  Divinity/'  Goett.  1784,   8vo.     44.. 

*  Introduction  to  the  Writings  of  the  Old  Testament,1* 
Hamb„l787,  IstvoLlst  part,  4to.  45„  "Translation  of 
the  Old  Testament,  without  remarks,"  Goett.  1789,  2  vols„ 
4to.  46*  "Translation  of  the  New  Testament,"  ib.  1790,, 
2  vols.  4to.  47.  u  Remarks  for  the  unlearned,  relative  td 
his  translation  of  the  New  Testament,"  ib.  1790 — 92,  4« 
parts,  4to.  43-  **  Additions  to  the  third  edition  of  the  In- 
troduction to  the  New  Testament,"  ibid;  1789,  4to.  49.. 
^Ethics,"  a  posthumous  work,  published  by  C.  F.  Stead- 
fin,  Goett.  1792;  2  parts,  8vo- 

Of  those  with  which  the  English  scholar  has  been 
brought  acquainted,  one  of  the  principal  is  the  "  Introduce 
fidn  to  the  New  Testament,"  translated  into  English  from: 
*btf  firs*  edition;  and  published  in  1761,  in  a  quarto  Volume* 

M  1  C  H  A  E  L  1  S;  us 

fn  1738,  the  fourth  edition  was  published  in  two  volume* 
quarto.    The  object  of  this  work;  which  is  purely  critical 
and  historical,  id  to  explain  the. Greek  Testament,  with 
the  tame  impartiality,   and  the  same  unbiassed  Jove  o£ 
truth,  with  which  a  critic  in  profane  literature  would  exa- 
mine the  writings  of  Homer*,  Virgil,  &c*    The  first  volume* 
contain^  an  examination  of  the  authenticity,  inspiration/ 
and  language  of  the  New  Testament,    The  second  volume 
Contains  a  particular  introduction  to  each  individual  bbofc 
of  the  New  Testament;     An  English  translation  of  it  had 
been  published  by  the  rev.  Herbert  Marsh,  in  six  volumes^ 
royal  Svo*     To-  this  we  may  add  another  very  important 
translation  of  his  "  Mosaisches  Heche,"  or  u  Commentaries* 
in  the  Laws  of  Moses,"  by  Alexander  Smith,  D.  D<  minister 
ef  the  Chapel  of  Garioch,  Aberdeenshire,  1 8 1 4,  4  vols.  8voi 
This,  says  the  learned  translator,  has  always  been  esteemed 
the  chef  jPcewvte  of  Michaelis,  but  although  a  work  of  very 
great  importance,  demands  the  application  of  somewhat  of 
that  precautionary  chastening,  which  Dr*  Marsh  has  so  ju- 
diciously applied  in  the  4t  Introduction  to  the  New  Testa- 
ment*"    From  Dr.  Smith,  also,  the  public  have  reason  to. 
expect  a  memoir  of  the  life  and  writings  of  Michaelis^ 
tooref  ample  than  has  yet  appeared  in  this  country ♦* 
•  MICHAELIS  (John  Henry),  a  learned  orientalist,  pro- 
fessor of  divinity,  Greek*  and  oriental  languages,  and  di- 
rector of  the  divinity  school  of  Halle,  was  born  at  Ketten- 
burg,  in  Hohenstein,  July  26,  1668*     His  father  sent  him 
in  1683  to  Brunswick,  to  learn  trade,  but  a  few  month* 
after*  he"  allowed  him  to  be  placed  at  the  school  of  St.  Mar- 
tin in  that  city,  where  the  rector,  M.  Meeringf,  cultivated 
his  talents,  and  found  him  capable,  of  instructing  some  of 
the  younger  scholars.    An  illness  obliging  him  to  leave  this 
place,    he  continued  bis  studies,  at  Nordhausen,  and  in' 
1688  at  Leipsiri,  where  he  went  through  courses  of  phi* 
tosophy  and  divinity;  and  also  studied  the  oriental  lan- 
guages and  rabbinical  Hebrew.     In  1694  he  quitted  Leip- 
sic  for  the  university  of  Halle,  where  he  taught  the  Greek^ 
Hebrew1,  and  Chaldee  with  great  reputation.    Here  he  pub- 
lished^ With  the  assistance  of  professor  Fran  eke,  who  men* 
tions  hitn  respectfully  in  his  "  Pietas  Hallensis,"  a  work- 
entitled  "  Conamina  brevioris  Manuductionis  ad  Doctri* 

. l  Rees's  Cyclopaedia,  abridged  from  a  German  account  translated  in  Dr. 
AikiW  General  Biography.'— See  also  Gent.  Mag.  1792,  p.  222,  and  Dr.  Smith V 
preface  to  the  "  Commentaries  of  the  Laws  of  Moses.'1 



nam  de  Acceritibus  Hebreorum  Pfosalcis."  In  1696  btf 
published  another  piece,  entitled  "  Epicrisis  phitologica  de 
icverendi  Michaelis  Beckii,  Ulmebsis,  Disquisitionibu*  phi* 
lologicis,  cum  responsionibus  ad  Examen  XJV,  Dictorj 
Gen."  In  1699,  he  succeeded  Fraricke  in  the  Greek  pro-' 
fessorsbip  at  Halle,  and  in  1707  was  made  keeper  of  the 
university  library.  He  was  afterwards  nominated  professor. 
of  divinity  in  ordinary,,  and  admitted  to  the  degree  of  D.  D. 
In  1732  be  was  made  senior  of  the  faculty  of  divinity,  and 
inspector  of  the  theological  seminary.  He  died  in  1733,, 
at  about  the  age  of  seventy.  He  was  authdr  of  mahy  workd 
besides  those  already  mentioned,  the  titles  of  which  are 
enumerated  in  our  authority.1 

MI^HELI  (Peter  Anthony),  an  Italian  botanist  of 
great  celebrity,  particularly  in  what  is  now  railed  the  cryp- 
togamic  department,  was.  born  at  Florence,  'December  Tip 
1679.  His  parents  were  indigent,  and  took  but  little  care 
of  bis  education.  He  is  said,,  nevertheless,  to  have  been 
destined  to  the  occupation  of  a  bookseller,  but  an  insatwn 
ble  thirst  after  natural  knowledge  over- ruled  all  other  bbt* 
jects*  and  his  good  character,  and  distinguished  arrdour* 
3000  procured  him  the  notice  and  favour  of  the  marquis 
Cosmo  da  Castiglione,  in  whose  family  a  taste  for  botany 
bas  b^en  almost  hereditary,  aod  for  whtmi  ftl&heli  in  bis 
early  youth  made  a  collection  of  Umbelliferous  plantsy 
which,  even  then  proved  his  accuracy  and  disc^rnment- 
Tbis  gentleman  introduced  him  to  the  celebrated  count 
Lawrence  Magalo&i,  by  wbom'he  was  presented  tohis  so* 
vereign,  the  grand  duke  Cosmo  II J.  The  "  Iqstitutienesr 
Rei  Hfirbariss"  of  Too  rue  fort  had  just  appeared  at  Peris; 
and  the  first  pledge  of  the  grand  duke's  favour*  was  a  pre- 
sent of  that  book,  which  to  Micheli,  who  bad  hitherto* 
found  the  want  of  some  systematic  guide,  \vas  a  most  im- 
portant and  welcome  acquisition.  Hg.  speedily : adopted 
the  tone  of  his  leader,  with  respect  to -generic  distioCtioasf 
and  definitions,  and  improved  upon  him  in  a  more  frequent 
adaptation  of  original  specific  ones*  

1n  the  autumn  of  I70p,  the  care  of  the  public  gardefrtit 
Florence,  founded  by  Cosmo  1,  was  confided  to  Micheli, 
and  he  was  commissioned  to  travel,  not  only  in  Italy,  but 
in  various  distant  countries,  tq  Collect  plants,  and  to  esta«* 
blish  a  correspondence,  for  the  benefit  of  his  trust.  By  , 
the  co-operation  of  his  friends  Franchi  and  Gualtierj,  'tli$      j 

1  Moreri. 

MI  CHE  LI.  117 

garden  was  enriched  from  the  then  more  flourishing  one  at 
Pisa;  ami' a  botanical  society. was  instituted  at  Florence  in 
1717)  which  greatly  promoted  the  interests  of  the  science: 
In  the  summer  of.  that  year,  the  great  William  Sherard* 
returning  from  Smyrna  to  England,  visited  Florence  in  his 
way,  and  formed  a  friendship  with  Micheli,  that  continued 
till  his  own  decease  in  1728.  A  frequent  correspondence* 
and  interchange  of  specimens,  took  place  between .  them, 
as  amply  appears  by  the  collections  preserved  at  Oxford, 
and  by  the  writings  of  Micheli. 

Micheli  continued  his  scientific  studies,  as  well  as  his 
bodily  exertions  in  frequent  journies.     The  fruit  of  th6 
former  was   the .  publication  of  his   great  work,  entitled 
?'  Nova  Plantarum  Genera,"  1729,  a  folio  of  1234  pages  and 
108  plates.     The  result  of  his  journies  proved  but  too  soon 
disastrous.  ,  He  spent  near  three  months,  from  the  4th  of 
September  to  the  30th  of  November,  1736,  in  an  excur- 
sion to  the  north  of  Italy,  visiting  the  famous  mount  Bal- 
dus,  and  the.  Venetian  isles;  but  be  caught  a  pleurisy, 
from  the  consequences  of  which  he  never  recovered,  dying 
at  Florence,  January  2,  1737,  new  style,  in  the  fifty-eighth 
year  of  his  age.     He  was  buried  in  the  church  of  Santa 
jCroce,  amongst  the  ashes  of  some  of  the  greatest  men  of 
his  country,  and. of  the  civilized  world,  where  a  neat  mar- 
ble tablet  was  erected  to  his  memory  by  his  associates* 
The  simple  apd.  elegant  inscription  was  probably  composed 
fay  bis  learned  friend  Antony  Cocchi,  to  whom  he  always 
confided  the  revision  of  his  Latin  .  works,  before  publica- 
tion, and  who  delivered  an  Italian  oration  in  bis  praise,  in 
the  council  chamber  of  the  old  palace,  August  7,  1737* 
which  was  soon  after,  published. 

Micheli  is.  described,  by  his  contemporaries  as  a  man  of 
the  most  pleasing,  modest,  and  liberal  manners,,  no  lesp 
ready  to  communicate,  than, eager  to  acquire*  knowledge. 
His  friend  Cocchi  informs  us,  that  "  he  was  endued  with  a 
clear. and  concipe  natural  eloquence;  and  although  the 
poverty  of  bis  parents  deprived  him  of  .the  advantages  of  a 
tainted  education,  be  bad,  by  his  own  application,  ac~ 
x  quired,  with  wonderful  felicity,  a  knowledge  of  Latin."— 
<uWhe  writings jpf  the  fliost  eminent  botanists  were  so.fami- 
Jiarto  him*  that  be  had  learned  to  express  bis  ideas  in  Latin, 
iby  no  means  amiss,  he  having  a  very  quick  perception  a* 
&  any  barbarous  expressions.'9  * 

1    i  Fabroni  Vit»  Italorum,  rol.  iv!— By  sir  J.  Smith  in  toss's  Cyclopedic 

11*  .MICKL  E. 

MICKLE  (William  Julius),  an  ingenious  poet,  was  th$ 
pon  of  the  rev.  Alexander  Mickle  or  Meikle,  who  exchange 
ing  the  profession  of  physic  for  that  of  divinity,  was  ad* 
mined,  at  an  age  more  advanced  than  usual,  into  the  mi* 
nistry  of  the  church  of  Scotland.  From  that  country  he 
removed  to  London,  where  be  preached  for  some  time  in 
various  dissenting  meetings,  particularly  that  of  the  cele- 
brated Dr.  Watts.  He  was  also  employed  by  the  book* 
sellers  in  correcting  the  translation  of  Bayle's  Dictionary, 
to  which  he  is  said  to  have  contributed  the  greater  part  of 
the  additional  notes.  In  1716  he  returned  to  Scotland,  on 
being  presented  to  the  living  of  Langholm  in  the  county  of 
Dumfries;  and  in  1727,  he  married  Julia,  daughter  of  Mr.. 
Thomas  Henderson,  of  Ploughlands  near  Edinburgh,  and 
first  cousin  to  the  late  sir  William  Johnstone,  bart.  of  Wes? 
terhall.  By  this  lady,  who  appears  to  have  died  before 
him,  he  had  ten  children. 

Our  poet,  his  fourth,  or  as  some  say,  his  third,  son,  was 
born  Sunday  Sept.  29,  1734,  and  educated  at  the  grammar 
school  of  Langholm,  where  he  acquired  that  early  taste  for 
works  of  genius  which  frequently  ends,  in  spite  of  all  ob- 
stacles, in  a  life  devoted  to  literary  pursuits.  He  even  at- 
tempted, when  at  school,  a  few  devotional  pieces  in  rhyme, 
which,  however,  were  not  superior  to  the  common  run  of 
puerile  compositions.  About  his  thirteenth  year,  he  acci- 
dentally met  with  Spenser's  "  Faerie  Queene,"  which  fixed 
a  lasting  impression  on  his  mind,  and  made  him  desirous  of 
being  enrolled  among  the  imitators  of  that  poet.  To  this 
he  joined  the  reading  of  Homer  and  Virgil,  during  his  edu- 
cation at  the  high  school  of  Edinburgh,  in  which  city  his 
father  obtained  permission  to  reside  in  consideration  of  his 
advanced  age  and  infirmities,  and  to  enable  him  to  give  a 
proper  education  to  his  children. 

About  two  years  after  the  rev.  Mr.  Mickle  came  to  re- 
side in  Edinburgh,  upon  the  death  of  a  brother-in-law,  a 
'brewer  in  the  neighbourhood  of  that  city,  be  embarked  a 
great  part  of  his  fortune  in  the  purchase  of  the  brewery, 
and  continued  the  business  in  the  name  of  his  eldest  soi\. 
Our  poet  was  then  taken  from  school,  employed  as  a  clerk 
under  his  father,  and  upon  coming  of  age  in  1755,  took 
upon  him  the  whole  charge  and  pr6perty  of  the  business, 
«on  condition  of  granting  his  father  a  share  of  the  profits 
during  bis  life,  and  paying  a  certain  sum  to  his  brothers 
and  sisters  at  stated  periods,   after  bis  father's  decease, 

M  I  C  K  L  E.  |i? 

which  happened  in  1758.  Young  Mickle  is  said  to  have 
entered  into  these  engagements  more  from  a  sense  of  filial 
duty,  and  the  peculiar  situation  of  his  family,  than  froo) 
any  inclination  to  business.  He  had  already  contracted 
the  habits  of  literary  life  ;  he  had  begun  to  feel  the  enthu- 
siasm of  a  son  of  the  Muses,  and  while  he  was  storing  his 
mind  with  the  productions  of  former  poets,  and  cultivating 
those  branches  of  elegant  literature  not  usually  taught  at 
schools  at  that  time,  he  felt  the  employment  too  delight* 
ful  to  admit  of  much  interruption  from  the  concerns  of 
trade.  In  1761,  he  contributed,  but  without  his  name, 
two  charming  compositions,,  entitled  "  Knowledge,  an 
Ode,"  and  a  "  Night  Piece,"  to  a  collection  of  poetry  pub- 
lished by  Donaldson,  a  bookseller  of  Edinburgh  ;  and  about 
the  same  time  published  some  observations  on  that  impious 
tract  <(  The  History  of  the  Man  after  God's  own  heart,"  but 
whether  separately,  or  in  any  literary  journal,  is  not  now 
known.  He  had  also  finished  a  dramatic  poem  of  consider- 
able length,  entitled  "  The  Death  of  Socrates,"  and  ha4 
begun  a  poem  on  "  Providence,"  when  his  studies  were  in- 
terrupted by  the  importunities  of  his  creditors. 

This  confusion  in  bis  affairs  was  partly  occasioned  by  bis 
intrusting  that  to  servants  which  it  was  in  their  power  to 
abuse  without  his  knowledge,  and  partly  by  imprudently 
becoming  a  joint  security  for  a  considerable  sum  with  a 
printer  in  Edinburgh,  to  whom  one  of  his  brothers  was' 
then  apprentice,  which,  on  his  failure,  iCf  ickle  was  unable 
to  pay.  In  this  dilemma,  had  he  at  once  compounded  with 
his  creditors,  and  disposed  of  the  business;,  as  he  was  ad- 
vised, he  might  have  averted  a  series  of  anxieties  that 
preyed  on  his  mind  for  many  yean ;  and  he  perhaps  might 
have  filtered  into  another  concern  more  congenial  to  his 
disposition,  with  all  the  advantage  of  dear-bought  expe-* 
rience.  But  some  friends  interposed  at  this  crisis,  and 
prevailed  on  his  creditors  to  accept  notes  of  hand  in  lieu  of 
present  payment,  a  measure  which,  however  common,  is  in 
geperal  futile,  and  seldom  fails  to  increase  the  embarrass- 
ment which  it  is  kindly  intended  to  alleviate.  Accordingly 
within  a  few  months,  Mickle  was  again  insolvent,  and  al- 
most distracted  with  a  nearer  view  of  impending  ruin  ready 
M>  fall,  not  only  on  himself,  but  on  bis  whole  family.  PerT 
haps  an  unreserved  acknowledgment  of  iasolvency  mighj 
not  yet  have  been  too  late  to  shorten  his  sufferings,  ha4 
apt  the  same  friends  again  interfered,  and  again  persuaded 

420  MICKLE. 

*  *  T  * 

his  creditor*  to  allow  him  more  time  to  satisfy  their  de- 
mands. This  interference,  as  it  appeared  to  be  the  Ipst 
that  was  possible,  in  some  degree  roused  him  to  a  more 
close  application  to  business;. but  as  business  was  ever  se- 
condary in  his  thdugbts,  he  was  induced  at  the  same  time 
to  place  considerable  reliance  on  his  poetical  talents  which, 
as  far  as  known,' had  been  encouraged  by  some  critics  of 
acknowledged  taste  in  his  own  country.  He  therefore  be- 
gan to  retouch  and  complete  his  poem  on  "  Providence,1* 
from  which  he  conceived  great  expectations,  and  at  length 
had  it  published  in  London  by  Becket,  in  August  1762, 
under  the  title  of  "  Providence,  or  Arandus  and  Emil£e." 
The  character  given  of  it  in  the  Critical  Review  was  highly 
flattering ;  but  the  opinion  of  the  Monthly,  which  was  then 
esteemed  more  decisive,  being  less  satisfactory,  he 'deter* 
mined  to  appeal  to  lord  Lyttelton:  Accordingly,  he  *ent 
to  this  nobleman  a  letter  dated  January  21,  1763,  under 
the  assumed  name  of  William  More,  begging  his  lordship's  " 
opinion  of  his  poem,  "  which,1'  he  tells  him*  "  was  the 
work  of  a.  young  man  friendless  and  unknown,  but  that, 
were  another  edition  to  have  the  honour  of  lord  Lvttelton's 
frame  at  the  head  of  a  dedication,  such  a  pleasure  would 
enable  him  to  put  it  in  a  much  better  dress  than  whit  it 
then  appeared  in."  He  concluded  with  requesting  the  fit- 
trour  of  an  answerto  be  left  at  Seagoe's  Coffee-house,  HoU 
born.  This  letter  he  consigned  to  the  care  of  his  brother 
in  London,  who  was  t6  send  it  io  his  own  hand  and  call  for 
the  answer.  But  before  this  could  arrive,  his  affairs  became 
so  deranged  that,  although  he  experienced  many  instances 
bf  friendship  and  forbearance,  it  was  no  longer  possible  to 
avert  a  bankruptcy ;  and  suspecting  that  one  of  his  creditors 
intended  to  arrest  him  for  an  inconsiderable  debt,  he  was 
reduced  to  the  painful  necessity  of  leaving  his  home,  which 
he  did  in  the  month  of  April,  atid  reached  London  -on  the 
8th  day  of  May.  Here  for  some  time  he  remained  friend* 
less  and  forlorn,  reflecting  with  the  utmost  poignancy  that 
he  had  in  all  probability  involved  his  family  and  friends  in 
irremediable  distress. 

'  Among  other  schemes  which  he  hoped  might  eventually 
succeed  in  relieving  his  embarrassments,  he  appears  to 
have  now  had  some  intentions  of  going  to  Jamaica,  but  in 
what  capacity,  or  with  what  prospects,  he  perhaps  did  not 
himself  know.  There  was,  however,  no  immediate  plan  so 
tea*ily  practicable,  by  which  he  could  expect  at  some  dis- 

MIGKLE.  i2t 

%int  period  W  satisfy  bis  creditors,  and  the  consciousness 
of  this  most  painful  of  all  obligations  was  felt  by  him  in  a 
•manner  which  can  bfe  conceived  only  by  minds  of  the  nicest 
honour  and  most  scrupulous  integrity.  While  in  this  per* 
plextty,  he  was  cheered  by  a  letter  from  lord  Lyttelton,  in 
Which  his  lordship  assured  him  that  he  thought  his  geniui 
in  poetry  deserved  to  be  cultivated,  but  Would  not  advise 
the  republication  of  bis  poem  without  considerable  altera- 
tions. He  declined  the  offer  of  a  dedication,  as  a  thing 
likely  to  be  of -no  use  to  the  poet,  "  as  nobody  minded  de- 
dications ;"  but  suggested  that  it  might  be  of  some  use  if 
be  were  to  come  and  read  the  poem  with  his  lordship,  when 
they  might  discourse  together  Upon  what  he  thought  its 
beauties  and  faults.  In  the  mean  time  he  exhorted  Mickle 
to  endeavbbr  to  acquire  greater  harmony  of  versification  ; 
and  to  take  care  that  his  diction  did  hot  loiter  info  prose,  or 
become  hard  by  new  phrases,  or  Words  unauthorized  by 
the  usage  of  good  authors. — In  answer  to  this  condescend- 
ing and  friendly  letter,  Mickle  informed  his  lordship  of  his 
real  name,  and  inclosed  the  elegy  of  u  PbMio"  for  his  lord- 
Ship's  advice*  This  was  followed  by  another  kind  letter 
from  lord  Lyttelton,  in  which  he  gave  his  opinion,  that  the 
correction  of  a  few  lines  would  make  it  as  perfect  as-  any 
thing  of  that  kind  in  our  language,  and  promised  to  point 
out  its  faults  when  he  had  the  pleasure  of  seeing  the  author.. 
An  interview  accordingly  took  place  in  the  month  of  Feb- 
ruary 1764,  when  his  lordship,  after  receiving  him  with 
the  utmost  politeness  and  affability,  begged  him  not  to  be 
discouraged  at  such  difficulties  as  a  young  author  must  na- 
turally expect,  but  to  cultivate  his  very  promising  poetical 
powers;  and,  with  his  usual  condescension,  added,  that 
he  wouid  become  his  schoolmaster.  -Other, interviews  fol- 
lowed-this  very  flattering  introduction,  at  which  Mickle 
read  with  him  the  poem  on  "Providence,"  and  communi- 
cated bis  plan  for  treating  more  fully  a  subject  of  so  much 
intricacy,  intimating  that  be  had  found  it  necessary  to  dis- 
card the  philosophy  of  Pope's  ethics.  But,  as  in  order  to 
render  bis  talents  as  soon  productive  as  possible,  be  had 
.  now  a  wish  to  publish  a  volume  of  poems,  he  sent  to  his. 
noble  friend  that  on  «•  Providence,'1  "  Polho,"  and  an 
"  Elegy  on  Mary  Queen  of  Scots."  This  produced  a  long 
letter  from  his  lordship,  in  which  after  much  praise  of  the 
two  former,  he  declined  criticising  any  part  of  the  elegy 
*q  Mary,  because  he  wholly  disapproved  of  the  subject* 

422  M  I  C  K  L  E. 

m  *  » 

He  added,  with  justice,  that  poetry  should  not  consecrate 
what  history  must  condemn  ;  and  in  the  view  his  lordship 
had  taken  of  the  history  of  Mary,  he  thought  her  entitled 
to  pity,  but  not  to  praise*  In  this  opinion  Mickle  acqui- 
esced, from  convenience,  if  not  from  conviction,  and  again 
pent  his  lordship  a  copy  of  "  Providence,9'  with  further 
improvements,  hoping  probably  that  they  might  be  the 
last;  but  he  had  the  mortification  to  receive  it  back  from 
the  noble  critic  so  much  marked  and  blotted,  that  he  began 
to  despair  of  completing  it  to  his  satisfaction*  He  remitted* 
therefore,  a  new  performance,  the  "  Ode  on  May  Day," 
begging  his  lordship's  opimion  "  if  it  could  be  made  pro- 
per to  appear  this  spring  (176$)  along  with  the  one  already 

Whether  any  answer  was  returned  to  this  application, 
we  are  not  told.  It  is  certain  no  volume  of  poems  appeared, 
and  our  author,  begat?,  to  feel  how  difficult  it  would  be  to 
justify  such  tardy  proceedings  to  those  who  expected  that 
he  should  do  something  to  provide,  for  himself.  He  had 
pow  been  nearly  two  years  in  London,  without  any  other 
subsistence  than  what  be  received  from  his  brothers,  or 
procured  by  contributing  to  some  of  the  periodical  publi- 
cations, particularly  the  British  and  St.  James's  Magazines. 
AH  this  was  scanty  and  precarious,  and  bis  hopes  of  greater 
advantages  from  his  poetical  efforts  were  considerably 
damped  by  the  fastidious  opinions  of  the  noble  critic  who 
had  voluntarily  undertaken  to  be  his  tutor.  It  qow  oc- 
curred to  Mickle  to  try  whether  his  lordship  might  not 
serve  him  more  essentially  as  a  patron ;  and  having  still 
some  intention  of  going  to  Jamaica,  he  took  the  liberty  to 
request  his  lordship's  recommendation  to  his  brother  Wil- 
liam Henry  Lyttelton,  esq.  who  was  then  governor  of  that 
island.  This  produced  an  interview,  in  which,  lord  Lyttel- 
ton intimated  that  a  recommendation  to  his  brother  would 
be  of  no  real  use,  as  the  governor's  patronage  was  gene- 
rally bespoke  long  before  vacancies  take  place ;  be  proT 
Raised,  however,  to  recommend  Mickle  to  the  merchants, 
and  to  one  of  them  then  in  London,  whom  he  expected  tq 
see  very  soon.  He  also  hinted  thai:  a  clerkship  at  hpm$ 
would  be  desireable,  as  England  was  the  place  for  Mickle, 
but  repressed  all  hopes  from  this  scheme,  by  adding,  that 
as  he  (lord  Lyttelton)  was  in  opposition,  he  could  ask  up 
favours.  He  then  mentioned  the  East  Indies,,  as  a  plac? 
where  perhaps  he  could  be  of  service j  and  after  much  con- 

MICKLE,  123 

Venation  oh  these  Various  schemes,  concluded  with  a  pro- 
mise, which  probably  appeared  to  his  client  as  a  kind  of 
anti-climax,  that  be  would  aid  the  sale  of  his  "  Odes"  with 
his  good  opinion  when  they  should  be  published. 

This  was  the  last  interview  Mickle  had  with  his  lordship. 
He  afterwards  renewed  the  subject  in  the  way  of  corre- 
spondence, but  received  so  little  encouragement,  that  he 
was  at  length  compelled,  although  much  against  the  fond 
opinion  he  had  formed  of  his  lordship's  zeal  in  his  cause, 
to  give  up  all  thoughts  of  succeeding  by  his  means.  It 
cannot  be  doubted  that  he  felt  this  disappointment  very 
acutely,  but  whether  he  thought,  upon  more  mature  reflec- 
tion, that  he  had  not  sufficient  claims  on  lord  Lyttelton'* 
patronage,  that  his  lordship  could  not  be  expected  to  pro-> 
vide  for  every  one  who  solicited  his  opinion,  or  that  he  was 
really  unable  to  befriend  him  according  to  his  honest  pro* 
fessioos,  it  is  .certain  that  be  betrayed  no  coarse  resent* 
meat,  and  always  spoke  respectfully  of  the  advantages  he 
had  derived  from  iris  critical  opinions*  The  conclusion  of 
their  correspondence,  indeed,  was  in  some  respect  owing 
to  Mickle  himself.  Lord  Ly ttelton  so  far  kept  his  word  as 
to  write  to  his  brother  in  his  favour  at  the  time  when  Mickle 
was  bent  on  going  to  Jamaica,  but  the  latter  had,  in  the 
mean  time,  "  in  order  to  avoid  the  dangers  attending  aa 
uncertainty,"  accepted  the  offer  of  going  as  a  merchant'* 
clerk  to  Carolina,  a  scheme  which,  being  delayed  by  some 
accident,  he  gave  up  for  a  situation  more  agreeable  to  his 
taste,  that  of  corrector  of  the  Clarendon  press  at  Oxford. 

To  whom  he  owed  this  appointment  we  are  not  told* 
As  it  is  a  situation,  however,  of  moderate  emolument,  and 
dependant  on  the  printer  employed,  it  required  no  extraor- 
dinary interference  of  friends.  He  was  already  known  to 
the  Wartons,  and  it  is  not  improbable  that  their  mention- 
ing him  to  Jackson,  the  printer,  would  be  sufficient.  He 
removed  to  Oxford  in  1765  ;  and  in  1767,  published  "The 
Concubine,"  in  the  manner  of  Spenser,  which  brought 
him  .into  more  notice  than  any  thing  he  had  yet  written* 
and  was  attributed  to  some  of  the  highest  names  ou  the 
list  of  living  poets,  white  he  concealed  his  being  the  author* 
It  may  here  be  noticed,  that  when  he  published  a  second 
edition  in  1778,  he  changed  the  name  to  "Sir  Marty  n," 
as  "  The  Concubine"  conveyed  a  very  improper  idea  both 
of  the  subject  and  spirit  of  the  poem.  Living  now  in  a 
society  from  which  some  of  the  ablest  defenders  of  Chris* 

12*  HICKLK 

tianity  Have  risen,  he  was  induced  to  take  up  bis  peii  in  its 
defence,  by  attacking  a  "  Translation  of  the  New  Testa- 
ment" published  by  the  late  Dr.  Harwood.  Mickle's 
pamphlet  was  entitled  "  A  Letter  to  Dr.  Harwood,  where* 
in  some  of  his  evasive  glosses,  false  translations,  and  blun* 
.  dering  criticisms,  in  support  of  the  Arian  heresy,  con* 
tained  in  bis  liberal  translation  of  the  New  Testament,  are 
pointed  out  and  confuted."  Harwood  had  laid  himself  so 
Open  to  ridicule  as  well  as  confutation  by  his  foolish  trans- 
lation, that  perhaps  there  was  no  great  merit  in  exposing 
what  it  was  scarcely  possible  to  read  with  gravity ;  but  our 
author,  while  he  employed  rather  more  severity  than  was 
necessary  on  this  part  of  his  subject,  efigaged  in  the  vindi- 
cation of  the  doctrine  of  the  Trinity  with  the  acuteness  of 
a  man  who  had  carefully  studied  the  controversy,  and  coo-* 
aidered  the  established  opinion  as  a  matter  of  essential 
importance.  This  was  followed  by  another  attempt  to  vin* 
dicate  revealed  religion  from  the  hostility  of  the  deists* 
entitled  "  Voltaire  in  the  Shades,  or  Dialogues  on  the 
Peistical  Controversy.*' 

In  1772,  he  formed  that  collection  of  fugitive  poetry, 
which  was  published  in  four  volumes  by  George  Pearch, 
bookseller,  as  s  continuation  of  Dodsley's  collection,  la 
this  Mickle  inserted  his  "  Hen  gist  and  Mey,"  and .  the 
¥  Elegy  on  Mary  queen  of  Scots."  He  contributed  about 
the  same  time  other  occasional  pieces,  both  in  prose  and 
verse,  to  the  periodical  publications  *,  when  he  couid  spare 
leisure  from  his  engagements  at  the  Clarendon  press,  and 
from  a  more  important  design  which  he  had  long  revolved 
in  bis  mind,  and  had  now  the  resolution,  to  carry  into  exe* 
cation  in  preference  to  every  other  employment.  This 
was  his  justly  celebrated  translation  of  the  "  Lu^ad",  of 
Camoens,  a  poem  which  he  is  said  to  have  read  when  a  boy 
in  Castera's  French  translation,  and  which  at  no  great  disr 
tance  of  time  he  determined  to  familiarize  to  the  English 
leader.  For  this  purpose  be  studied  the  Portuguese  Ian* 
guage,  and  the  history  of  the  poem  and  of  its  author,  and 
without  greatly  over-rating  the  genius  of  Camoens,  dwelt 
on  the  beauties  of  the  "  Lusiad,"  until  be  caught  the  aur 

.   *  A  correspondent  in  the  Gentle-  erer,  was'fully  refuted  in  a  subsequent 

man's    Magazine  (vol.  LXT.  p.  402)  letter  in  p.  504,  written,  probably,  by 

Msefted  that  Mickle  was  employed  by  Mr.  Isaac    Reed,  who  knew.  Mickle 

£vans,  bookseller  in  the  Strand,   to  well,  apd  drew  up  the  first,  account 

fabricate  some  of  the  old  ballads  pub-  published  of  hit  life  id  tk«  European 

fished  by  bim.    This  calumny,  bow-  Magazine,  1789-. 

M  I  C  K  L  E.  t*S 

thor's  spirit,  atid  became  confident  that  he  could  transfuse 
it  into  English  with  equal  honour  to  his  original  and  to 
himself.  But  as  it  was  necessary  that  the  attention  of  the 
English  public  should  be  drawn  to  a  poem  at  this  time  very 
little  known,  he  first  published  proposals  for  bis  traosla* 
tion  to  be  printed  by  subscription,  and  afterwards  sent' a 
small  specimen  of  the  fifth  book  to  be  inserted  in  the  Geo* 
tleman's  Magazine,  which  was  then*  as  now,  the  common 
vehicle  of  literary,  communications.  This  appeared  in- the 
Magazine  for  March  1771,  and  a  few  months  after  he 
printed  at  Oxford  the  first  book  of  the  "  Lusiad."  These 
specimen  were  received  with  indulgence  sufficient  to  en- 
courage him  to  prosecute  hfe  undertaking  with  spirit;  and 
that  he  anight  enjoy  the  advantages  of  leisure'  and  quiet,- 
he  relinquished  bis  situation  at  the  Clarendon  press,  and 
retired  to  an  old  ftismsion  occupied  by  a  Mr.  Tomkins*  • 
farmer  at  Forrest-hill,  abput  five  miles  from  Oxford,  Here 
be  remained  until  the  end  of  1775,  at  which  time  he  was 
enabled  to  complete  his  engagement  with  his  numerous] 
subscriber!,  and  publish  the  work  complete  in  a  quarto 
volume  printed  at  Oxford. 

With  the  approbation  bestowed  on  this  work  by  the  cri-* 
tical  world,  he.  had  every  reason  to  be  satisfied,  and  thef 
profits  he  derived  .from  the  sale  were  far  from  being  incon** 
aiderable  to.  a  man  in  his  circumstances;  yet  the  publica- 
tion was  attended  by  some  unforeseen  circumstances  of  a 
less  pleasing  kind,  for  he  had  again  the  misfortune  to  be 
teazed  by  the.  prospect  of  high  patronage,  which  again 
ended  in  disappointment.  It  had  at  first  been  suggested 
to  him  that  he  might  derive  advantage  from  dedicating  hi* 
Translation  of  thp  Lusiad  to  some  person  of  rank  i«  the. 
East.  India  department,  but  before  he  had  made  a  choice*, 
hk  friend  the  late  commodore  Johnstone,  persuaded  him  to 
inscribe  it  to  the  late  duke  of  Buccleugh.  This  nobleman, 
however,  we  "are  told,  had  been  a  pupil  of  Dr.  Adam  Smith, 
some  of  whose  doctrines  respecting  the  Eastern  trade, 
Mickte  had  controverted ;  and  upon  this  account  the  noble- 
man is  said  to  have  treated  the  dedication  and  the  poemr 
with  neglect  Mickle's  biographers  have  expatiated  on 
this  suhject  at  great  length,  and  with  much  acrimony  ;  but 
as  hi*  igcace  of  Buccleugh  was  universally  esteemed  for  his 
public  and  private  worth,  and » above  all  for  his  liberality, 
we  must  -abstain  from  any  further  notice  of  a  story,  of  which 
probably,  6ue  half  only  can  ever  be  known.    Qtnjs  thiqg  )ft 

128  M  I  C  K  L  E. 


certain,  that  Mickle  did  not  publish  on  the  East  India  trade 
until  1779. 

•  Soon  after  the  publication  of  the  "  Lusiad,"  he  returned 
to  London/  and  was  advised  by  some  who  probably  in  thi# 
instance  consulted  his  fame  less  than  his  immediate  inte- 
fest,  to  write  a  tragedy.  The  story  of  his  tragedy,  which 
was  entitled  "  The  Siege  of  Marseilles,"  was  taken  fronr 
she  French  history  in  the  reign  of  Francis  I.  When  com- 
pleted, his  friends  recommended  it  to  Garrick,  who  allowed 
its  general  merit,  but  complained  of  the  want  of  stage 
effect,  and  recommended  him  to  take  the  advice  of  Dr. 
Warton.  This  able  critic  was  accordingly  called  in,  with 
lis  brother  Thomas,  and  with  Home  the  author  of 
***  Douglas."  In  compliance  with  their  opinion,  Mickle 
made  great  alterations,  and  Thomas  Warton  earnestly  re- 
commended the  tragedy  to  Garrick,  but  irf  vain;  and 
Mickle,  his  biographers  inform  us,  was  so  incensed  at  this, 
that  he  resolved  to  appeal  to  the  judgment  of  the  public* 
ky  printing  it.  •  •  J 

*  His  conduct  on  this  occasion  must  be  ascribed  to  irrita-* 
tion  arising  from  other  disappointments.  The  mere  printing 
would  have  been  a  harmless,  and  might  have  been  a  profita- 
ble experiment,  but  Mickle  threatened  to  go  farther.  Hav-" 
ing  been  told  by  some  officious  person  that  Garrick  had  fol- 
lowed his  refusal  by  sentiments  of  personal  disrespect*  he 
was  so  enraged  as  to  threaten  to  write  a  new  "  Dunciad*" 
of  which  Garrick  should  be  the  hero.  His  more  sensible 
friends  naturally  took  the  alarm  at  a  threat  so  impotent, 
and  persuaded  him  to  lay  aside  his  design.  Yet  he  drew 
up  an  angry  preface,  and  sent  a  copy  fcf  it  to  Mr.  Garrick. 
It  is  unnecessary  to  say  more  of  this  play,  than  that  it  wa& 
afterwards  rejected  by  Mr.  Harris  and  Mr.  Sheridan; 

The  first  edition  of  the  "  Lusiad,"  consisting  of  a  thou- 
sand copies,  had  so  rapid  a  sale,  that  &  second  edition, 
with  improvements,  was  published  in  June  1778.  About 
the  same  time,  as  he  had  yet  no  regular  provision,  some? 
means  were  employed,  but  ineffectually,  to  procure  him  a 
pension  from  the  crqwn,  as  a  man  of  letters.  Dr.  Lowth* 
then  bishop  of  London,  had  more  than  once  intimated,  that' 
he  was  ready  to  admit  him  into  holy  orders,  and  provide? 
for  him *  but  Mickle  refused  the  offer,  lest  his  hitherto  uni- 
form support  of  revealed  religion  should  be  imputed  to* 
interested  motives.  This  offer  was  highly  honourable  to 
feiny  ad  it  must  have  proceeded  from  a  knowledge  of  the* 



excellence  of  his  character,  and  the  probable  advantages 
which  the  church  must  have  derived  from  the  accession  of 
such  a  member.  Nor  was  his  rejection  of  it  less  honour- 
able, for  he  was  still  poor.  Although  he  had  received 
nearly  a  thousand  pounds  from  the  sale  and  for  the  copy- 
right of  the  "  Lusiad,"  he  appropriated  all  of  that  sum 
which  he  could  spare  from  his  immediate  necessities  to  the 
payment  of  hi3  debts,  and  the  maintenance  of  his  sisters* 
He  now  issued  proposals  for  printing  an  edition  of  his  ori- 
ginal poems,  by  subscription,  in  quarto,  at  one  guinea 
each  copy.  For  this  he  had  the  encouragement  of  many 
friends,  and  probably  the  result  would  have  been  very  ad- 
vantageous, but  the  steady  friendship  of  the  late  commo- 
dore Johnstone  relieved  him  from  any  farther  anxiety  on 
this  account. 


In  1779  *  this  gentleman  being  appointed  commander 
of  the  Romney  man  of  war,  and  commodore  of  a  squadron, 
immediately  nominated  Mickle  to  be  his  secretary,  by 
which,  though  only  a  bon-commissioned  officer,  he  was 
entitled  to  a  considerable  share  of  prize-money.  But 
What  probably  afforded  him  most  delight,  in  the  commence- 
ment of  this  new  life,  was  the  destination  of  the  squadron 
to  the  native  shores  of  his  favourite  Camoens,  which  the 
fame  of  his  translation  had  already  reached.  On  his  land- 
ing at  Lisbon  in  November  1770,  he  was  received  with 
the  utmost  politeness  and  respect  by  prince  don  John  of 
Braganza,  duke  of  Lafoens,  and  was  introduced  td  the 
principal  nobility,  gentry,  and  literati  of  Portugal. 

In  May  1780  the  royal  academy  of  Lisbon  admitted  hrm 
a  member,  and  the  duke  of  Braganza,  who  presided  on  that 
occasion,  presented  him  with  his  portrait  as  a  token  of  his 
particular  regard.  It  is  almost  needless  to  add,  that  the 
admirers  of  Mickle  owe  his  beautiful,  though  neglected 
poem  of  u  AlmedaHiH"  to  this  visit.  He  is  said  also  td 
have  employed  some  of  his  leisure  hours  in  collecting  ma- 
terials for  a  history  of  Portugal,  which  he  did  not  live  to 
prepare  for  the  press. 

On  his  arrival  in  England,  in  November  1780,  he  was 
appointed  joint  agent  for  the  disposal  of  the  valuable  prizes 

-  *  In  this  year  be  published  a  pant-  nions  of  Dr.  Adam  Smith,  to  whose  in* 

phlet  in  quarto,  entitled  "  A  Candid  sinuations  Mickle's  friends  have  sup- 

,  Examination  of  the  Reasons  for  de-  posed  that  he  owed  the  loss  of  the  no- 

priving  the  East  India  Company  of  its  bie  patron  to  whom  he  dedicated  tha 

Charter.".    This  was  written,  in  defence  Lusiad,  although  his  pamphlet  had  apt 

•f  the  Company,  and  against  the  opi-  then  appeared. 

121  MICKLE. 


taken  during  the  Commodore's  cruize ;  and  by  the  profits  of 
this  place,  and  bis  share  of  the  prize-money,  he  was  en* 
abied  to  discbarge  his  debts.  This  had  long  been  the 
ardent  wish  of  his  heart,  the  object  of  all  his  pursuits,  and 
.an  object  which  he  at  length  accomplished  with  the  strict- 
est honour,  and  with  a  satisfaction  to  his  own.  mind  the 
most  pure  and  delightful.  In  1782  our  poet  published 
"  The  Prophecy  of  Queen  Emnia,"  a  ballad,  with  an 
ironical  preface,  containing  an  account  of  its  pretended  au- 
thor and  discovery,  and  bints  for  vindicating  the  authen-r 
ticity  of  the  poems  of  Ossian  and  Rowley.  This  irony, 
however,  lost  part  of  its  effect  by  the  author's  pretending 
.that  a  poem,  which  is  modern  both  in  language  and  versi-r 
fication,  was  the  production  of  a  prior  of  Durham  in  the 
reign  of  William  Rufus,  although  he  endeavours  to  a  ac- 
count for  this  with  some  degree  of  humour,  and  i?  not  un- 
successful in  imitating  the  mode  of  reasoning  adopted  hy 
dean  Milles  and^Mr.  Bryant,,  in  the  case  of  Chatterton. 

In  the  same  year  be  married  Mary,  the  daughter  of  Mr. 
Robert  Tomkins,  with  whom  be  resided  in  Oxfordshire 
while  employed  in  translating  the  "  Lusiad."  The  fortune 
which  he  obtained  by  his  marriage,  and  what  he  acquired 
under  commodore  Johnstone,  would  have  enabled,  him  to 
pass  the.  remainder  of  his  days  in  efse  and  independences 
and  with  that  view  bei  took  a  house  at  Wheat ly,  near  OxT 
ford ;  but  the  failure  and  death  of  a  banker,  with  whom  h^ 
was  connected  as  agent  for  the  prizes,  and  a  chancery 
suit  in  which  he  engaged  rather  too  precipitately,  in  order 
to  secure  a  part  of  his  wife's  fortune,  involved  him  iti 
Inany  delays  and  much  anxiety  and  expeqee.  He  stili» 
however,  employed  his  pen  on  occasional  subjects,  and 
contributed  essays  entitled  "  The  Fragments  of  Leo,"  arid 
some  other  articles,  to  the  European  Magazine.  His  last 
production  wa*  4i  Eskdale  Braes,"  a  song  in  qommemora* 
tion  of  the  place  of  bis  birth. 

-  He  died  after  a  short  illness  at  Forrest-bill,  on  the  23th> 
of  October,  1788,  and  was  buried  in  the  church-yard  -of 
that  parish.  His  character,  as  drawn  by  Mr.  Isaac  R$ed 
ted  Mr.  John  Ireland,  who  knew  him  well,  may  be  adopted 
with  safety.  "  He  was  in  every  point  of  view  a  man  of  the 
utmost  integrity,  warm  in  his  friendship,  and  indigntfnt 
Only- against- vice,  irreligton,  or.  meanness.  The  cotnpH-L 
men  t  paid  byjord  Lyttelton  to  Thomson,  might  be  applied 
to  him  with  the  strictest  truth ;  not  a  line  ia  to  be  found 

ftu  c  k  l  &  m 

iir  bis  works,  which,  dying,  he  would  wish  to  blot*  During 
jibe  greatest  part  of  his  life,  he  endured  the  pressures  of  * 
parrow  fortune,  without  repining,  never  relaxing  in  bis  in* 
dustry  to  acquire,  by  honest  exertions,  that  independence 
which  at  length  be  enjoyed*  He.  did  not  shine  in  convert 
sation ;  por  would  any  person,  from  his  appearance,  have 
been  able  to  form  a  favourable  judgment  of  his  talents.  In 
every  situation  in  which  fortune  placed  him,  he  displayed 
ap. independent  spirit*  undebased  by  any  meanness.;  and 
when  bis  pecuniary  circumstances  made  him,  on  one  oc- 
casion, feel  a  disappointment  with  some  force,  he  even 
then  seemed  more  ashamed  at  his  want  of  discernment  of 
character,  than  concerned  for  his  loss.  He  seemed  to  en* 
tertairv  with  reluctance  an  opinion,  that  high  birth  could 
be  united  with  a  sordid  mind.  He  had,  however,  the  satis* 
faction  of  reflecting,  that  no  extravagant  panegyric  had 
disgraced  his  pen*.  Contempt  certainly  came  to  his  aid, 
though  not  soon i  he  wished  to  forget  his  credulity,  and 
never. after  conversed  on  the  subject  by  choice.  To  con* 
dude,  his  foibles  wer$  but  few,  and  those  inoffensive  2 
his  virtues  were  mauy  j  and  his  genius  was  very  consider- 
able.. He  lived  without  reproach,  and  his  memory  will 
always  be  cherished  by  those  who  were  acquainted  with 

To  this  Mr,  Ireland  adds,  "  His  manners  were  not  of 
that  obtrusive  kind  by  which  many  men  of  the  second  or 
third  qrder  force  themselves  into  notice.  A  very  close  ob* 
server  might  have  passed  taany  hours  in  Mr.  Mtckle's  com* 
pany,  without  suspecting  that  he  had  ever  written  a  line  of 
poetry.  A  common  physiognomist  would  have  said  that 
fee  had  an  unmasked  face.  Lavater  would  have  said  other* 
wise ;  but  neither  bis  countenance  nor  manners  were  such 
as,  attract  the  multitude.  When  bis  name  was  announced* 
be  has  been  more  than  once  asked  if  the  translator  of 
Camoens  was  any  relation  to  him.  To  this  be  usually 
answered,  with  a  good-natured  smile,  that  tbey  were  of  the 
lame  family.  Simplicity,  unaffected  simplicity*  was  the 
leading  feature  in  his  character.  The  philosophy  of  Vol* 
tajreatid  David  Hume  was  his  detestation.  He  could  not 
War  their  names  with  temper.  For  the  Bible  he  had  the 
highest  reverence*  and  never  sat  silent  when  the  doctrines 
or  precepts  of  the  Gospel  were  either  ridiculf  dor  spoke** 
of  with  contempt." 

Vol.  XXII.  K 


f  ft  1^94,  an  edition  of  bis  poems  was  published  by  sufi** 
ftcription,  with  an  account  of  his  life  by  Mr,  Ireland.  A 
more  full  and  correct  collection  of  his  poems  appeared  in 
1807,  with  a  life  by  the  rev.  John  Sim,  who  was  his  inti-t 
mate  friend  when  at  Oxford,  and  has  done  ample  justice 
to  his  memory ;  and  his  principal  poems  were  added  to  the 
late  continuation  of  Johnson's  collection. 

Although  there  is  «o  species  of  poetry  of  which  he  had 
Hot  afforded  favourable  specimens,  and  many  striking  images 
and  animated  descriptions  are  discoverable  in  bis  original 
pieces,  and  while  we  allow  that  his  imagination  is  con-* 
siderably  fertile,  his  language  copious,  and  his  versifica-* 
lion  rich  and  various/  yet  it  cannot  be  denied  that  there 
ire  too  many  marks  of  imitation  in  all  his  lesser  poems, 
and  that  his  fame  must  rest  principally,  where  \t  is  more 
than  probable  he  intended  it  should,  on  his  transtatr&i 
of  the  Lusiad.  This  work,  which  is  now  rising  in  re- 
pute won,  is  inferior  only  to  Pope's  Iliad,  according  to 
the  general  opinion,  which  perhaps  may  be  contro- 
verted. Pope  has  given  an  English  poem  of  un question^ 
able  beauty,  but,  we  may  say  with  Bentley,  it  i»  not  Homer; 
Mickle  has  not  only  transfused  the  spirit,  but  has  raised 
the  character  of  his  original.  By. preserving  *he  energy  j 
elegance,  and  fire  of  Camoens,  he  has  given  an  "  English 
Lusiad,'*  a-  work  which,  although  confessedly  borrowed 
from  the  Portuguese,  has  all  the  appearance  of  having 
been  invented  In  the  language  in-  which  we  find  it.  In 
executing  this,  indeed,  it  must  be  confessed  that  Mickle 
lias  taken  more  liberties  with  his  original  thap  the  laws  of 
translation  will  allow;  but  they  are  of  a  kind  not  usually 
taken  by  translators,  for  he  has  often  introduced  beautred 
*f  bis  own  equal  to  any  that  come'from  the  pen  of  Ca± 
moens*  In  acknowledging  that  he  has  taken  such  free- 
doms, however,  he  has-  not  specified  the  individual  pas-* 
sages ;  a  neglect  for  which*  some  have  praised  his  humility, 
and  others  have  blamed  bis  injuftieg.  But  with  this  excep- 
tion, he  has  successfully  executed  what  he  purposed,  b6* 
only  to  ibake  Oamdens  be  understood  arid  relished,  but 
*  to  give  a  poem  that  iAight  live  in  the  English  language/* 
Nor  ought  it  to  be  omitted  in- this  general  character  of  tM 
Lusiad,  that  in  his  preliminary  dissertations,  he  has  distil- 
gaishgd  bim&etf  as*  a  schoferj  acrkfc,  and  a  historian* "*      * 


Wohnion  and  ChaJoiers'sPoeti,  1810*    .     .    _ 

*.  > 


•*f  i  C'ft  E  L  I  iJ  &  ,WI 

•  IfHCRELIUS  (JdH»),  prbfessor  of  dirihity  "at  Sfetift,- 
ttid  a  very  learned  man,  vtes  born  at  Cuslin  in  Pomcfrfemtai 
in  1597.     He  began  his  studied  ih  the  college  of  bis  owrl 
country;  frncfj  id  1614,  removed  to  Stetiri,  where  he  studied 
theology  tinder  professor  Cramfer.      In   1616,    he   main-* 
tlined  a  disrate  **  dte  Deo  brio  &  trihb^'  which  gained  hidi 
gtefct  reputatibri  ;  arid  tveHt  thfc  yfcat  after  to  the  university 
ef  Kdningsbergj  where  he  disputed  again   "de  veritatg 
tratasceridemali."     He  teceivefd^  in   1621,  the  degree  of 
Mster  of  philosophy  kfe  thfe  university  of  Grripswald,  ^ftetf 
having  maintained  a  thesis  u  de  meteoris ;"    and,  somd 
time  after,  went  to  Leipsic  to  finish  his  studies.     He  wai 
Made  professor  of  rhetoric  ih  the  toyal  college  at  Stetin  iii 
1624,  recto**  of  the  senate  School  in  1627,  rind  rector  o£ 
the  royal  college,  and  pfofessdi'  of  theology,  in  1649.    Th<$ 
fctobe  yetar  he  received  His  doctor  6f  divlhity's»degree,%  itl 
the  university  df  Gripswald,  and  which  he  wasj  we  ard 
t6ld,  led  to  ask;  becfcusfc,  in  a  dispute  he  had  with  Jdhi* 
fcetfgitis,  firist  preachfer  at  the  court  of  the  elector  6f  Brafr- 
dfettbtirg,  tipon  the  differences  betvireeri  the  Lutherans  and 
Calvinists,  the  latter  arrogantly  boasted  of  his  being  art 
old  doctor  id  divinity ;  to  which  Micfelius  cbtild  only  an- 
swer, "  that  he  had  received  the  degree  of  master  in  phi-* 
Ibsophy  before  Bergiua."     He  had  obtained  by  his  solicita- 
tions in  1642,  when  he  wis  made  professor  df  rhetbric,  that 
there  might  be  al&o  professors  of  law,  physic,  and  mathe- 
matics, in  the  royal  college ;  and  that  a  certain  number  of 
students  might  be  maintained  thefe  at  the  public  charge. 
He  made  i£  jotirrtey  to  Swedferi  ih  1653,  and  had  the  horiour 
to  pay  his  respedts  to  qiieen  Christina,  who  gave  him  very 
obliging  marks  of  h6r  liberality,  and  who  had  before  defrayed 
fifci  ehargfesbf  hte  do6tor's  degree.     He  died  Dec.  3,  165$* 
Thii  ptofe&tit  'wrote?  several  learned  works,  which  werd 
1*&i  rfccteived,  krid  went  through  several  editions :  amon^ 
#Bi6fc  #ere,   1.  "  Ethriopbronius  contra  Gentiles  de  prihci-i 
$Hs  MigiotiU  Christian^ ;"  to  which  he  afterwards  added  & 
Wtofitiufctiori,  u  Contra  Jddaicas  depravationes."    2. c*  Lexi- 
fetftf  ^Moso^hiciuttt."  3.  *'  Syntagma  historiarum  ecclesiae.'* 
4.  «  gyntdgtti*  hittdfotttim  politicarum,  &c.  &c.r'r 

Mim)tfirrON  (CtWYEife),  a  celebrated  English  divine; 
*fti  tHte  -km  6f  William  MidcNeton,  rector  of  Hindenvell 
ptoitWhitftj  ^'Yorkshire,  and  born  at  Yotk  Dec.  27,  or; 
teHW.  C6le'  iays,  Aug,  2,  1633.    His  fathef,  #ho  possessed 

*  Gefc.  Diftt^MWtH.-^ S£xii  Oriomstslidonv     • 

K   2 

13$  M'.I.D  D  LE  TON, 

an  easy  fortune,  gave  him  a  liberal  education;  and; at 
seventeen  he  was  admitted  a  pensioner  of  Trinity  college* 
Cambridge,  and  two  years  after  was  chosen  a  scholar  upon 
the  foundation.  After  taking  bis  degree  of  A.  B.  in  1702, 
he  took  orders,  and  officiated  as  curate  of  Trumpington, 
near  Cambridge.  In  1706  be  was  elected  a  fellow  of  hi* 
college,  and  next  year  commenced  master  of  arts.  Two 
years  after  be  joined  with  other  fellows  of  his  college  in  a 
petition  to  Dr.  John  More,  then  bishop  of  Ely,  as  their  vi- 
sitor, against  Dr.  Bentley  their  master.  But  he  had  no 
sooner  done  this,  than  he  withdrew  himself  from  Bentley's 
jurisdiction,  by  marrying  Mrs.  Drake,  daughter  of  Mr. 
Morris,  of  Oak- Morris  in  Kent,  and  widow  of  counsellor 
Drake  of  Cambridge,  a  lady  of  ample  fortune.  After  bis 
marriage,  he  took  a  small  rectory  in  the  Isle  of  Ely,  which 
was  in  the  gift  of  bis  wife;  but  resigned  it  in  little  more 
than  a  year,  on  account  of  its  unhealthy  situation. 

In  Oct.  1717,  when  George  the  First  visited  the  univer- 
sity of  Cambridge,  Middleton  was  created,  with  several 
others,  a  doctor  of  divinity  by  mandate ;  and  was  the  per- 
son who  gave  the  first  cause  of  that  famous  proceeding 
against  Dr.  Bentley,  which  so  much  occupied  the  atten- 
tion of  the  nation.  Although  we  have  given  an  ample 
account  of  this  in  the  life  of  Bentley,  some  repetition' 
seems  here  necessary  to  explain  the  part  Dr.  Middleton 
was  pleased  to  take  in  the  prosecution  of  that  celebrated 
scholar.  Bentley,  whose  office  it  was  to  perform  the  cere- 
mony called  Creation,  made  a  new  and  extraordinary  de- 
mand of  four  guineas  from  each  of  the  doctors,  on  pretence 
of  a  fee  due  to  him  as  divinity-professor,  over  and  above  a 
broad  piece,  which  had  by  custom  been  allowed  as  a  pre- 
sent on  this  occasion.  After  a  warm  dispute,  many  of  the 
doctors,  and  Middleton  among  the  rest,  consented  to  pay 
the  fee  in  question,  upon  condition  that  the  money  should 
be  restored  if  it  were  not  afterwards  determined  to  be  his 
right.  But  although  the  decision  was  against  Bentley,  he 
kept  the  money,  and  Middleton  commenced  an  action 
against  him  for  the  recovery  of  his  share  of  it.  Bentley 
behaving  with  contumacy,  and  with  contempt  to  the  au^ 
thority  of  the  university,  was  at  first  suspended  from  his 
degrees,  and  then  degraded.  He  then  petitioned  the 
king  for  relief  from  that  sentence  :  which  induced  Middle- 
ton,  by  the  advice  of  friends,  to  publish,  in  the  course  of 
the  year  1719,  the  four  following  pieces :  l.  "  A  full  and 


MID  D  L  E'T  O  N.  133 

-  f  ...  r  r  •  -^ 

hbpartial  Account  of  all  the  late  Proceedings  in  the  Uni- 
versity of  Cambridge,  against  Dr.  Bentley."  2.  "  A  Se- 
cond Part  of  the  full  and  impartial  Account,  &c."  3. 
*'  Some  Remarks  upon  a  Pamphlet,  entitled  The  Case  of 
Dr.  Bentley  farther  stated  and  vindicated,  &c."  »  The  au- 
thor of  the  piece  here  remarked,  was  the  well-known  Dr. 
Sykes,  whom  Dr.  Middleton  treats  here  with  great  con- 
tempt, but  afterwards  changed  his  opinion  of  him,  and  in 
his  "  Vindication  of  the  Free  Enquiry  into  the  Miraculous 
Powers,99  published  after  his  death,  he  appeals  to  Dr. 
Sykes'* s  authority,  and  calls  him  "  a  very  learned  and  ju- 
dicious writer."  The  last  tract  is  entitled,  4.  *c  A  true 
Account  of  the  present  State  of  Trinity -college  in  Cam- 
bridge, under  the  oppressive  Government  of  their  Master 
Richard  Bentley,  late  D.  D."  This,  which  relates  only  to 
the  quarrel  betwixt  him  and  his  college,  is  employed  in 
exposing  his  misdemeanors  in  the  administration  of  college 
affairs,  in  order  to  take  off  a  suspicion  which  many  then 
had,  that  the  proceedings  of  the  university  against  Dr. 
Bentley  did  not  flow  so  much  from  any  real  demerit  in  the 
man,  as  from  a  certain  spirit  of  resentment  and  opposition 
to  the  court,  the  great  promoter  and  manager  of  whose  in- 
terest he  was  thought  to  be  there :  for,  it  must  be  remem- 
bered that,  in  that  part  of  his  life,  Dr.  Middleton  was  a 
strotog  tory;  though  like  other  of  his  contemporaries  in 
the  university,  he  afterwards  became  a  very  zealous  whig. 

Middleton's  animosity  to  Bentley  did  not  end  here.  The 
latter  having  in  1720  published  "Proposals  for  a  new 
edition  of  the  Greek  Testarfient,  and  Latin  Version,"  Mid- 
dleton, the  following  year,  published,  5;  "  Remarks,  Pa- 
ragraph by  Paragraph,  upon  the  Proposals,  &c.'*  and  at 
setting  out,  "  only  desires  his  readers  to  believe,  that' they 
were  not  drawn  from  him  by  personal  spleen  or  envy  to 
the  author  of  them,  but  by  a  serious  convictioti,  that  he 
had  neither  talents  nor  materials1  proper  for  the  work  he  had 
undertaken."  Middleton  might  believe  himself  sincere  in 
all  this,  but  no  such  conclusion  can  be  drawn  from  the 
pamphlet,  which  carries  every  proof  of  malignant  arrogance* 
The  very  motto  which  he  borrowed  from  one  of  Burman's 
orations,  "Doctus  criticus(&  adsuetus  urere,  secare,  in- 
clementer  omnis  generis  libros  tractare,  apices,  syllabas," 
&c.  implies  the  utmost  personal  animosity,  and  could  have 
been  thought  "  happily  chosen,"  only  at  a  time  when 
Bentley's  temper  was   better  known   than  his   learning. 

434  ^I  D  D  L  ET  O  If; 

Berkley  defended  his  "Proposals"  aga^qst  4h£s$  «  R*~ 
^narks,"  which,  however,  be  did  not  ascribe  to  Middletqn, 
but  to  Dr.  Colbatch;  a  learned  fellow  of  t)is  college,  ao4 
casuistical  professor  of  divinity  in  the  upiversity.  It  ba» 
been  said  that  he  very  w^li  ^w  the  true  author,  but  wa* 
reso\yed  to  dissemble  it,  for  tjje  double  pleasure  it  would 
give,  him,  of  abusing  Colbatct^,  and  shewing  l^s  cpntemp* 
of  Middle  tort.  His  treatment  of  Colbatcb,  however,  being 
fs  unjustijEiable  a,s  tjjat  whjch  he  ha.d  received  frojn  Dr„ 
JVliddlptpu,  provoked  the  vice-cbaoceljor  an,d  ^eads  of  thq 
university,  at  a  meeting  irj  Feb.  17?lr.  to  pronounce  hi* 
boofc  a  most  scandalous  aqd  malicious  libel',  and  they  r$-> 
solved  to  inflict  a  pro,per  censure  upon  the  author,  as  spori' 
as  he  should  be  discovered:  for  n,o  names  had  yet  a^p^ 
peared  in  the  controversy.  <  ^JidaMeton  ^hen  published, 
with  his  name,  an  answer  tq  Bieptley's  P-efence,  entitled, 

6.  "  Spm,e  farther  Jterparks^  Paragraph  by  Pajagnaphj  upon 
proposals  lately  published  for  a  pew  edition,  of  %  Greek,  an4 
Latin  Testament,  by  Rich^rc|  B^n^ley,"  1721.  His  motto 
was  again  chosen  in  the  same  contemptuous  spirit,  "  Oc* 
cupatus  ille  eruditione  secularium  literarum,  scripturas  pia- 
nino $ancta§  ignoraverit,"  &e.  EUeron.  These  two  piepei 
against  Bentley  were  thought  tp  be  written  with  gr^%| 
gcutenpss  and  learning;  but  if,  as  averted,  they  prevented 
the  intended  publication,  whoever  can  appreciate  EfeiMH 
ley's  talents  v^ill  agree  that  acuteness,  and  learning  w$rf| 
never  worse  employed. 

.  Uppn  tl^e  great  enlargement  of  th$  public  library  af 
Cambridge,  by  the  addition  of  bishop  Mop  re's  hooka, 
which  tyad  been  purchased  by  the  king  a^t  6,000/.  and  pre- 
sented to  the  university,  the  erection  of  a  new  office  there, 
that  of  principal  librarian,  was  first  voted,  and  then  coa~> 
ferred  ypoji  Dr.  Middletpn :  who,  to  sh^w  himself  worikjy 
of  it,  published,  in  1723,  a  little  piece   with   this,   title, 

7.  "  Uibliotheca3  Qantabrigiensis  ordinandi  met  bop1  us  quqg-i 
dam,  quam,  domino  procancellarip  senatuique  academicq 
copsfde^tnda.m  &  perftcieqdam*  oflScii  &  pietatis  ?rgo  pro- 
p.onit."  The  plan  is  allowed  to  be  judicious,  and  thq 
whole  performance  expressed  in  elegant  ^atin.  In  bis  de- 
dication, however,  to  the  vice-chancellor,  in  which  he 
alluded  to  the  contest  between  the  university  and  Dr. 
Bentley,  he  made  use  of  some  incautious  words,  against  th^ 
jurisdiction  of  the  court  of  King's-beucb,  for  which  he  waft 
prosecuted,  but  dismissed  with  an  easy  fitie< 

n  I  D  I>  L  E  T  O  K;  i|j 

*  Soon  afeer '  ibis  publication,  having  had  Che  mrsforttuifc 
to  Jose  his  wife,  Dr.  Middleton,  not  then  himself  in  a  good 
state  of  health,  owing  to  some  experiments  he  bad  been 
tuakiag  to ,  prevent  tus  growing  fat,  travelled  .through 
France  into  Italy,  along  with  lord  Coleraine,  an  able  an- 
tiquary, and  arrived  at  Rome  early  in  1724.  Hers,  though 
his  character  and  profession  were  welt  known,  be  was 
treated  with  particular  respect  by  persons  of  the  firet  di$« 
tinction  both  in  church  and  state*  The  author  of  the  ac* 
count  of  his  life  in  the  "  Biographia  Britannic*,'"  relates* 
that  when  Mkldleton  first  arrived  at  Rome,  he  met  with  an 
accident,  which  provoked  him. not  a  liule.  '*  Ur.  JMiddle-* 
ton,"  says  be,  "  made  use  of  bis  character  of  principal 
librarian,  to  get  himself  introduced  to  hi*  brother  librarian: 
at  the  Vatican;  who  received  him  with  great  politeness? 
but»  upon  his  Mentioning  Cambridge,  sfrid  he  did  not  know* 
before  that  there  was  any  university  in  England  of  that  ^ 

name,  and  at  the.  same  time  took  notic.e,  that  he  was  no 
stranger  to  that  of  Oxford,  for  which  be  expressed  a,  great  v 

esteem..  This  touched  the  honour  of  qvt  new  litaarrari, 
who  took  some  pains  to  conviaee  his  brother  not  Only  of 
the  jresd  existence,  but  of  the  real  dignity  of  his  uai-yersity 
of  Cambridge*  At  last  the  keeper  of  tbe  Vatican  ackoov* 
ledged,  that,  upon  recollection,  be  bad  indeed  heard  of  a 
celebrated  school  in  England  of  that  qame,  which  was  a 
kind  of  nursery,  where  youth  were  educated  and  prepared 
for.  their  admission  at  Oxford ;  and  Dr,  Middleton  left  him 
at  present  m  tha*  sentiment.  Bat  this,  unexpected  indigo 
ttity  put  him  upon  his  nettle,  and  made  him  .resolve  to 
support  his  residence  at  Rome  in  such  a  manner,  as  should 
be  a,  credit,  U>  his  station  at  Cambridge  ;  and  accordingly 
he  agreed  to  give  4&Q&  per  annuo*  for  a  hotel,  with  ail  ac- 
commodatipna,  fit  for  tbe  reception  of,  those  of  the  first 
rank  ra  Rome:  whichv  joined  to  his  great  fogdnes*  jfot 
antiques,,  occasioned  him  to  trespass  a. little  upon  his  for-* 
tune.9'  Part  of  this  stony  seems  not,  very  probable. . . 
,  He  returned .  through  Paris  towards  the  e**d  of  1125, 
andaimsved  at  Cambridge  before  Christmas,.  .  He  had  no) 
been  long  employed  in  bis,  study,  before  be.  incurred  the 
displeasure  of  the  whole  medical  faculty,  by  the  publina^ 
tion  of  a  tract,  entitled,  tt.  "  I)e  mediqorum  apud.  veteret 
Komanos  degentium  conditione  disaertatio ;  ,  qua,  contea 
viros  celeberrimos  Jacobum  Sponium  &  Richardum  Mea- 
dium,  servilem  atque  ignobilem.  earn  Suisse  Qs&euditur*?*; 

is*  Middle  ton: 

>  i 

Cant.  1726.  Mead  had  just  before  published  an  Httrvefen 
Oration,  in  which  he  had  defended  the  dignity  of  his  pro- 
fession :  so  that  this  seeming  attempt  of  Middleton  to  de- 
grade it,  was  considered  by  the  faculty  as  an  open  attack 
upon  their  order.  Much  resentment  was  shewn,  and  some 
pamphlets  were  published  :  one  particularly  with  the  title 
of  "  Responsio,"  of  which  the  late  professor  Ward  of 
Gresbam-college  was  the  author.  Ward  was  supposed  to 
be  chosen  by  Mead  himself  for  this  task  :  for  his  book  was 
published  under  Mead's  inspection,  and  at  bis  expence. 
Middleton  defended  his  dissertation  in  a  new  publication 
entitled,  9.  "  Dissertationis,  &c.  contra  anonymos  quos~ 
dam  notarum  brevium,  responsionis,  atque  animadversionis* 
auctores,  defensio,  Pars  prima,  1727."  The  purpose  of 
this  tract  seems  to  have  been,  not  to  pursue  the  controversy, 
for  he  enters  little  into  it,  but  to  extricate  himself  from*  it 
with  as  good  a  grace  as  he-  could  :  for  nothing  more  waa 
published  about  it,  and  the  two  doctors,  Mead  and  Mid- 
dleton,  without  troubling  themselves  to  decide  the  ques** 
tion,  became  afterwards  very  good  friends.  A  "  Pars  se~ 
cunda,"  however,  was  actually  written,  and  printed  for 
private  circulation,  after  his  death,  by  Dr.  Heberden,  in 
1761,  4to.  In  1729  Middleton  published,  10.  "A  Letter 
from  Rome,  shewing  an  exact  Conformity  between  Popery 
and  Paganism :  or,  the  Religion  of  the  present.  Romans 
derived  from  that  of  their  Heathen  Ancestors."  This 
letter,  though  written  with  great  politeness,  good  sense, 
and  learning,  yet  drew  upon  the  author  the  displeasure  of 
some  even  of  our  own  church  ;  because  he  attacked ,  in  it 
the  Popish  miracles  with  that  general  spirit. of  incredulity 
and  levity,  which  seemed,  in  their  opinion,  to  condemn 
all  miracles.  In  his  second  edition  he  endeavoured  to  ob- 
viate this  objection,  by  an  express  declaration  in  favour  of 
the  Jewish  and  Christian  miracles,  to  which  perhaps  more 
Credit  was  given  now  than  afterwards.  A  fourth  edition 
came  out  in  1741,  8vo,  to  which  were  added,  1.  "  A  pre* 
fatory  Discourse,  containing  an  Answer  to  the  Writer  of  a 
Popish  book,  entitled,  The  Catholic  Christian  instructed, 
&c.  with  many  new  facts  and  testimonies,  in  farther  con- 
firmation of  the  general  Argument  of  the  Letter:"  and, 
&  "  A  Postscript,  in  which  Mr.  Warburton's  opinion  con- 
cerning the  Paganism  of  Rome  is  particularly  considered." 
Hitherto  certainly  the  opinion  of  the  world  was  gene- 
rally in  his  favour,  and  many  thought  that  he  had  done 

MlDDtETON.  *37 

great  service  to  Protestantism,  by  exposing  the  absurdities 
and  impostures  of  Popery.  He  bad  also  several  personal 
qualities,  which  recommended  him ;  he  was  an  excellent 
scholar,  an  elegant  writer,  a  very  polite  man,  and  a  gene* 
sal  favourite  with  the  public,  as  well  as  with  the  commu- 
nity in  which  he  lived ;  but  an  affair  now  happened,  which' 
ruined  all  his- hopes,  proved  fatal  to  his  views  of  prefer- 
ment, and  disgraced  him  with  his  countrymen  as  long  as' 
he  lived. 

About  the  beginning  of  1730,  was  published  Tiridal'i 
famous  book  called  "  Christianity  as  old  as  the  Creation  :** 
the  design  of  whidh  was  to  destroy  revelation,  and  to  esta- 
blish natural  religion  in  its  stead.  Many  writers  entered 
into  controversy  against  it,  and,  anlong  the  rest,  the  well- 
known  Waterland,  who  published  a  "  Vindication  of  Scrip- 
ture," &c.  Middleton,  not  liking  his  manner  of  vindicating 
Scripture,  addressed,  11.  "A  letter  to  him,  containing 
tome  remarks  on  it,  together  with  the  sketch,  or  plan,  of 
another  answer  to  Tindal's  book,"  1731.  Two  things,  we- 
are  told,  contributed  to  make  this  performance  obnoxious 
to  the  clergy;  first,  the  popular  character  of  Waterland, 
who  was  then  at  the  head  of  the  champions  for  orthodoxy, 
yet  whom  Middleton,  instead  of  reverencing,  had  ventured 
to  treat  with  the  utmost  contempt  and  severity ;  secondly, 
the  very  free  things  that  himself  had  asserted,  and  espe- 
cially his  manner  of  saying  them.  His  name  was  not  put 
to  the  tract,  nor  was  it  known  for  some  time  who  was 
the  author  of  it  While  Waterland  continued  to  pub- 
lish more  parts  of  ''Scripture  vindicated,"  &c.  Pearce, 
bishop  of  Rochester,  took  up  the  contest  in  his  behalf;1 
which  drew  from  Middleton*  12.  "A  Defence  of  the  Let* 
ter  to  Dr.  Waterland  against  the  false  and  frivolous  Cavils 
of  the  Author  of  the  Reply,"  1731.  Pearce  replied  to 
this  ?'  Defence,"  and  treated  him,,  as  he  had  done  before, 
as  an  infidel,  or  enemy  to  Christianity  in  disguise ;  who, 
under  the  pretext  of  defence,  meant  nothing  less  than 
subversion.  Middleton  was  now  known  to  be  the  author 
of  the  letter ;  and  he  was  very  near  being  stripped  of  bis 
degrees,  and  of  all  his  connections  *  with  the  university. - 
But  this  was  deferred,  upon  a  promise  that  he  would  make 
all  reasonable  satisfaction,  and  explain  himself  in  such  a 
manner,  as,  if  possible,  to  remove  every  objection.  This 
he  attempted  to  do  in,  13.  "  Some  Remarks  On  Dr. 
Bearce's  second  Reply,  &c.  wherein  the  author's  setiti- 

**»  M;i  p  D  L  E  T  O  N; 

l&ents,  as  to  all  the  principal  points  in  dispute;  are  folly 
tad  dearly  explained  in  the  manner  that  bad  been  pro-; 
g^ised,"  1732:  and  be  at  least  effected  so  mueh,  by  this* 
piece,  that  he  was  suffered  to  be  quiet,  and  to,  remain  ut 
statu  quo;  though  hie  character  as  a  divine  ever  after  lay 
Wider  suspicion,  and  he  was  reproached  by  florae/  of  the 
more  zealous  clergy,  by  Venn  in  particular,  with  down-* 
pgbt  apo^taxy.  There  was  also  published,  in  17:3$,  && 
anonymous  pamphlet,  entitled,  "  Observations  addressed 
\o  the  author  of  the  Letter  tq  Dr.  Waterland  ;"  which  was 
written  by  Or.  Williams,  public  orator  of  the  ^university  ; 
and  to  which  Middleton  replied  in,  14.  "  Soitoe  reraoeks," 
ftc*  The  purpose  of  Williams  was  to  prove  Middletoa  an 
infidel  i  .that  bis  letter  ought  to  be  burnt,  and  himself 
bani&bed :  and  he  then-  presses  him  to  confess  and  recant 
in  form.  «.But,"  say*  Middletpn,  «I  have  nothing  to 
secant  on  the  occasion ;  nothing  t9  confess,  bat  the  seme 
fi^ur  ax  ticks,  that  I  h^ve  already  confessed  :  first,  that  tha 
Jews  borrowed  sojpe  of  their  customs  from  Egypt;  se* 
Vwdiy,  that  the  Egyptians  were  pffssested  of  arts  and  leant* 
ipg  io  Moses's  titmi  thirdly*  that  the  primitive  writers* 
ij*  vindicating  Scripture,  fetted  it  necessary  sometines  to 
ijecur  to  allegory  ;  fourthly,  that  the  Scriptures  are  not  of 
absolute  and  universal  inspiration.  These  ane  the  only 
crimes  that  I  have  been  guilty  of  against  religion  :  and  byt 
seducing  the  controversy  to  these  foot  heads,  end  declare 
ijig  n»y  whole  me*ai»g  to  be  comprised  in  them,  I  did  iai 
xqaiity  .recent  every  thing  else,  that  through  heat  or  inad- 
vertency bad  dropped  from  Hie;  every  thing  thai  could  be> 
construed  to  a  sense  hurtful  to  Christianity."  ; 

.  Duping  this  controversy,  he  was  appointed,  in  Dec  1731,- 
Wwdwaffdiao  professor ;  a  foundation  to  which  he  bad  in* 
s/Hnje  degree  contributed,  and  was,  therefore,,  appointed;  bjr 
Woodwacd's  exeoutors  to  be  the  first  professor*  En*  July  t 
1732,  he  published  his  inauguration  speedy  wish,  thia  tide,. 
15.  "  Oratio  de  novo  physiologist  explicandce-  mitnere,  ex. 
celeberrimi  Woodward*  testaoieete  ieatituto ;  habita  Can- 
t^brigiae,  in  scholis  publicist'  It  is  easy  to  .suppose,  that> 
the  readiitg  of  lectures  upon  fossils  was  not  an  employment; 
suited  either  to  Middlemen's  taste,  or  to  the  turn  ofi  his* 
s^ud»Q&-;  tajid  therefore  we  cannot  wonder  that  he  should 
resign  it  in  1734,  when  made  principal  librarian.  Soon 
after  this,  be  married  a  second  time,  Mary,  the  daughter 
of^the  rev,  Conysrs  Place,  of .  Dorchester  \.  and  upon  hen 

M  I  D  D  L  E  T  O  N;  ||, 


4*3tth,  which  happened  but  a  few  years  before  hit  own,  4 
third,  who  was  Anne,  the  daughter  of  John  Powell,  esq* 
pf  Boughroya,  Radnorshire,  in  North  Wales*  In  1735  be 
published,  16.  "  A  pissertation  concerning  the  Origin  of 
Printing  in  England  :  shewing,  that  it  was  first  introduced 
and  practU^d  by  our  countryman  William  Canton,  at  h 
Westminster,  and  not,  as  is  commonly  believed,  by.  a  fo- 
reign printer  at  Oxford ;"  an  hypothesis  that  has*  been 
line?  ably  controverted  i^i  Eowyer  and  Nichols's  «  Origin 
#  Printing,"  * 7 76.  ■  . 

Jrj  1741,  .came  out  his  great  work,  17.  "The  History  of 
the  Life  of  ]ty.  Tulliu*  Cicero,"  in  2  v^ls-  4tP.  This  is  inn 
deed  a  valuable  w^rV,  both  as  tp  matter  and  manner,  writ<* 
ten-  generally,  although  not  unexceptionably,  in  a  correct 
and  elegant  style,  mid  abounds  iq  instruction  .and  enter* 
tainqient.  Yet  his  partiality  to  Cicero  forms  a  cousi<Jera>« 
fcle  objee^ipp  to  his  veracity  a,s  a  biographer.  He  has  la-» 
fepured  every  where  to  cast  a  shade  over  big  feilings,  tot 
give  the  strongest;  colouring  to  his  virtues *,  and  out  of  % 
gQOfl  character  tp  draw  a  perfect  one  ;  which,  though  Cieerot 
was  i^deubtedly  a  great,  man,  could  i*otj  be  applicable  sverft 
tQ  binp.  Peihips,.  however,  **  **  history  of  the  times,  ifci* 
yet  more  valuable  than  considered  only,  as  a  life  of  Cicero* 
It  was  published  by  subscription,  and  dedicated  to  lord  He* •» 
V$y,  vyhp  was  much  the  avuhpr'?  friend,  and  promised  lim 
4.  great  numb?*  <rf  subscribers,  «  Hi*  subscription,"  ha 
tells  ug,  "  was  like  tp  be  of  the  charitable  kind,  and  Tully 
tp  be  the  portion  of  two  young  nieces"  (for  he  bad  na 
ohild  Uving  by  any  of  his  wives)  *'  who  were  then  in  the* 
house  with  him,  left  by  gn  unfortunate  brother,  who  ha£ 
nothing  else*  to  leave*"  The  subscription  must  have  bee* 
very  gteat,  which  uqV  pnly  enabled  him  to  portion  the*c* 
two  nieces,  but,  as  his  biographers  inform  us,  to  purchase 
Ismail*  estate  at  Hildersbaip,  about  six  miles  from  Cm>« 
bridge,  where  he  had  an  opportupity  of  gratifying  bis  tasta^ 
by  cpn vesting  a  rude  farm  into  an  elegant  habitation,  and 
where,  from  that  time,  be  commonly  passed  the  summec 
season. — While  engaged  on  his  "  Cicero,"  he  was  called 
to  London  to  receive  the  mastership  of  the  Charter- house, 
•    •  •  < 

•  Wolfius,  in  his  edition  of  the  four  that  he  is  represented  more  in  a  polU 

controverted  orations  of  Cicero,  Ber-  tical  than  a  literary  character;    and 

tin,  1801,  says  that  Middle  ton'*  Life  thirdly,  Ujai  too  little  critical  attention 

of  Cicero  has  three  great  faults :  first,  is  paid  to  the  historical  facts.     See  a 

that  the  hero  is  frequently  exalted  be-  learned  note  by  Mr,  Go  ugh,  in  ,Ni- 

yond  the  bounds  of  truth  ;  secondly,  chois's  Botryer,  vol*  V.  p.  412 



their  appearance  probably  much  earlier/'  To  this  asserv 
rion,  from  a  man  so  devoted  to  study,  it  is  not  easy  to  give 
credit ;  especially  when  it  is  remembered  also  that  Mid«< 
dleton  and  Sherlock  had  been  formerly  in  habits  of  inti-> 
macy  and  friendship ;  were  of  the  same  university,  and 
nearly  of  the  same  standing ;  and  that,  however  severely 
and  maliciously  Middleton  treated  his  antagonist  in  the 
present  Examination,  there  certainly  was  a  time  when  he 
triumphed  in  him  as  "  the  principal  champion  and  Orna- 
ment of  church  and  university."  Different  principles  and 
different  interests  separated  them  afterwards:  but  it  is  not 
easy  to  conceive  that  Middleton,  who  published  his  E*a* 
laai nation  in  1750,  should  never  have  read  these  very  fa-* 
flflous  discourses,  which  were  published  in  1725*.  There 
is  too  great  reason,  therefore,  to  suppose,  that  this  publM 
cation  was  drawn  from  him  by  spleen  and  personal  enmity/ 
Which  he  now  entertained  against  every  writer  who  ap- 
peared in  defence  of  the  belief  and  doctrines  of  the  chlirchi 
'What  other  provocation  he  might  have  is  unknown.  Whe-> 
tber  the  bishop  preferred,  had  not  been  sufficiently  thitid<t 
ful  of  the  doctor  unpreferred,  or  whether  the  bishop  bad 
been  an  abettor  and  encourager  of  those  wbo  opposed  thd 
doctor's  principles,  cannot  be  ascertained  ;  stjfite  think  thai 
both  cause*  concurred  in  creating  aft  enmity  between  the 
doctor  and  tbe  bishop  f.  This  "Examination"  Was-  refuted 
by  Dr.  Rutherforth*  divinity  professor  at  Cambridge  :  but 
Middleton,  having  gratified  his  animosity  against  Sherlofck* 
pursued  the  argument  no  further*  tie  was,  however,  iiie** 
ditatinga  general  answer  to  all  the  objections  made  against 
'ttte  **  Free  Inquiry ;"  when  being  seized  with  ilhiess,  and 
imagining  be  might  not  be  able  to  go  through  it,  he  singled 
out  Church  and  Dodwell,  as  the  two  most  considerable  ot 
Iris  adversaries,  and  ehiplojed  himself  in  preparing  a  par- 
ticular answer  to  them.  This,  however,  he  did  not  live" 
to  fttfish,  but  died  of  a  slow  hectic  fever  and  disorder  in. 
bis  lively  ofr  th£  08th  of  July,  1750,  in  his  sixty-seventh 
year,  at  HUdertbam.     He  was  burkd  in  the  parish  of  St* 

*^ "  Sherlock  told  me  that  he  pre- 
sented' Of.  Af .  with  this  boot  when  first 
pfettKsfed  to  17  25,  and  that  fie  so6ti 
afterwards-  thanked  him  for  it,  and  ex- 
pressed-hhs  pleasure  id  the  perusal." 
M&uotte  by  Whtetdn  tile  tiotfkseller,  in 
Ws  copftf  tire  first  edition  of  this  -Dfc- 
tionare.  The  same  fact  occurs  in  the 
©eUt'Mflrg.  m?,  38^,'  3$7,  But  pro- 

bably  from  the  same  authority. 

f  It  is  saM  b'y'bishop  Newton,  that 
when  Middletoh  applied1  rbf:thcJ  Chatf 
terb^use,  Sir  Rdbert  WaTpqJe.  told  him 
that  Sherlock,  with  the  other  bishops, 
wste  agamst  his*  toe'nbg  chbse^.  "f  his  tfl 
a  Man  who,  ate  Wtfrbiftttm,  his  frienty 
declared,  "  never  coo  Id  bear  cdntraf 
diction/'  was  sufficient  provocation! 

HI  I  I)  D  L  £  TON.  Ht 

if  ithael,  Cambridge.  As  be  died  without  issue,  he  left 
his  widow,  who  died  in  1760*  in  possession  of  an  estate 
which  was  not  inconsiderable  :  yet  we  are  told  that  a  little 
before  his  death,  he  thooght  it  prudent  to  accept  of  a  small 
living  from  sir  John*  Frederick,  bart  *.  A  few  months  after 
was  published,  his  25.  "  Vindication  ef  the  Free  enquiry 
into  the  Miraculous  powers,  &e.  from  the  objections  of 
Dr.  Dodwell  and  Dr.  Church."  The  piece  is  unfinished1,, 
as  we  have  observed,  but  correct,  as  far  as  it  goes,  which 
is  about  fourscore  pages  in  quarto. 

.  In  1752,  were  collected  all  the  above-mentioned  woffes> 
except  "  The  Life  of  Cicero,"  and  printed  in  four  volumes, 
4to,  unddr  the  title  of  "  Miscellaneous  Works ;"  among 
which  were  inserted  these  following  pieces,  never  before 
published,  viz.  26.  **  A  Preface  to  An  intended  Answer  10 
ail  the  objections  made  against  the  Free  enquiry."  *  2T. 
11  Some  cursory  reflections  on  the  dispute,  or  dissgntiony 
Which  happened  at  Antioch,  between  the  Apostles  Peter 
and  Paul."  28.  "  Reflections  on  the  variations,  or  incon*- 
listencies,  which  are  found  among  the  four  Evangelists)  in 
their  different  accounts  of  the  same  facts.'*  '  29.  "  Art 
Essay  on  the  gift  of  Tongues,  'tending  to  explain  the  pros- 
per notion  and  nature  of  it,  as  it  is  described  and  delivered 
to  us  in  the  sacred  Scriptures,  and  it  appears  also  to  have 
keen  understood  by  the  learned  both  of  ancient  and  modem 
times/*  SO.  **  Some  short  Remarks  on  a  Story  told  by  the 
Ancients  concerning  St.  John  the  Evangelist,  and  Gerin* 
thus  the  Heretic ;  and  on  the  use  which  ie  made  of  it  by 
the  Moderns,  to  enforce  the  duty  of  sburtriiftg  Heretics.** 
*1.  "  An  Essay  on  the  allegorical  and  literal  interpretation 
of  the  creation  and  fall  of  Man.9*  32.  "  De  LatmaruM 
literarum  pronuneiatione  dissertatio."  39.  ?•  Some  Letters 
ef  Dr.  Middleton  to  bis  Friends."  A  -second  edition  of 
these  *'  Miscellaneous  Works"  was  afterwards  published  M 

•  .!•••■■ 

*  The  living  was  Ha9C0tnb,  in  Surrey;  which  I  wholly  dislike,  yet  Wtyile  I  ant 

6neof  Dr.MiddJeton's  biographers,  and  coin  en  t  to  acquiesce  in  the  ill,  I  should 

foe  fnftat  furioas  in  railing  at  the  cleft-  be  glad  to  taste  a  littte  of  the?  good;  kuA 

yl  kigot*  who  apposed .  his  sentiments,  to  hare .  some  amends  for  the:  n$lf  &$ 

has  been  so  blinded  by  the  doctor's  sent  and  consent  which  no  man  of  sense 

virtues,  as  to  inform  us  that  his  sob-  can  approve.7*    tf  Dr,  Midtffetdn  had 

scriptioa   to  the  thirty-nine  articles,  h'm    VtgoUd  opponents,  aht.  pre»M| 

when  he  accepted  of  this,  liviag,  was-  anecdote  may.  aufely.  be^qwotcd  as  a 
purely  political :  and  gives  the  follpw-  proof  that  he  had  very  impartiat  de- 
»£  confirmation  of  the  fact,  from  a     fenders  J— British  Biography,  Bjrtoitt 

M3  tetter  of Br, Middteten's :  "Though  .  ers,  w>Lt&  p»331» 
there  are  many  j  things  in  the  church 

r  j£ 

14*  JH  i  DDL  ETON. 

5  vols:  8vo,  but  for  many  years  there  has  been  little  or  n* 
demand  for  any  of  bis  works,  except  the  "  Life  of  Cicero," 

Dr.  Middleton's .  reputation  as  a  man  of  great  learning 
and  splendid  talents  may. still  be  supported  by  his  writings,, 
but  in  his  personal  character,  little  will  be  found  that  is 
amiable,  dignified,  or  independent.  His-  religion  was 
justly  suspected,  and  it  is  certain  that  his  philosophy  did 
not  teach  him  candour.  He  had  beep  opposed*  without 
jrespect,  by  many  of  the  clergy,  and  in  revenge,  he  at* 
tacked  the  church,  to  which  he  professed  to  belong,  and 
in  which  he  would  have  been  glad  to  rise,  if  be  could. 

With  respect  to  his  talents  as  a  writer,  he  tells  his  pa* 
tron,  lord  Hervey,  in  bis  dedication  of  "The  Life  of  Cicero,*' 
that  "it  was  Cicero  who  instructed  him  to  write;  your 
lordship,"  be  goes  on,  "  who  rewards  me  for  writing  :  for 
next  to  that  little  reputation  with  which  the  public  baa 
been  pleased  to  favour  me,  the  benefit  of  this  subscription 
is  the  chief  fruit  that  I  have  ever  reaped  from  my  studies." 
Of  this  be  often  speaks,  sometimes  in  terms  of  complaint, 
and  sometimes,  as  in  the,  following  passage,  in  a  strain  of 
triumph :  "  I  never  was.  trained/9  says  he,  "  to  pace  in 
the  trammels  of  the  church,  nor  tempted  by  the  sweets  of 
its  preferments,  to  sacrifice  the  philosophic  freedom  of  a 
studious,  to  the  servile  restraints  of  an  ambitious  life :  and 
from  this  very  circumstance,  as  often  as  I  reflect  upon  it,  I 
feel  that  comfort  in  my  pwn  breast,  which  no  external  ho* 
sours  can  bestow.  ,  I  persuade  myself,  that  the  life  and 
faculties  of  man,  at  the  beat  but  short  and  limited,  cannot 
be  employed  more  rationally  or  laudably,  than  in  the? 
search  of  knowledge,  and  especially  of  that  sort  which 
relates  to  our  duty,,  and  conduces  to  our  happiness,  &c," 
This,  however,  was  the  philosophy- of  a  disappointed  man. 
It  is.  true,  indeed,  that  he  felt  the  free  spirit  he  describes, 
which  was  manifest  in  all  his  writings,,  yet  from  many  of 
them  it  is  no  less  clear  that  he  felt  anger  and  disappoint* 
tnent  also,  at  not  being  preferred,  according  to  his  owa 
internal  consciousness  of  merit.  So  inconsistent  are  evea 
the  most  able  men.  He  made  bis  preferment  impossible^ 
and  then  repined  at  not  obtaining  it.  Some  of  his  late  bio- 
graphers have  endeavoured  to  prove  what  a  "  good  Chris- 
tian" he  was ;  he  had  the  same  opinion  of  himself,  but  it 
is  not  easy  to  discover  what,  in  his  view,  entered  into  the 
character  of  a  good  Christian.  That  he  was  an  apostate^ 
as  some  of  his  antagonists  have  asserted,  may  be  doubtful; 

M:I:DDL  E  T  0!N.  145 

<ttperh(ap&:  easily  eofttradicted.     From  all  we  have  seen  of 
his  confidential  correspondence,  he  does  not  appear  to  have 
oyer  had  much  to  apostatize  from.    As  far  back  as  1 733,  he 
saye,  in  one  of  his  letter*  to  lord  Hervey,  "  It  is  my  mis* 
fortune- to  have  bad  so  early  a -taste  of  Pagan  sense,  as  to' 
make  me  very  squeatosh  in  mty  Christian  studies."    fn  the- 
following  year  be  speaks  of  one  of  the  most  common  ob- 
servances o£  religion  m  a  manner  that  cannot  be  misunder- 
stood .-:  "  Suaday  is:  my  only  day  of  rest,  bat  not  of.  liberty ; 
for  lam.  bound  to  a  double  attendance  at  church,  to  Wipe2 
off  thfc  stain  of  infidelity.      When  I  have  recovered  my 
credit,  in  wbieh  I  mike  daily  progress,  I  may  use  more 
freedom,*'     With  such  contempt  for  church  and  church* 
men>  it  can  bet  n*  wonder,  that  Dr.  Middleton  failed  both7 
of  preferment  and  respect1 

MIDDLETON.  (Sir  Hugh),?  a  publk^spirited  man,  and1 
a. great  benefactor  to  the  city  of  London,  by  bringing  iff 
thither  the- New  River,  was  a-native  of  Denbigh  in  North 
Wales*  and  a  citizen  and  goldsmith  of  London;     This  city' 
i¥»t  being,  sufficiently  supplied*  with  water,  three  acts  of 
parliament  were  obtained  for  that  purpose ;  one  in  queen1 
Elisabeth's,    and  two  in   king  James  the  First's  reign  ; 
granting; the  citizens  of  London  full  power  to  bring*  a  river' 
from  any  part  .of  Middlesex  and  Hertfordshire*     The  pro- 
ject, after  much,  calculation,  was  laid  aside  as  impractica- 
ble, till  sir  Hugh  Middleton  undertook  it :  in  consideration  * 
of  which,  the  city  conferred  on  him  and  his  heirs,  April  1, 
1606,  the  full,  right  and  power  of  the  act  of  parliament 
granted  unto  them  in  that  behalf.     Having  therefore  taken 
an  exact  survey  of  all  springs  and  rivers  in  Middlesex  and 
Hertfordshire*  he  made  choice*  of  two  springs,  one  in  the 
parish  of  AmweU  near  Hertford,  the  other  near  Ware,  both 
about  twenty  miles  from  London ;  and,'  having  united  their 
streams,  conveyed  them  to  the  city  with  very  great  labour 
and  expence*     The  work  was  begun  Feb;  20,  1608,  and  * 
carried  on  through  various  soils,   some  oozy  arid  muddy, 
others  extremely  hard  and  rocky.     Many  bridges  in  the 
mean*  time*  wxere  built  over  his  New  River;    and  mapy 
drains uwere  made  to  carry  off  land-springs  and  commons 
sewers, .sometimes  over* and  sometimes  under  it.     Besides " 
these  nefcessary 'difficulties,  he  had,  as  may  easily  be  ima~ 

gin$dt<  maay  others  ,to  struggle  with;  as  the  malice^and 

....  *  i      .  -•   . 

*  Itfog.  UrJt — Nichols's  Bowyer. — Bowlegs  edition  of  Pope's  Works — War-  ' 
b*rtD^LeUert:r~Colfj'«.M3  Atbtw*  in  Brit,  Muf -*D3#<'«oli'*  Qu*rfr  Jt;vrtf I VS 

Vol.  XXII.  h 



derision  of  the  vulgar  and  envious,  the  many  hindrance! 
and  complaints  of   persons  through  whose  grounds  the 
channel  was  to  be  cut,  &c.     When  he  had  brought  the 
water  into  the  neighbourhood  of  Enfield,  almost  his  whole 
fortune  was  spent ;   upon  which  he  applied  to  the  lord 
mayor,  and  commonalty  of  London  ;  but  tbey  refusing  to 
interest  themselves  in  the  affair,  he  applied  next  to  king 
James.     The  king,  willing  to  encourage  that  noble  work, 
did,  by  indenture  under  the  great  seal,  dated  May  2,  1612, 
between  him  and  Mr.  Middleton,  covenant  to  pay  half  the 
expence  of  the  whole  work,  past  and  to  come ;  and  thus 
the  design  was  happily  effected,  and  the  water  brought 
into  the  cistern   at  Islington   on  Michaelmas-day,   1613. 
Like  air  other  projectors,  sir  Hugh  greatly  impaired  his 
fortune  by   this  stupendous  work  :  for  though  king  James 
had  borne  so  gr^at  a  part  of  the  expence,  and  did  after* 
wards,  in  1619,  grant  his  letters-patent  to  sir  Hugh  Mid- 
dleton, and  others,  incorporating  them  by  the  name  of 
**  The  Governors  and  Company  of  the  New  River,  brought 
from  Chadwell  and  Amwell  to  London  ;"  impowering  them 
.to  choose  a  governor,  deputy* governor,  and  treasurer,  to 
grant  leases,  &c.  yet  the  profit  it  brought  in  at  first  was 
very  inconsiderable.     There  was  no  dividend  made  among 
the  proprietors  till  the  year  1633,  when  11/.  195.  id.  was 
divided  upon  each  share.    The  second  dividend  amounted  . 
only  to  3/.  4s.  2d.  and  instead  of  a  third  dividend,  a  call 
being  expected,! king  Charles  I.  who  was  in  possession  of 
the  royal  moiety  aforesaid,  re-conveyed  it  again  to  sir  Hugh, 
by  a  deed  under  the  great  seal,  Nov.  18,   I636v  in  consi-  . 
deration  of  sir  Hugh's  securing  to  his  majesty  aud  his  sue* 
cessors  a  fee-farm  rent  of  500/.  per  annum,  out  of  the  pro- 
fits of  the  company,  clear  of  all  reprises.  Sir  Hugh  charged 
that  sum  upon  the  holders  of  the  king's  shares.     He  was  at 
last  under  the  necessity  of  engaging  in  the  business  of  a 
surveyor,  or  what  is  now  denominated  a  civil  engineer,  and 
iii  that  capacity  rendered  essential  services  to  his  country, 
by  various  schemes  of  mining,  draining,  &c.     In  1622  he 
was  created  a  baronet,  and  he  died  in  the  year  1631 ;  since 
which,   the  value  of  the  shares  in  this  New  River,  as  it  is 
still  called,  advanced  so  much  as  to  create  large  fortunes 
to  the  heirs  of  the  original  holders.     A  hundred  pounds 
share,  some  years  since,  sold  as  high  as  fifteen  thousand 
pounds.     Of  late,  however,  there  have  been  several  acts 
•f  parliament  passed  in  favour  of  other  projects,  which 


nave  reduced'  the  value  of  the  New  River  shares  full  6n^ 
naif.  It  is  the  fashion  now  to  decry  the  company  as  extra- 
vagant in  their  charges  for  supplies  of  water ;  but  it  should 
fee  remembered,  that  the  shares  of  this  corporation,  like, 
those  of  other  commercial  companies,  are  perpetually 
changing  their  masters;  and  it  is  probable  that  the  ma- 
jority of  share-holders,  when  their  value  was  even  at  the 
highest,  had  paid  their  full  price,  so  as  to  gain  only  a  mo* 
derate  interest  upon  their  purchase  money. 

MIEL  (Jan),  a  celebrated  Flemish  painter  of  history,' 
fiunting  and  conversation  pieces,  was  born  in  Flanders  in 
1599,  and  was  first  a  disciple  of  Gerard  Segers,  in  whose 
school  his  talents  were  much  distinguished  ;  but  went  to 
complete  his  studies  in  Italy,  where  he  was  distinguished 
by  the  name  of  Giovanni  delle  Vite.  He  particularly  stu- 
died and  copied  the  works  of  the  Caracci  and  Correggio,' 
and  was  admitted  into  the  academy  of  Andrea  Sacchi,  who 
would  have  employed  him  as  an  assistant  to  himself  in  some 
great  works,  had  he  not  unfortunately  preferred  the  familiar 
style  of  Bamboccio,  to  the  elevated  conceptions  of  Sacchi. 
His  general  subjects  for  his  easel  pictures,  which  are  the 
finest  of  his  performances,  were  of  the  familiar  kind  j  but, 
he  also  painted  history,  in  a  large  size,  in  fresco,  and  in 
oil.  His  pictures  of  huntings  are  particularly  admired ; 
the  figures  and  animals  of  every  species  being  designed 
with  uncommon  spirit,  nature,  and  truth.  The  transpa- 
rence of  his  colouring,  and  the  clear  tints  of  his  skies,  en-* 
liven  his  compositions;  nor  are  bis  paintings  in  any  degree 
inferior  to  those  of  Bamboccio,  either  in  their  force  or 
lustre.  His  large  works  are  not  so  much  to 'be  commended 
for  the  goodness  of  the  design,  as  for  the  expression  and 
colouring ;  but  it  is  in  his  small  pieces  that  the  pencil  of 
Miel  appears  in  its  greatest  delicacy  and  beauty.  His  situ 
gular  merit  recommended  him  to  Charles  Emanuel  duke  of 
Savoy,  who  appointed  him  his  principal  painter,  and  after- 
wards honoured  him  with  the  cross  9f  St  Mauritius,  He 
died  in  1664,  aged  siKty-five.* 

MIERIS  (Francis),  called  Old  Francis  Mieris,  one  of 
the  most  remarkable  disciples  of  Gerard  Dow,  was  born  at 
Leyden,  in  1635.     He  imitated  his  master  with  great  dili- 

1  Biog.  Brit. — Gent.  Mag.  See  Index,  and  vol.  LXXIX.  p.  795.— For  * 
more  particular  account  of  the  rise  aod  progress  of  the>  New  Hirer,  see  Lysont'i 
Environs,  vol.  111.  and  IV. 

?  Argenvitle,  vol.' I II.— Pilkington  and  Strait. 


US  MI  E  R  I  S. 

gence,  and  has  been  thought  in  some  respects  to  surpass 
him.  Minute  accuracy,  in  copying'  common  objects  on  a 
small  scale,  was  the  excellence  of  this  artist,  with  the  same 
sweetness  of  colouring,  and  transparence  that  marks  the 
paintings  of  Dow.  In  design  he  has  teen  thought  more 
comprehensive  and  delicate  than  his  master,  his  touch 
more  animated,  with  greater  freshness  and  force  in  his 
pictures.  His  manner  of  painting  silks,  velvets,'  stuffs,  or 
carpets/  was  sp  studiously  exact,  that  the  differences  of 
their  construction  are  clearly  visible  in  his  representations.' 
His  pictures' are  scarce,  and  generally  bear  a  very  high 
price/  His  own  valuation  of  his  time  was  a  ducat  an  hour; 
and  for  one  picture  of  a  lady  fainting,  with  a  physician 
attending  her,  and  applying  remedies,  he  was  paid  at  that 
ratio,  so  large  a  sum  as  fifteen  hundred  florins.  The  grand* 
duke  of  Tuscany  is  said  to  have  offered  3000  for  it,  but 
was  refused.  One  of  the  most  beautiful  of  the  works  of 
Francis  Mieris,  in  this  country,  where  theyare  not  very 
common,  is  in  the  possession  of  Mr.  P.  H.  Hope,  and  i& 
known  by  the  appellation  of  the  '*  Shrimp  Man.,v  Mieris 
died  in  1681,  at  the  age  of  forty-six.  He  left  two  sons, 
John  and  William,  whp  were  both  eminent  painters,  John,, 
however,  died  young;  William  is  the  subject  of  the  en- 
suing  article. 

MIERIS  (William),  called  the  Young  Mieris^  was  born; 
at  Leyden  in  l6(>2,  and  during  the  life  of  his  father  made 
a  remarkable  progress  under  his  instructions.     When  he 
lost  this  aid,  which  was  at  the  age  of  nineteen,  he  turned! 
his  attention  to  nature,  and  attained  still  higher  excellence1 
by  an  exact  imitation  of  his  models.     He  painted  history 
occasionally*  and  sometimes  animals,  and  even  landscapes  ; 
and  modelled  in  clay  and  wax  with  so  much  skill,  as  to' 
deserve  the  name  of  ah  excellent  sculptor.     In  the  delicate 
finishing  of  his  works  he  copied  his  father,  and  also  in  the 
lustre,  harmony,  and  truth   of  his  paintings;  altogether, 
however,  they  are  not  quite  equal  to  those  of  the  elder 
Mieris^     He  died  in  1747,  at  the  age  of  eighty- five!     He 
left  a  son  named  Francis,  who  is  called  the  Young  Francis' 
Mieris,  to  distinguish  him  from  his  grandfather.  He  paintec}. 
in  the  same  style,  but  was  inferior  to  his.  father  and  grand* 
father;  yet  there  is  no  doubt  that  his  pictures  are  often 
sold  in  collections  under  the  name  of  one  of  the  former.  *  • 

*  Argenville,  vol.  HI.— Pilkiogton.  •  Ibty. 

M16NARD.  i'49 

'  MIGNARD  (Peter),  an  historical  and  portrait  painter, 
was  born  at  Troyes,  in  Champagne,  in  1610.  He  Was  the 
disciple  of  Vouet,  but  quitted  his  school  at  an  early  period 
Of  his  life,  and  went  to  Rome,  anxious  to  see  and  study 
the  vyorks  of  Raphael,  Michael  Angelo,  and  the  Caracci. 
fie  there  lived  with  Du  Fresnoy,  and  they  studied  together 
the  noble  works  of  art  which  that  city  presented  to  them  ; 
they  also  travelled  together  to  Florence  and  Venice,  that 
they  fnight  leave  no  source  of  improvement  unsought  which 
the  extraordinary  talents  of  their  great  predecessors  had 
prepared  and  left  for  their  study  and  imitation,  Mignard's 
residence  at  Rome,  which  he  prolonged  for  twenty-two 
years,  and  the  style  he  acquired  of  composition  and  draw* 
ing  by  the  imitation  of  the  Roman  masters,  together,  ob- 
tained for  him  the  appellation  of  the  Roman ;  but  to  judge 
Candidly,  one  would  imagine  that  the  former  was  the  prin- 
cipal cause  of  that  denomination ;  for  his  style  of  design 
savours  too  much  of  the  flutter  of  the  French  school,  instead 

Jf  the  chaste  simplicity  of  Raphael  and  the  best  of  the 
tomans.  He  enjoyed,  however,  a  full  share  of  favour  and 
fortune  during  his  life,  fie  painted  portraits  of  the  popes 
tJrban  VIII.  and  Alexander  VII.  together  with  those  of 
Aiany  of  the  nobility  of  Rome. 

Louis  XIV.  hearing  of  his  fame  and  abilities,  sent  for 
Him  to  Paris,  and  is  said  to  have  sat  to  him  for  his  portrait 
tien  times.  Almost  all  the  illustrious  nobles  of  the  French 
dourt  followed  the  example  of  their  sovereign,  and  were 
fainted  by  Mignard.  His  style  of  execution  in  these  porr 
traits  is  Wrought  up  with  all  the  false  taste  and  pompous 
parade  which  distinguished  that  vicious  period  of  the  French 
riatibn  ;  in  his  pictures  every  thing  seems  in  motion  ;  even 
When  tBe  scene  is  laid  in  a  close  joom,  the  draperies  are 
flying  about  as  in  a  high  wind.  With  these  and  other  de- 
fective points  in  his  character  as  an  artist,  Mignard  must 
be  allowed  to  be  the  best  portrait-painter  of  the  French 
School.  The  kin?  ennobled  him ;  and,  after  Le  Brun's 
death,  appointed  him  his  principal  painter,  and  the  direc- 
tor of  the  manufactories  of  Seve  and  the  Gobelins.  H^ 
lived  to  the  age  of  eighty-five,  dying  in  1695.  He  had 
an  elder  brother,  whose  name  was  Nicholas,  a  skilful 
painter,  but  who  never  rose  to  equality  with  him.  * 

1  Argenrille,  vol.  IV. — Perrault  Le«  Homines  lllustres.— Strutt'*  Diet.— Wal- 
nele't  Anecdotes,  for  hie  nephew*— Reel's  Cvdopadia. 

150  M  l  G  N  O  N.  ■ 

MlGNON,or  MINION  ^Abraham),  a  painter  of  Frank- 
fort, was  born  in  1639,  and  celebrated  for  his  delicate  and, 
accurate  touch  in  painting  flowers,  insects,  fruit,  and  still 
life.  The  insects  introduced  by  him  are  exquisitely  painted,, 
and  the  drops  of  dew  upon'  the  fruits  and  flowers,  have  all. 
the  transparency  of  real  water,  and  he  would  have  been 
esteemed  the  first  painter  in  this  style  had  not  Van  Hay- 
sum  appeared.     Mignon  died  in  1 679. l 

MIGNOT  (Stephen),  a  learned  French  canonist,  was 
born  at  Paris,  March  17,  1698.  In  bis  younger  years  he 
tgent  through  a  complete  course  of  education,  .and  even 
then  gave  proofs  of  those  talents  in  theology  and  general ' 
literature  which  constituted  the  reputation  of  bis  future 
life.  After  studying  with  care  and  success  the  ^Oriental 
languages,  the  holy  Scriptures,  the  fathers,  church  his* 
tory,  and  the  canon  law,  he  received  his  degree  of  doctor 
of  divinity  in  April  1722.     After  this,  his  attention  was 

{Particularly  directed  to  the  history  and  antiquities  of  the. 
aws  and  customs  of  his  country,  which  made  him  often  be 
consulted  by  political  and  professional  men,  and  procured 
him  the  esteem  and  confidence,  among  others,  of  the  cele- 
brated chancellor  D'Aguesseau.    Mignot,  however,  amidst 
these  advantages,  which  opened  an  easy  way  to  promotion, 
indulged  his  predilection  for  a  retired  life,  and  was  so  little 
jdesirous  of  public  notice  that  he  seldom,  if  ever,  put  hjs 
name  to  bis  works ;  but  he  was  not  allowed  to  remain  in 
obscurity,  and,  although    somewhat  late   in  life,  he   was 
elected  a  member  of  the  academy  of  inscriptions,  to  whose 
memoirs  he  furnished  some  excellent  papers  on  topics  of 
ancient  history.     He  died  July  25,  1771,  in  the  seventy- 
third  year  of  his  age,  leaving  the  following  works, .which 
were  all  much  esteemed  in  France:   1.  "Trait6  des  prets 
de  commerce,"  Paris,  1759,  *  vols.  12mo.     To  this   be 
pdded  a  5th  vol.  in  1767,  that  he  might  answer  the  abb6 
La  Porte,  who  had  opposed  his  opinions  respecting  usurious 
interest.     2.  "  Les    Droits   de   l'etat  et  du  prince  sur  let 
biens  du  clerge,"  1755,   6  vols.  12mo.v     3.  "  Histoire  des 
demeles  de   Henry  II.   avec .  St.  Thomas  de  Cantorbery.,". 
1756,  12mo,  a  work,  if  well  executed,  of  some  importance 
in  English  history.     4.  "  Histoire  de  la  reception  du  Cor>- 
cile  de  Trente  dans  les  etats  catholiques,"  Amst.  1756,  % 

vols.  12uiq.     5.  "  Paraphrase  sur  les  Psaumes,"  and  some 

t  ...» 

Argentine,  'vol.  II,— PjlkiDgt<m. 

'     MIGNOT.      .  151 

paraphrases  on  other  parts  of  the  Bible.  He  published 
also  a  few  religious  works,  a  Memoir  on  the  liberties  of  the 
Gallican  church,  and  "  La  Verit6  de  l'Histoire  de  l'Eglise 
de  St.  Omer,"  1754,  4to,  a  work  improperly  attributed 
to  the  abbl  de  Bonnaire.  There  was  another  abbl  Migw 
not,  who  died  in  1790,  the  nephew  of  Voltaire,  and  who, 
fearing  that  the  remains  of  his  uncle  would  not  be  allowed 
Christian  burial,  had  him  interred  in  his  abbey  of  Selliere. 
He  wrote  a  history  of  the  Ottoman  empire,  and  a  transla- 
tion of  Quintus  Curtius. l 

MILBOURNE  (Luke),  a  poetical  writer  of  no  very 
honourable  reputation,  was  the  son  of  a  nonconformist 
minister,  of  both  his  names,  a  native  of  Loughborough  in 
Leicestershire,  who  was  ejected  from  the  living  of  Wrox- 
hal  in  Warwickshire.  He  died  in  1667.  Of  his  son,  little 
seems  to  be  known  unless  that  he  was  educated  at  Pem- 
broke hall,  Cambridge,  where  he  is  said  to  have  taken  his 
master's  degree,  but  we  do  not  find  him  in  the  list  of  gra- 
duates of  either  university.  Mr.  Malone  thinks  he  was 
beneficed  at  Yarmouth,  from  whence  he  dates  his  corre- 
spondence about  1690.  We  are  more  certain  that  he  was 
instituted  to  the  living  of  St.  Ethelburga  within  Bishops- 
gate,  London,  in  1704,  and  long  before  that,  in  1688,  was 
chosen  lecturer  of  Shoreditch.  Dryden,  whom  he  was 
weak  enough  to  think  he  rivalled,  says  in  the  preface  to 
his  "  Fables,"  that  Melbourne  was  turned  out  of  his  bene- 
fice for  writing  libels  on  his  parishioners.  This  must  have 
been  his  Yarmouth  benefice,  if  be  had  one,  for  he  retained 
the  rectory  of  St.  Ethelburga,  and  the  lectureship  of  Shore- 
ditch,  to  his  death,  which  happened  April  15,  1720.  As 
an  author  he  was  known  by  a  "  Poetical  Translation  of 
Psalms,"  1698,  of  a  volume  called  "  Notes  on  Dry  (Jen's 
Virgil,"  1698  ;  of  "  Tom  of  Bedlam's  Answer  to  Hoadly," 
&c>  He  is  frequently  coupled  with  Blackmore,  by  Dry- 
den, in  his  poems,  and  by  Pope  in  "  The  Art  of  Criticism ;" 
and  is  mentioned  in  "  The  Dunciad."  He  published  thirty- 
one  single  "  Sermons,"  between  1692  and  1720;  a  book 
against  the  Socinians,  1692,  12mo;  and  "  A  Vindication 
of  the  Church  of  England,"  1726,  2  vols.  Svo.  A  whim- 
sical copy  of  Latin  verses,  by  Luke  Milbourne,  B.  A.  is  in 
the  "  Lacrym®  Cantabrigienses,  1 670,"  on  the  death  of 
Henrietta  duchess  of  Orleans.     Dr.  Johnson,  in  the  Life  of 

l  Necrologie  des  Hommet  Ccltbres  poor  airaee  1772.— Diet.  Hut. 

jU2  M  ri/B  OUIRN  E. 


Dry  den  >  speaking  of  that  poet's  transition  »f  Virgil,  wy*, 
"MUbouvne,  indeed,  a  clergyman, /attacked  it(Dryden*s 
Virgil),  .but  bis  outrages  seem  to  be  the  ebullitions  ef  to 
mind  agitated,  by  stronger  resentnientlhan  bad  poetry  can 
jexcite,  and  previously  resolved  not  to  be  -pleased.  His 
.criticism  extends  only  to  the  preface,  pastorals,  and  geo*- 
igieks ;  and,  as  be  professes  to  give  this  antagonist  an  op- 
portunity of  reprisal,  he  has  added  bis  own  version  of  the 
iifst  and  fourth  pastorals,  and  the  first  georgic"  Mafooe 
conjectures  that  Milbourne's  enmity  to  Dryden  originally 
arose  from  Dry  den's  having  taken  his  work  out  of  his 
Jbande;  as  he  once  projected  a  translation  of  Virgil,  and 
published  a  version  of  the  first  JEneid.  As  he  had  Dryden 
-and  his  friends,  and  Pope  and  his  friends  against  fahtf,  We 
cannot  expect  a  very  favourable  account  either  of  *hfe 
-talents  or  morals.  Once  only  we  find  him  fespectfttHy 
•mentioned,  by  Dr.  Walker,  who  thanks  htm  for  sevcffal 
valuable  communications  relative  to  the  sequestered  di*- 
«ines.  * 

MILDMAY  (Sir  Walter),  an  eminent  statesman  of 
the  sixteenth  century,  and  founder  of  Emmanuel  college, 
•Cambridge,  was  the  fourth  eon  of  Thomas  Mjldmay,  esq. 

by  Agnes,  his  wife,  daughter  of *•  Read.     He  was  ted*** 

cated  at  Christ's  college,  Cambridge,  where  be  made  great 
jMraficiency  in  learning,  and  to  which  college  he  afterward* 
became  a  benefactor.  In  the  reign  of  Henry  VIII.  be 
succeeded  to  the  office  which  had  been  held  by  his  fatter, 
that  of  surveyor  of  the  court  of  augmentation*  ereoted  by 
statute  27  Henry  VIII.  for  determining  suits  and  control 
versies  relating  to  monasteries  and  abbey-lands.  It  took 
its  name  from  the  great  augmentation  that  was  made  tothte 
revenues  of  the  crown  by  the  suppression  of  the  religious 
houses*  In  1547,  immediately  after  the  coronation  of 
Edward  VI.  he  was  made  one  of  the  knights  of ;  the  carpet. 
He  had  also  in  this  reign  the  chief  direction  of  the  mint, 
and  the  management,  under  several  special  commissions, 
of  the  king's  revenues,  particularly  of  those  which  atose 
from  the  crown  lands,  the  aaturb  and  value  of  w  hick  he 
bad  made  bis  chief  study.  In  1552  he  represented  'the 
town  of  Maidon,  Essex*  in  parliament,  and  was  a-  burgess 
in  the  first  parliament  of  Mary  fot  the*  city  of  Peterborough  j 

1  Ellis's  Hist,  of  Shoreditch. — Nichols's  Poems. — Malone*s  Dryden,  vol.  I. 
314;  IV.  63V645.— Caiawp. 

*M  I  L  D  M  A  Y.  V& 

arid  rstt*<afeer*a*d0  as  6tfe  of  the  knights  fdr  the  c6tfri!y 
'Northampton.  ■  How  he  carte  to  escape  during-  this'dfetes- 
ftabl©  reign  we  are  not  told,  tmltss,  as  some  thirifc,  that 
•Hte  cdnceated  his  affection  to  the  protesfatft  teKgftm ;" 
4>ot  that' was  probably  well  known,  and  he  was  lift  ef  war  A 
tmrt  only*  zealous  protestant,  tmta  friend,  6r>  many  6dca>- 
sions,  to  the  puritans.  tiaeeo  Elizabeth,  on  the  death  of 
•sir  Richard  Saekville  in  1566,  gave  him  the  office  <>f  tfhan- 
weltar  of  the  exchequer,  and  he  beanie  a  rmfet  useful,  hut 
•not  -a  favoured  servant,  for  his  integrity  was  too  Miff  tb 
4>end  to  the  {politics  of  that  reign,  and  his  consequent  po-- 
•pularity 'ettcited  the  continual  jealousy  of  his  mistress  :  fete 
*was  therefore  never  advanced  to  any' higher  post,  though 
*not*e  of  the  fetters  published  by  Mr.  Lodge,  he  is  men*- 
iioto&d  as  a  candidate  for  the  seals,  Honest  Falter,  in  his 
<q**iftt  w&y,  thus  Expresses  sir  Walter's  conduct  and  it* 
<ec*i«equences :  «<  Bteing  employed  by  virtue  of  his  place,  to 
advance' the  <ju^nV  treasure,  he  did  it  industriously,  faith* 
firiiy,  and  consciofraMy,  without  wronging  the  subject^ 
fefeiftg  very,  tender  of  their  privileges,  insomuch  that  he 
otKfe  cbnpkLitied  in  parliament,  that  rhahy  subsidies  were 
g**nfed4  arid  no  gfiteVaticefc  redressed;  which  wordS  be rn£ 
represented  with  disadvantage  to  the  queen,  made  her  to 
cfeafiFect  htm)  setting  in  a  court^clottd,  but  in  thte  Sun- 
ahttte  of  his  country,  and  a  dear  conscience."  hi  158£ 
be  was  employed  in  a  trfeaty  with  the  unfortiinatfe  queen 
Of  Scots,  accompanied  hy  sir  Witliafn  Cecil. 

After  retaining  bis  post  of  chancellor  bf  the  efcchequer 
for.UWettty-thrge  years,  be  died  May  31,  1589,  arid  was 
buried  in  the  chancel  of  the  church  of  St.  Bartholomew  the 
Great,  in  West  Smithfield,  where  a  handbome  monunlent 
Was  ^refeted  to  his  memory.  Sir  Walter  married  Maryj 
sister  to  sir  Fntncis  Walsirtgham,  by  Whom  he  had  two 
460*4  Artthrjny  anid  Humphrey,  and  three  daughters,  Wi- 
wftedt  trittrried  tb  Willtom  Fitzwilliam,  of  Griin*p&rk,  ih 
<£sf*e*,  an  ancestor  of  the! 'present  earl  Fitzfrilliarn  ;  Chris- 
tian, to  Charles  ©arret,  of  Avely,  in  the  same  cddHty;  arid 
Martha,  to  William  Broohker. 

*  .He  was  a  very  learned  man,  &nd  an  eminent  encouraged 
iff  literature,  as  appears  by  his  founding  Emrriariuel  cot- 
teg^-  €athbrldge^  Which,  by  'the  additional  Assistance  of 
other  benefactors,  arose  gradually  to  its  present  flourish- 
ing state.  Fuller  tells  us  that  the  founder  "  coming  to 
court,  the  queen  told  him,  *  Sir  Walter,  I  hear  you  have 

*54  MILD  MAY. 


erected  a  puritan  fbutidfetion.'  <  No  madam/  saytfa  he> 
1  far  be  it  from  me  to  countenance  any  thing  contrary  to 
your  established  laws ;.  but  I  have  set  an .  acorn,  which 
when  it  becomes  an  oak9  God  alone  knows  what  will  be 
the  fruit  thereof.9 "  He  had  so  much  of  the  puritan  about 
him,  however,  as  to  make  the  chapel  stand  north  and 
south,  instead  of  east  and  west l 

MILL  (Henry),  many  years  principal  engineer  to  the 
New  river  company,  a  man  to  whom  the  city  of  London 
and  its  environs  have  had  many  and  great  obligations,  was 
the  son  of  a  gentleman*  and  nearly  related  to  a  baronet 
of  that  name.  He  was  born  in  London,  in  or  near  Red 
Lion  square,  Holborn,  soon  after  1680.  He  had  a  liberal 
education,  was  for  some  time  at  one  of  the  universities, 
and  at  a  very  early  period  of  life  displayed  his  skill  in 
mechanics.  Though  we  are  unable  to  fix  either  his  age, 
or  the  time,  yet  it  is  certain  that  he  was  very  young  when 
the  New-river  company  engaged  him  as  their  principal 
engineer ;  in  which  station  he  continued,  with  the  highest 
esteem,  till  his  death.  During  this  period  they  placed 
implicit  confidence  in  him,  and  with  the  utmost  reason ; 
for  through  his  skill  and  labours,  their  credit,  their  power, 
.and  their  capital,  were  continually  increasing.  Mr.  Mill 
also,  among  other  undertakings  of  the  kind,  supplied  the 
town  of  Northampton  with  water,  for  which  he  was  pre- 
sented with  the  freedom  of  that  corporation  ;  and  provided 
an  ample  supply  of  water  to  the  noble  seat  of  sir  Robert 
Walpole,  at  Houghton,  in  Norfolk,  which  was  before  so 
deficient  in  that  respect,  that  Cibber  one  day,  being  in 
the  gardens,  exclaimed,  "  Sir  Robert,  sir  Robert,  here  is 
a  crow  will  drink  up  all  your  canal !"  Mr.  Mill,  through 
age,  becoming  infirm,  particularly  from  a  paralytic  stroke, 
an  assistant  was  taken  into  the  company's  service  (Mr. 
Mylne,  the  late  engineer),  but  without  derogation  to  him; 
on  the  contrary,  though  he  ceased  to  take  an  active  part, 
he  constantly  attended  on  the  board-days,  his  advice  was 
asked,  and  his  salary  continued  to  his  death.  Mr.  Mill 
was  of  a  pleasing,  amiable  disposition ;  his  manners  were 
mild  and  gentle,  and  bis  temper  cheerful.  He  was  a  man 
of  great  simplicity  of  life  and  manners:  in  a  word,  it 
seemed  to  be  bis   care  to  "  have  a  conscience  void  of 

1  Biog.  Brit. — Fuller's  Hift*  of  Cambridge.— Lodge's  Illustrations,  vol.  II.— 
Lloyd's  State  Worthies. 

MILL,  155 

Atfisnce."  He  was  suddenly  seized  with  a  fit,  Dec.  25, 1 770, 
and  died  before  the  next  morning.  His  surviving  sister, 
Mrs.  Hubert,  erected  a  monument  to  his  memory  in  the 
parish-church  of  Breemoore,  near  Salisbury. 1 
.  MILL  (John),  the  learned  editor  of  the  Greek  Testa- 
ment, was  the  son  of  Thomas  Mill,  of  Banton  or  Battipton, 
near  the  town  of  Shap  in  Westmoreland,  and  was  born  at 
Shap  about  1645.  Of  his  early  history  our  accounts  are 
very  scanty;  and  as  his  reputation  chiefly  rests  on  his  Greek 
Testament,  which  occupied  the  greater  part  of  his  life, 
and  as  he  meddled  little  in  affairs  unconnected  with  his 
studies,  we  are  restricted  to  a  very  few  particulars.  His 
father  being  in  indifferent  circumstances,  he  was,  in  1661, 
entered  as  a  servitor  of  Queen's  college,  Oxford,  where  w? 
piay  suppose  bis  application  soon  procured  him  respect. 
Bishop  Ken  net  tells  us,  that  in  his  opinion,  he  "  talked 
and  wrote  the  best  Latin  of  any  man  in  the  university,  and 
was  the  most  airy  and  facetious  in  conversation — in  all 
respects  a  bright  man."  At  this  college  he  took  the  de- 
gree of  B.  A.  in  May  1666,  and  while  bachelor,  was  se- 
lected to  pronounce  an  "  Oratio  panegyiica"  at  the  open- 
ing of  the  Sheldon  theatre  in  1669.  In  November  of  the 
same  year  he  took  his  master's  degree,  was  chosen  fellow, 
and  became  an  eminent  tutor.  He  then  entered  into  holy 
orders,  and  was,  according  to  Kennet,  a  "  ready  extern- 
/  pore  preacher."  In  1676  his  countryman  and  fellow- 
collegian,  Dr.  Thomas  Lamplugb,  being  made  bishop  of 
Exeter,  he  appointed  Mr.  Mill  to  be  one  of  his  chaplains, 
and  gave  him  a  minor  prebend  in  the  church  of  Exeter. 
In  July  1680  he  took  his  degree  of  B.  D. ;  in  August  1681 
he  was  presented  by  his  college  to  the  rectory  of  Bleching* 
don,  in  Oxfordshire ;  and  in  December  of  that  year  he 
proceeded  D.  D.  about  which  time  he  became  chaplain  in> 
ordinary  to  Charles  II.  by  the  interest  of  the  father  of  one 
of  his  pupils.  On  May  5,  1685,  he  was  elected  and  ad- 
mitted principal  of  St.  Edmund's  Hall,  a  station  particu- 
larly convenient  for  his  studies.  By  succeeding  Dr.  Cross* 
thwaite  in  this  office,  bishop  Kennet  says  he  had  the  ad- 
.  vantage  of  shining  the  brighter;  but  "  he  was  so  much 
taken  up  with  the  one  thing,  '  his  Testament,'  that  he  had 
not  leisure  to  attend  to  the  discipline  of  the  house,  which 
rose  and  fell  ^according,  to  bis  different  vice-principals." 

i  G«nt.  Mag.  XLIX.  and  I<. 

*V6  *  1  L  '£. 

lb  1 1&4>  archbishop  Sharp  obtained  for  htm  ftoin  queefe 
Atine,  *  prebend  of  Canterbury,  in  Which  he  Succeeded 
Dr.  Bevteridge,  then  promoted  to  the  see  of  St.  Asaph. 
He  had  completed  his  great  undertaking,  the  new  edition 
xif  the  Gteek  Testament,  whfe'n  he  died  of  to  kpopieetie 
At,  Jtffce  23,  1707,  and  was  buried  in  the  chancel  of  Blecft- 
iftgdon  chutch,  where,  in  a  short  inscription  on  his  rhonti- 
tnent,  he  is  celebrated  for  what  critics  have  thought  this 
tnost  valuable  pan  of  his  labours  oh  the  New  Testatriefit', 
his  *«  prolegomena  rtarmore  perenniofa." 

Of  this  edition  of  the  Greek  Testament,  Michaefis  re* 
tafarks,  that  "  the  infancy  of  criticism  ends  with  the  editiori 
df  Gregory,  aftd  the  age  of  manhood  commences  with  that 
of  Mill."  This  work  is  undoubtedly  one  of  the  most  mag- 
nificent publications  tbatgver  appeared,  and  ranks  rtexttd 
that  of  Wetstein,  in  importance  and  utility.  It  was  pub- 
lished only  fourteen  days  before  his  death,  and  had  been 
the  labour  of  thirty  years.  He  undertook  it  By  the  advicfe 
of  Dr.  John  Fell,  bishop  of  Oxford  ;  and  the  impression  was 
be£un  at  bis  lordship's  charge,*  in  his  printing-house  near  the 
theatre.  But  after  the  'bishop's  death  his  executors  were 
hot  wHlitig  to  -proceed;  and  therefore  Dr.  Mill,  perhaps  hurt 
at  this  refusal,  and  willing  to  shew  his  superior  liberality; 
Feftttided  the  sums  which  the  bishop  had  paid,  and  finished 
the  impression  at  his  own  expence.  The  expectations 
of  the  learned;  foreigners'  as  well  as  English,  #ere  raised 
very  High  in  consequence  <rf  Dr.  Mill's  character,  and  were 
not  disappointed.  It  Was,  however,  atacked  at  length  by 
the  learned  Dr.  Datiiel  Whitby,  in  his  ";Exartieh  varian-i 
iSutti  fectibriutu  Johannis  Milli,  S.  T.  P.  &c.  in  1710,  orj 
an  examination  of  the  various  readings  of  Dr.  John  Mill 
ttpon  the  New  Testament ;  ih  which  it  is  shewn,  I.  That 
the  foundations  of  these  Varibus  readings  are  altogether 
uncertain,  and  unfit  to  subvert  the  present  reading  of  the 
terft.  II.  That  those  various  readings,  which  are  of  any 
niomeht,  arid  alter  the  sense  of  the  text,  are  very  few* 
arid  that  in  all  these  cases'  the  reading  of  the  text  may  be 
defended.  III.  That  the  viaribus  readings  of  lesser  moment; 
Vvhich  afe  considered  at  large,  are  such  as  will  not  warrant 
tils  to  recede  frbrfi  the  vulgarly  received  reading.  IV.  That 
Dr.  Mill,  in  collecting  these  various  readings,  hath  ofteh 
acted  disingenuously ;  that  he  abounds  ih  false  citations; 
and  frequently  contradicts  himself.'9  The  various  read- 
ings which  Mill  had  collected,  amounted,  as  it  was  sup- 

miku  mi 

ppsed,  to,  abfvft  3$,qQft;,  a,ud  tUis  alajnped  Jhr,  Whitby* 
who  thought  that  the  textwa?  tb^us,  made  presar^ws,  and 
a  handle  given  to  t^e  free-t^in^ers ;  and  it  iscertai/i  that 
Collins,  in  hjs  "  Disfpunie  opop  Free- thinking,"  urges  a 
passage  opt  of  this  book  of  Whitby's,  to  shew,  that  Mill's 
various  reading?  of  the  N$qr  Testajgeitt .  must  render  the 
text  itself  doubtful^  But  to  tbi%  objeptipu  Bentley,  in  hi* 
Phijeleutherus  Lipsjf  npis,  has  given,  a.  full  and  decisive 
answer,  the  substanpe  of  which  wjjl  bear  transcription :, 
"  The^30,000  various  l^fitipps  thep*"  s*y§  Bentley,  ".  ax«t 
aUowe^  and  confessed  ;  apd  if  n^r^e  cppies  yet  are  col-: 
latfclj,  the  ,su pi  will  still  mounjt;  higher.  And  what  iatho 
mfcrjervfprfrpm  this,  ?  why  one  Gregpry,  here  quot$d#;  in* 
fers,  t^ajno  profyneautfapr  what^yer  has  suffered  so;  ouiqU 
by  the  hand  of  tip^e,  a*,  the,  New..  Testament,  has  dona* 
Now,  if  this  shall,  be  found  utterly  false,  and  if  the,  sqr*p- 
tyraj  text  has  no  m^  variatipns  than  wbat  mu*t  n££esr. 
sarily  havq  happened  fi»nfctbe  nature  of  things*  ajutwhafe 
are  como^on,,  and  in  equal  proportion,  in  all  class, ips, what*) 
ever^  I  hope  this  panic  wijl  be  removed*  and  the  tex*  be* 
thought  ast  firm,  as  before  If/'  says,  he,  "  there  had,  bean; 
but,one^MS,.o£  tlji<? ,  Qr$fck  Testament  at  the  restoration  ofc 
IjJFWgc  abopfc  t*Q  ceptviriss  ago*,  then,  we  had  had  no* 
vappus  readings,  af, all.  And  would,  the  text  be  in  a  better 
condition,  then,  than  now  we  haye  30,000  ?  So  far  from; 
tl)at,  that  iij.  tbfi.  best  single  copy  extant  we  should,  have; 
haa  hundreds,  of  faults,  and.  sQnie  omissions  irceparable  i' 
u^des-^at  ttye  suspicions  of  fraijd  apd  foul  play  would  have 

1){£P  increased  'W^Wfily*  II  *s  8°°d>  therefore,  to  have* 
nxore  ap^hqrs  thai)  one ;  and  another  MS*  t&  join,  with  the; 
%st,  wguld  give  mpre.aqtbpjri.ty,!  as  wel]  as  security..  Now; 
chusetl)atsecoucJ  where  ypu  will,  there^haH  be.a  thousand, 
vacations  fr#ina  infinity  a,pd  yet  half  or  mors  of  the. faults, 
shall  atilj  reo^ain  in,  thqu^  both,  A  third,  therefore,  and; 
so  a  fqur^  aqji, fstill  jon,,, are  desirable;  that,  by  a  joint* 
and  mmpaJ  h^jp,  al)  the  faults  o#y  be.  mended ;  some, 
copy  preserving  the  true  reading  iq  pn$  place*  and  some \ 
in.  another*,  And  yet;  tfte  more  copies,  ypu  call  to  assist- 
ance, th£jpore/dq  th^yariogs  readings  multiply  upon  you:;, 
ej^ry  copy  halving  its.p$£uljar  slips,;  though  in  a  principal* 
P9¥afieiPr  tw9  i^ do  siQgujar  service,  And  .this  is, a  fact, 
not  .ouiyjn  the  New  Tegument,  but  in.  all  .ancient  books- 
whatever.  It  is  a,, good  providence,  and  a  great  blessing,1' 
cQ^inja^li^ .."jtafcpfe  matty  JV^Sf.;Qf«the,New  Testaqwait . 

4$)  MI;Lt  A  R. 

ele^o,  $9  th$  university  of  Glasgow.    He  ^  design^ 
/qx  the  cfaurcb,  but  having  early,  conceived  a,  plislike  to  tb$i 
profession*  and  tinned  his  attention-  tathje,. study  of  th$ 
law,  he  was  iqvited  by  lo*d  Kaunas  to  reside  in  his  famUy* 
apd  to  superintje^d,  in,  the  quality  of  j pjecsptor,, 
cation  of  his  son*  Mt»  George. Dr  unamend  Hpme.    Lord 
K;u$es  foqnd  in  young  Millar  a  fcoqgenia^  ardour  of  jnteW 
lest,  a  niiod  turned,  to  philosophical  sp^^uiation#  a  consi- 
derable fund  of  reading,  k  and  w,bat  :a&ove  all  tljiogp  he  de- 
lighted in*  a  t^t  for  supporting  a  mqta^pbysicaJL  argu- 
ment in  conversation,  with  .much  ingt#u*ty .  and  vi vacky. 
The  tutor  of  the  son,  therefore,  became  the<  companion,  of 
the  father : .  arid ,  the  two,  years  before  IVf  Ular  was,,  called  to 
the  bar,  were,  spent,  witfe  great,  ifppregepettf  on  his. part* 
ip,  .acquiring  those  enJargepV  views  pf  tb^^  with, 
ptylpsaphy,  which,  he;  afterwards  displayed  witb  uncon^ 
nftpn  a,bf lity  in  hi^  a^adeu^cal  lectujqes^on  jurisprudence..  At; 
ti^is ,  period    he,    contrasted  aa  acquittance  with;  David 
H-urnej  tto,  wfrQ*e,  metaphyseal  opinions  be  became  aconr 
vert,  thoqgh  he  n^tqrially,  differed  fppr^hiu^upop  political 
topics.     In  1760  Mr.  IVJ;ll^r  began  to,  practise  at  the  bar* 
apd  was  regarded  a$  a  rising  young  lawyer,  when  he  tbpugbfc 
proper  to  bf3cprne;a  candidate  foi-  the  vacant  professorship; 
of  latitat  Glasgow*  and.  supppried  by  the  rccpcuiiiendatkw 
of,  lord  Karnes  and  Dr.  Adam.  Sniit^,  he  wa?  appointed  in. 
176 1,  and  immediately  began  to  execute,  its  duties.     The 
r^atation, of  the*  university*  as  a,;scliqpl  of  jurisprudence, 
ro*e  fronj  that  acquisition,  and  although,,  .says  lord  Wood-? 
hqnaelee,  the  republican -prejudices  rof  Mr^ Millar  gave  hi$. 
lecture?  on  politic*  j^nd;  government  a  character  justly  con*, 
sidered-as  repugnant  to  the.  well-aUer^pered  .frame,  and 
eqpal  balance  of  our  improved  constitution ;  there  were, 
fqwwbo  amended  thosQ  lectures  without  at. least  an  increase, 
of  knowjedge, .  He  lectured  in  English,,  and  spoke  fluently' 
with^be^ssisjtanfce  .of  mere  nates  only..    By,  this  mot  hod. 
hjjs  lectqre&were  rendered  full  of  variety  and  animations, 
and  at  the  conclusion  of  each  he  was  accustomed  to  ^e^ 
plain  the  difficulties  and,  objections  that  had.,  presented 
themselves  to  hjs  pupils,  in  a  free  and,  familiar  cpn versa- > 
tioq.     In  mu  he  published  a  treatise, on  *'The  Origin  pf, 
th^  Distinction  of  R&nks,"  in  wbich.he  shew^  himself  a^. 
disciple  of  the  school  of  Montesquieu,  and  deals  much  in 
that  sort  of  speculation  which  Mr.  Dugald  Stewart,  in  his. 
Life  of  Smith,  called  theoretical  or  conjectural  history.  This. 

MILLAR.  161 

work  however  was  well  received  by  the  public,  and  haa  gont) 
through  several  editions*     His  inquiries  into  the,  English 
government,    which   made  an  important  part  of  bis  lee* 
lures,    together  with  a  zealous  attachment  to   what  he 
thought  the  geuuine  principles   of  liberty,    produced  in 
1787  the  first  volume  of  ao  "  Historical  View  of  the  Eng- 
lish  Government,'9    in   which   he   traces   the   progressive 
changes  in  the  property,  the  state  of  the  people,  and  the 
government  of  England,  from  the  settlement  of  the  Sax- 
ons to  the  accession  of  the  house  of  Stuart.     In  this  work 
we  observe  the  same  spirit  of  system,  and  the  same  par- 
tiality to  hypothetical  reasoning,  as  in  the  former :  though 
resting,  as  may  be  supposed,  on  a  more  solid  foundation 
of  facts  :  and  the  less  dangerous  in  its  tendency,  as  being 
every  where  capable  of  scrutiny  from  actual  history.     It  ia 
impossible,  however,  to  peruse  this,  or  his.  other  works, 
without  meeting  with  much  valuable  information,  and  facts 
placed  in  those  new  lights,  which  excite  inquiry,  and  ulti- 
mately promote  truth.    Mr.  Millar's  researches  were  by, no 
means  confined  to  politics,  Uvv,  or  metaphysics.     His  ac- 
quaintance with  the  works  of  imagination,  both  ancient 
and  modern,  was  also  very  extensive,  and  his  criticisms 
were  at  once  ingenious  and  solid,  resulting  from  an  acute 
understanding  and  a  correct  taste.    He  died  May  30,  1801, 
at  the  age  of  sixty- nine,  leaving  behind  him  several  manu- 
scripts, from  which,  in  1803,  were  printed,  in  two  volumes, 
his  posthumous  works, .  consisting  or  an  historical  view  of 
the  English  government  from  the  accession  of  the  house  of 
Stuart,  and  some  separate  dissertations  connected  with  the 

MILLER  (James),  a  political  and  dramatic  writer,  the 
son  of  a  clergyman  who  possessed  two  livings  of  consider- 
able value  in  Dorsetshire,  was  born  in  1703,  and  received 
bis  education  at  Wad  ham  college,  in  Oxford.  His  natu- 
ral genius  and  turn  for  satire  led  him,  by  way  of  relax- 
ation from  his  more  serious  studies,  to  apply  some  por- 
tion of  his  time  to  the  Muses ;  and,  during  his  residence 
at  the  university,  he  composed  great  part  of  a  comedy, 
called  the  "  Humours  of  Oxford  ;"  some  of  the  characters 
ia  which  being  either  designed  for,  or  bearing  a  strong  re- 
semblance to,  persons  resident  in  Oxford,  gave  consider- 
able umbrage,  created  the  author  many  enemies,  and  pro- 

4  . 

1  Life,  pre6xed  to  the  fourth  edition  of  his  "Origin  sod  Distinction  of 
taiks.»~-Lord  Woojjltieiumtee**  Life  of  Karnes. 

Vojl  XXIL  M 

.  i 

162  MILLE  R. 

bably  laid  the  foundation  of  the  greatest  part  of  bid  misfor- 
tunes through  life.  On  quitting  the  university,  he  entered 
into  holy  orders,  and  obtained  immediately  the  lectureship 
of  Trinity  Chapel' in  Conduit-street,  and  was  appointed 
preacher  at  the  private  chapel  at  Roehampton  in  Surrey. 

The  emoluments  of  his  preferment,  however,  being  not 
very  considerable,  be  was  encouraged,  by  the  success  of 
his  first  play,  above  mentioned,  to  have  recourse  to  dra- 
matic writing.     This  step  being  thought  inconsistent  with 
his  profession,  produced  some  warm  remonstrances  from 
a  prelate  on  whom  he  relied  for  preferment,  and  who,  find- 
ing him  resolute,  withdrew  his  patVonage.      Our  author 
greatly  aggravated  his  offence  afterwards  by  publishing  a, 
ridiculous  character,  in  a  poem,  which  was  universally  con- 
sidered as  intended  for  the  bishop.     He  then  proceeded 
with  his  dramatic  productions,  and  was  very  successful, 
until  he  happened  to  offend  certain  play-house  critics,  who 
from  that  time  regularly  attended  the  theatre  to  oppose  any 
production  known  to  be  his,  and  finally  drove  him  from 
the  stage.     About  this  time  he  had  strong  temptations  tp 
employ  his  pen  in  the  whig  interest;  but,  being  in  principle 
a  high  church-man*  he  withstood  these,  although  the  calls 
of  a  family  were  particularly  urgent,  and  all  hopes  of  ad- 
vancement in  the  church  at  an  end.     At  length,  however, 
the  valuable  living  of  Upcerne  was  given  him  by  Mr.  Car- 
rey of  Dorsetshire,  and  his  prospects  otherwise  begari  -to 
brighten,  when  he  died  April  23,  1744,  at  his  lodgings  if* 
Cheyne*walk,  Chelsea,  before  he  had  received  a  twelve* 
month's  revenue  from  his  new  benefice,  or  had  it  in  his 
power  to  make  any  provision  for  his  family.     As  a  dramatic 
writer,  Baker  thinks  he  has  a  right  to  stand  in  a  very  esti- 
mable light ;  yet  the  plays  he  enumerates  are  now  entirely- 
forgotten .      Besides    these,    he    wrote    several    political 
pamphlets,    particularly    one    called    "  Are  these   things 
so  ?"  which  was  much  noticed.     He  was  author  also  of  a 
poem   called  "  Harlequin   Horace,"    a  satire,    occasioned 
by   some  ill  treatment  he  had  received  from    Mr.  Rich, 
the  manager  of  Covent-Garden  theatre;    and  was  like* 
wise  concerned,  together  with  Mr.  Henry  Baker,  F.  R.  S* 
in   a  complete   translation   of  the   comedies  of   Moliere* 
printed  together  with  the  original  French,  and  published; 
by  Mr.  Watts.     After  his  death  was  published  by  sub*, 
scription  a  volume  of  his  "  Sermons,"  the  profits  of  which 
his  widow    applied   to  the   satisfaction   pf  his  creditors* 

/  • 

MILLER.  163 

and  the  payment  of  his  debts ;  an  act  of  juctice  by  which 
she  left  herself  and  family  almost  destitute  of  the  common 
necessaries  of  life. 

.  As  a  man,  says  Baker,  Mr.  Miller's  character  may  partly 
be  deduced  from  the  foregoing  relation  of  his  life.  He  was 
firqi  and  stedfast  in  his  principles,  ardent  in  his  friend- 
ships, and  somewhat  precipitate  in  his  resentments.  In  his 
conversation  he  was  sprightly,  chearful,  and  a  great  mas* 
ter  of  ready  repartee,  till  towards  the  latter  part  of  his 
life,  when  a  depression  of  circumstances  threw  a  gloom 
and  hypochondria  over  his  temper,  which  got  the  better  of 
his  natural  gaiety  and  disposition.  r 

MILLER  (Philip),  a  celebrated  gardener  and  botanist, 
was  born  in  1691.  His  father  was  gardener  to  the  com- 
pany of  apothecaries  at  Chelsea,  and  the  son  succeeded 
him  in  that  office  in  1 722.  His  great  skill  in  cultivation 
was  soon  evinced  in  a  paper,  communicated  by  himself  to 
the  Royal  Society  in  1728,  and  printed  in  the  35th  vo- 
lume of  the  Philosophical  Transactions,  on  "  a  method  of 
raising  some  exotic  seeds,'9  which  had  been  judged  almost 
impossible  to  be  raised  in  England  ;  and  two  years  after- 
wards, he  made  known,  for  the  first  time,  the  present  po- 
pular mode  of  causing  bulbous  plants  to  flower  in  water, 
in  1730  he  published  anonymously,  a  thin  folio,  accom- 
panied with  twenty-one  coloured  plates,  after  the  drawings 
of  Van  Huysum,  entitled  "  A  Catalogue  of  trees,  shrubs, 
plants,  and  flowers,  both  exotic  and  domestic,  which  are 
,  prepared  for  sale  in  the  gardens  near  London."  The  pre- 
face is  signed  by  a  society  of  gardeners,  amongst  whom 
the  name  of  Miller  appears.  The  work  is  much  more  than 
a  mere  catalogue,  the  generic  characters  being  given  in 
English,  and  many  horticultural  and  (Economical  remarks 

In  1731  appeared  the  first  edition  of  the  "Gardener's 
Dictionary,"  in  folio,  the  most  celebrated  work  of  its  kind, 
which  has  been  often  translated,  copied,  and  abridged,  and 
may  be  said  to  have  laid  the  foundation  of  all  the  horticul- 
tural taste  and  knowledge  in  Europe.  It  went  through 
eight  editions  in  England,  during  the  life  of  the  author*  the 
last  being  dated  1768.  This  last,  which  forms  a  very  thick 
folio  volume,  follows  the  nomenclature  and  style  of  Lin- 
nseus;  the  earlier  ones  having  been  written  onTonrne* 

1  Biog.  Dram. — Cibber'i  Lives. 
M  2 

164  MILLER. 

Jordan  principles.     A  much  more  ample  editkfrn  has  begft 
published  within  a  few  years,  making  four  large  volumes, 
under  the  care  of  the  rev.  Prof.  Martyn.     In  this  all  the 
modern  botanical  discoveries  are  incorporated   with  the 
substance  of  the  eighth  edition.     Linnaeus  justly  predicted 
"  Non  erit  Lexicon  hortulanbrum,  sed  botanicoruiii,"  and 
it  has  certainly  been  the  means  of  extending  the  taste  for 
scientific  botany,  as  well  as  horticulture.     This  work  had 
been  preceded,  in  1724,  by  "The  Gardener's  and  Florists 
Dictionary,"  2  vols.  8vo,  and  was  soon  followed  by  "The 
Gardener's  Kalender,"  a  single  8vo  volume,  which  has  gone 
through  numerous  editions.     One  of  these,  in  1761,.  was 
first  accompanied  by  "A  short  introduction  to  a  knowledge 
of  the  science  of  Botany,"  with  five  plates,  illustrative  of 
the  Linnaean  system.  Miller  had  been  trained  in  the  schools 
of  Tournefort  and  of  Ray,  and  had  been  personalty  ac- 
quainted with  the  great  English  naturalist,  of  which  he 
was  always  very  proud.  No  wonder,  therefore,  if  he  proved 
ttow  in  submitting  to  the  Linnaean  reformation  and  revolu- 
tion, especially  as  sir  Hans  Sloane,  the  Mecsenas  of  Chel- 
sea, had  not  given  them  the  sanction  of  his  approbation. 
At  length  more  intelligent  advisers,  Dr.  Watson  and  Mr. 
Hudson,    overcame  his   reluctance,   and,  his  eyes  being 
ence  opened,  he  soon  derived  advantage  from  so  rich  a 
source.     He  became  a  correspondent  of  Linnaeus,  and  one 
of  his  warmest  admirers.    Although  it  does  not  appear  that 
he  had  any  direct  communication  with  Micheli,  he  was 
chosen  a  member  of  the  botanical  society  of  Florence, 
which  seems  to  indicate  that  they  were  known  to  each 
other,  and  probably   communicated  through  Sloane  and 
Sherard,  as  neither  was  acquainted  with  the  other's  lan- 
guage.    Miller  maintained  an  extensive  communication  of 
seeds  with  all  parts  of  the  world.     His  friend  Houston  sent 
him  many  rarities  from  the  West  Indies,  and   Miller  but 
too  soon  inherited  the  papers  of  this  ingenious  man,  amongst 
which  were  some  botanical  engravings  on  copper.  Of  these 
he  sent  an  impression  to  Linnseus  ;  and  such  of  them  as 
escaped  accidents,  afterwards   composed  the  "Reliquiae 

In  1755  our  author  began  to  publish,  in  folio  numbers; 
his  «'  Figures  of  Plants,"  adapted  to  his  dictionary.  These 
extended  to  three  hundred  coloured  plates,  making,  whh 
descriptions  and  remarks,  two  folio  volumes,  and  were 
completed  in   1760.     They  comprehend  many  rare  and 

MILLER.  165 

beautiful  species,  there  exhibited  for  the  first  time.  The 
commendable  design  of  the  writer  was  to  give  one  or  more 
of  the  species  of  eaeh  known  genus,  all  from  living  plants; 
which  as  far  as  possible  he  accomplished.  His  plates  have 
more  botanical  dissections  than  any  that  had  previously  ap- 
peared in  this  country.  'Miller  was  a  fellow  of  the  Royal 
Society,  and  enriched  its  Transactions  with  several  papers. 
The  most  numerous  of  these  were  catalogues  of  the  annual 
collections  of  fifty  plants,  which  were  required  to  be  sent 
fcp  that  learned  body,  from  Chelsea  garden,  by  the  rules  of 
its  foundation.  These  collections  are  preserved  in  the 
British  Museum,  and  are  occasionally  resorted  to  for  cri- 
tical inquiries  in  botany.  He  wrote  also  on  the  poison  ash, 
or  Taxtcodcndrum,  of  America,  which  he  believed  to  be 
the  Japanese  varnish  tree  of  Ksempfer  ;  a  position  contro- 
verted by  Mr.  Ellis,  who  appears  to  have  been  in  tbe  right, 
and  this  may  account  for  a  certain  degree  of  ill  humour 
betrayed  by  Mr.  Miller  in  the  course  of  the  dispute. 

Miller  continued  to  attend  to  his  duties  and  his  favourite 
pursuits  to  an  advanced  age,  but  was  obliged  at  length,  by 
his  infirmities,  to  resign  tbe  charge  of  the  garden.  He 
died  soon  after,  at  Chelsea,  December  18,  1771,  in  his 
eighty-first  year,  and  was  interred  in  tbe  burying-ground 
iir  the  King's  road,  with  his  wife,  by  whom  he  had,  if  we 
mistake  not,  several  children.  One  of  them,  Mr.  Charles 
Miller,  who  spent  some  time  in  the  East  Indies,  where  he 
acquired  a  handsome  fortune,  made  some  experiments  on 
the  cultivation  of  wheat,  an  account  of  which  was  given  by 
Dr.  Watson  to  the  Royal  Society,  They  were  intended  to 
shew  the  wonderful  produce  to  be  obtained  by  division  and 
transplantation,  and  have  often  been  repeated.  An  ac- 
count of  the  island  of  Sumatra,  by  Mr.  C.  Miller,  is  print- 
ed in  vol.  LXV1II.  of  the  Philosophical  Transactions.  The 
sister  <©f  Philip  Miller  married.  Ebret,  and  left  on?  son. 
In  the  course  of  his  residence -at  Chelsea,  Miller  collected, 
principally  from  <the  garden,  an  ample  herbarium,  which 
was  purchased  by  sir  Joseph  Banks.1 

MILLER  (Tbomas),  a.  very  worthy  and  intelligent 
bookseller,  and  well  known  to  men  of  literary  curiosity  for 
upwards  of  half  a  century,  at  his  residence  at  Bungay  in 
Suffolk,  was  born  at  Norwich,  Aug.  14,  1752..  He  was 
apprenticed  'to  a  grocer,  but  his  fondness  for  reading  in- 


>  Pultenejr'sBoL.  Sketches. — Kees's  Cyclopaedia  by  Sir  J.  E.  Smith. 

166  MILLER. 

duced  him,  on  commencing  business  for  himself,  to  appoiv 
tion  part  of  bis  shop  for  the  bookselling  business,  which  at 
length  engrossed  the  whole  of. his  attention,  time,  and  ca- 
pital;  and  for  many  years  he  enlarged  his  stock  so  .as  to 
make  it  an  object  of  importance  with  collectors  in  all  parts 
of  the  kingdom,  who  were  not  more  pleased  with,  his  judi- 
cious selection  of  copies,  than  tbe  integrity  with  which  he 
transacted  business*  About  1782  he  published  a  catalogue 
of  his  collection  of  books,  engrav.ed  portraits,  and  coins, 
which  for.  interest  and  value  exceeded  at  that  time  any 
other  country  collection,  except,  perhaps,  that  of  tbe  late 
Mr.  Edwards  of  Halifax.  Mr.  Miller  was  a  great  reader, 
and,  possessing  an  excellent  memory,  he  acquired  that  fund 
of  general  knowledge,  particularly  of  literary  history,' 
which  not  only  rendered  him  an  instructive  and  entertain- 
ing companion,  but  gave  a  considerable  value  to  his  opi- 
nions of  books,  when  consulted  by  his  learned  customers.' 
At  a  period  of  life,  when  unfortunately  he  was  too  far  ad- 
vanced for  such  an  undertaking,  he  projected  a  history. of 
his  native  county,  Suffolk,  and  circulated'  a  well-written: 
prospectus  of  his  plan.  His  habits  of  industrious  research, 
and  natural  fondness  for  investigating  topographical  anti- 
quities, would  have  enabled  him  to  render  this  a  valuable 
contribution  to  our  stock  of  county  histories.;  but,  inde- 
pendent of  bis  age,  his  eye-sight  failed  him  soon  after  he 
had  made  his  design  known,  and  be  was  obliged  to  relin- 
quish it.  In  1799  he  became  quite  blind,  but  continued 
in  business  until  his  death,  July  25,  1804.  There  is  a  very 
fine  private  .portrait  of  Mr.  Miller,  engraved  at  the  expence 
of  his  affectionate  son,  tbe  very  eminent  bookseller,  in  Al- 
bemarle-street,  who  lately  retired  from  business,  carrying? 
with  him  the  high  esteem  and  respect'  of  his  numerous 
friends  and  brethren.  In  1795,  when  it  became  a  fashion 
among  tradesmen  in  tbe  country  to  circulate  provincial 
half-pennies,  Mr.  Miller  sen.  had  a  die  cast ;  but  an  acci- 
dent happening  to  one  of  the  blocks,  when  only  twenty- 
three  pieces  were  struck  off,  he,  like  a  true  antiquary,  de-. 
clined  having  a  fresh  one  made.  This  coin  (which  is  very 
finely  engraved,  and  bears  a  strong  profile. likeness  of  him* 
self)  is  known  to  collectors  by  the  name  of  "  The  Miller 
half- penny."  He  was  extremely  careful  into  whose  hands 
the  impressions  went ;  and  they  are  now  become  so  rare  a%» 
to  produce  at  sales  from  three  to  five  guineas.1 

1  Nichols's  Bowyer. — Private  information. 

MILLER.  167 

MILLER  (Edward),  Mus.  D.  younger  brother  of  the 
preceding,  was  apprenticed  to  his  father's  business,   that 
of  a  pariour,  in  Norwich,  but  his  dislike  of  the  occupation 
became  so  great,  that  he  absconded,  and  came  to  London. 
Soon  afterwards  he  placed  himself  under  the  tuition  of  the 
celebrated  Dr.  Burney,  with  whom  be  continued  in  habits 
of  intimacy  and  correspondence  throughout  bis  life.     In 
.1756  he  went  to  reside  at  Doncaster  in  Yorkshire,  where 
lie  followed  his  profession  with  great  reputation,  and  was 
organist  of  the  church  fifty -one  years.     He  took  his  de- 
gree of  doctor  of  music  at  Cambridge  in  1786.     Dr.  Mil- 
ler's company  was  much  sought  after,  as  he  was  an  agree- 
able, well-bred  man,    and  his  conversation  abounded  in 
anecdote  and  apt  quotation*     His  only  failing  was  an  occa- 
sional absence  of  mind,  which  led  him  into  several  ludi- 
crous mistakes  that  will  long  be  renlembered  in  the  neigh- 
bourhood of  Doncaster., 

The  latter  years  of  his  life  were  clouded  by  domestic 
calamities.  He  had  a  promising  family  of  three  daughters, 
wboall  died  of  consumptive  complaints  when  they  attained 
the  age  of  maturity ;  of  his  two  sons,  one  was  lost  by  ship- 
wreck on-  board  the  Halsewell  Indiaman.  His  only  sur- 
viving son  is  a  popular  preacher  among  the  methodists, 
with  whom  his  talents,  zeal,  piety,  and  charity,  have  made 
him  deservedly  beloved.  Dr.  Miller  died  at  Doncaster, 
Sept.  12,  1807.    / 

I>r.  Miller's  professional  knowledge  was  very  extensive, 
particularly  in  the  theory  of  music ;  and  his  publications 
have  been  much  valued.  Among  these  are  "The  Insti- 
tutes of  Mdsic,"  intended  to  teach  the  ground-work  of  the 
science  ;  and  "The  Elements  of  Thorough  Bass  and  Com- 
position.*9 But  the  most  popular  of  his  works  was  the  * 
"Psalms  of  David,"  set  to  music  and  arranged  for  every 
Sunday  throughout  the  year.  This,  which  was  expressly 
intended  for  the  use  of  churches  and  chapels,  met  with  very 
.great  encouragement  from  ail  ranks  of  the  clergy,  and  the 
subscription, '  before  publication,  amounted  to  near  five 
thousand  copies.  It  is  now  regularly  used  in  a  great  pro- 
portion of  places  of  public  worship*  Dr.  Miller  also  was 
somewhat  of  a  poet,  and '  somewhat  of  an  antiquary.  His 
iirct  attempt  in  the  former  character  was  entitled  "The 
Tears  of  Yorkshire,'  on  the  death  of  the  most  noble  tha 
Marquis  of  Rockingham."  He  informs  us  himself,  that  so 
much  was  the  marquis  beloved,  that  600  copies  of  this  lite- 

16*  MILLER. 

rary  trifle  were  sold  in  the  course  of  a  few  hours,  on  the 
jday  of  his  interment  in  York  minster.  As  an  antiquary  fee 
•published,  two  years  before  his  death,  "  The  History  and 
Antiquities  of  Doncaster,"  4to,  in  which  he  was  assisted 
•by  many  learned  friends  in  that  neighbourhood  ;  but  even 
with  their  help  it  bears  many  marks  of  advanced  years  attd 

MILLES  (Jeremiah),  an  English  divine  and  antiquary, 
-was  the  grandson  of  the  rev.  Isaac  Milles,  rector  of  High 
-Clear  in  Hampshire,  probably  by  his  second  son  Jeremiah. 
His  eldest  sou  was  Dr.  Thomas  Milles,  bishop  of  Waterford 
and  Liamore,  of  whom  it  may  be  necessary  (to  give  some 
account,  as  Mr.  Harris  the  editor  and  oontinuator  of  Wave- 
has  admitted  a  few  mistakes,  calling  trim  Mills,  and  stag- 
ing that  he  was  the  son  of  Joseph  Mills.    He  was  educated 
at  Wadham  college,  Oxford,  where  be  took  the  degree  of 
B.  A.  in. 1692,  and  that  of  M.  A.  in  1695.    He  was ordaiiftedl 
-by  bishop  Hough.     In  1704  he  took  the  degree  .of  B.  D. 
and  in  1706  was  appointed  Greek  professor  of  Oxford.     In 
1707  he  attended  the  earl  of  Pembroke,  lord  l«ewteoant  uf 
Ireland,  into  that  kingdom,  and  by  him  was  promoted  to 
the  see  of  Waterford  and  Lismore.     He  died  at  Waterfowl 
May  13,  1740.     He  published  a  few  controversial  traets, 
enumerated  by  Harris,  but  is  best  known* by  bis  valuable 
edition  of  the  works  of  St.  Cyril,  published  at  Oxford  ia 
1703,  folio. 

Bishop  Milles  left  his  fortune  to  his  nephew,  Jeremiah, 
who  was  born  in  17 14,  and  educated  at  Eton  school, 
he  entered  of  Queen's  college,  Oxford,  as  a  fventh 
-commoner,  and  took  his  degrees  of  M.  A.  in  1735,  mad  B. 
and  D.  D.  in  1 747,  on  which  occasion  he  went  out  grand 
.compounder.  He  was  collated  by  his  uncle  to  a  prebend 
in  the  cathedral  of  Waterford,  and  to  a  living  near  that 
city,  which  he  held  but  a  short  time,  choosing  to  reside  in 
England-  Here  be  married  Edith,  a  daughter  of  archbishop 
Potter,  by  whose  interest  he  obtained  the  naked  flectoaet 
of  St.  Edmund  the  King  and  St.  Nicholas  Aeon  in  Loo** 
hard-street,  with  that  of  Merstham,  Surrey,  and  the  sme~ 
cure  rectory  of  West  Terring,  in  Susses.  To  Mervthan* 
he  was  inducted  in  1745.  From,  the  chaatorship  of  Exeter 
he  was  promoted  to  the  deanery  of  that  cathedral,  in  17-62, 
pn  the  advancement  of  Dr.  Ly  t&ekon  to  the  see  of  Carlisle, 

1  Gent.  Mag.  vol.  LXXVII. — Private  information. 

MILLE  S.  16» 

mikom  he  also  succeeded  as  president  of  the  society  of 
antiquaries  in  1765.     He  had  been  chosen  a  fellow  of  this 
society  m  1741,  aad  of  the  Royal  Society  in  1742.     His  * 
Speech,  on  taking  upon  him  the.  office  of  president  of  the 
Society  of  Antiquaries,  was  prefixed  to  the  first  volume  of 
tbe  Arcbaeologia.     In  other  volumes  of  that  work  are  some 
papers  communicated  by  him,  one  of  which,   "  Observa- 
tions on. the  Wardrobe  Account  for  the  year  1483,  where- 
in are  contained  the  deliveries  made  for  the  coronation  of 
king  .Richard  ML  and  some  other  particulars  relative  to  the 
bistjory*"  was  answered  by  Mr.  Walpole,  afterwards  lord 
Orlbrd,  in  a  paper  or  e»say,  very  characteristic  of  his  lord* 
ship's  ingenuity  and  haughty  petulance.    In  the  early  part 
of  4a*9  lite,  Dr.  Milles  had  made  ample  collections  for  a 
history  of  Devonshire,  which  are  noticed  by  Mr.  Gough  in 
bis  Typography.     He  was  also  engaged  iu  illustrating  the 
Itaftfrsb  eoioage,  and  the  Domesday  Survey,  on  both  which 
subjects,  it  is  thought,  he  left  much  valuable  matter.     His 
wars*  attempt  was  to  vindicate  the  authenticity  of  Rowley's 
poems,  in  an  edition  which  he  printed  jn  1782,  4to«   After 
3*bat  Tyrwhitt  and  Wartoh  had  advanced  on  this  subject,  a 
grave  answer  to  this  was  not  necessary ;  but  it  was  the 
writer's  naisforttme  to  draw  upon  himself  the  wicked  wit 
of  the  author  of  "  An  Archaeological  Epistle,"  and  the  more 
wicked  irony  of  George  Steevens  in  the  St  James's  Chro* 
niele*     The  dean  died  Feb.  13,  1784,  and  was  buried  in 
the  church  of  St.  Edmund,  which,  as  well  as  his  other  pre* 
ferments,  he  retained  until  his  death,,  with  the  exception 
of  the  rectory  of  West  Terring,  which  he  resigned  to  his 
son  Richard.     His  character  is;  very  justly  recorded  on  his 
monument,  as  one  conspicuous  for  the  variety  and  extent 
of  Ms  knowledge,  and  for  unremitted  zeal  and  activity  in 
those  stations  to  which  his  merit  had  raised  him;  nor  was 
he  in  private  life  less  distinguished  for  sweetness  of  dispo- 
sition, piety,  and  integrity.1 

.  MILLOT  (Clauo£  Francis  Xavier),  a  late  French  his* 
toi&an,  was  born  at  fiesanc/ui,  in  March  1726,  and  belong- 
ed,: for  some  time,  .to  the  order  of  Jesuits.  He  was  one  of 
those  who  were  appointed  to  preach,  and  oontinued  so  to 
4o after  ibe  had  quitted  that. society.  But  the  weakness  of 
his  vojce, .  his  timidity,  and  the  embarrassed  manner  of  his 

J  Nichols's  Bowyer. — Lord  Oi  ford's  Works,  vol.  II. — Life  of  the  Rev.  Isaat 
Milles,  by  bishop  Milles,  1721,  8vo.— Ware's  Irelaud  by  Harris. 

17*  MIL  N  E  R. 

tio,"  &c.  Lond.  1673,  4to.  Dr.  Castel,  the  Arabian  pro- 
fessor,  called  this  "  a  most  excellent  essay,  wherein  the 
author  shewed  incredible  reading  and  diligence,  in  perusing 
so  many  copies,  versions,  and  various  lections,  with  tb« 
best  interpreters  of  sacred  writ"  2.  "  A  collection  .of  the 
Church  Hi&iiory  of  Palestine,  from  the  birth  of  Christ,  te 
the  beginning  of  the  empire  of  Diocletian,"  Lond.  16&8* 
4to.  3.  "  A  short  Dissertation  .concerning  the  foar  last 
Kings,  of  Judah,"  Lond.  1689,  4to.  This  was  occasioned 
by  Joseph  Scaliger'a  "  Judicium  de  Thesi  Chronologtca," 
&c.  4.  "  De  Nethinim  sive  Netbinaeis,  &c.  et  de  iis  qui 
se  Corban  -Deo  nominabant,  disputatiuncula,  adversu* 
Steuch.  Eugubinum,  Card.  Baronium,"  &c.  Cambi  1690, 
4to.  5.  "  An  Answer  to  the  vindication  of  a  Letter  frona 
a  person  of  quality  in  the  North,  concerning  the  profcs~ 
sion  of  John,  late  bishop  of  Chichester,"  Lond.  1690,  4to* 
$•"  A  Defence  of  the  Profession  of  John  (Lake)  lord  hishop 
0f  Chichester,  made  upon  his  death-bed,  concerning  paa- 
aive  obedience,  and  the  new.  oaths ;  with  some  passages  of 
his  lordship's  life,0  Load.  1690,  4to.  7.  "  A  Defence  of 
archbishop  Usher  against  Dr.  Cary  and  Dr.  Is.  Vossius, 
with  an  Introduction  concerning  the  uncertainty  of  Chro- 
nology, and  an  Appendix  touching  the  signification  of -the 
words,  &c.  as  ako  the  men  of  the  great  Synagogue,"  iGamb. 
1694,  £vo.  8.  «  A  Discourse  of  Conscience,  &c.  with  *e- 
flexions  upon  the  author  of  Christianity  jnot  mysterious*?  &c« 
Lond.  16$7,  8vo.  9,  tfA  View  of  the  Dissertation  upon 
the  epistles  of  Fhalaris,  Themistocles,  &c.  lately  ^published 
by  the  rev.  Dr.  Bentley.  Also,  of  the  (examination  of  that 
Dissertation  by  the  hon.  Mr.  Boyle,"  Aid.  14>93,  8vp.  IO. 
li  A  brief  Examination  of  some  .passages  in  the  Chronoilo- 
gical  part  of  a  Letter  written  to  Dr.  BherJock,  in  his  viudi- 
cation.     la  a  letter  to  a  friend."     11.  "A  further  Exatm-* 

,  aation  of  the  Chronological  part  of  that  Letter.  In  a  se** 
eond  letter  to  a  friend."     1 2.  "  An  Account  of  Mr.  Locke'* 

.  religion,  out  of  bis  own  writings,  and  in  his  own  words  2 
together  wtth  observations,  and  a  two-fold  .  appendix*" 
Lond.  1700,  8vo.  li.  "  Animadversiorn*  upon  Jdons.  Le 
Clerc'*  Reflections  upon  our  Saviour  and  4ms*  Apostles,  Ac 
primitive  fathers,  &c."  Camb.  1702;  He  leftaleo  saadral 
manuscript?  .enumerated  in  our  principal  authoiiky,  t  on 
subjects  x>f  chronology,  biblical  criticism,  .fiLC.1   ^•■-   ■>■.■> 

1  Watson's  Halifax.— Tboresby'B  iVicam  Ileodensis,  p.  114,  &c— Wilford's 

U  I  L  N  £  B.  m 

MILNER  (Joseph),  a  pious  and  learned  divine  and  ec- 
clesiastical historian,    was  born  ki  the  neighbourhood  of 
Leeds  in  Yorkshire,  Jan.  2,  1744,  and  was  educated  at  the 
grammar  school  of  his  native  place,  where  he  made  great 
proficiency  in  Greek  and  Latin,  in  which  be  was  assisted 
bj  &  memory  of  such  uncommon  powers,  that  his  triogr** 
piher,  the  present  dean  of  Carlisle,  says  that  he  never  saw 
bis  equal,  among  the  numerous  persons  of  science  and  lite* 
future  with  whom  he  has  been  acquainted.    This  faculty 
which  Mr.  Milner  possessed,  without  any  visible  decay, 
during  the  whole  of  his  life,  gained  him  no  little  reputa- 
tion at  school,  where  his  master,  the  rev.  Mr.  Moore,  often 
availed  himself  of  his  memory  in  cases  of  history  and  my- 
thology, and-  used  to  say,  "  Milner  is  more  easily  con- 
sulted than  the  Dictionaries  or  the  Pantheon*  and  he  is 
quite  as  much  to  be  relied  on."     Moore,  indeed,  told  so 
many  and  almost  incredible  stories  of  his  memory,  that  the 
rev*  Mr.  Murgatroyd,    a  very  respectable  clergyman,  a* 
that  time  minister  of  St.  John's  cburch  in  Leeds,  express- 
ed some  suspicion  of  exaggeration.    Mr.  Moore  was  a  man 
of  the  strictest  veracity,  but  of  a  warm  temper.     He  in- 
stantly offered  to  give  satisfactory  proof  of  Us  assertions 
"  Milner,"  said  he,  "  shall  go  to  church  next  Sunday,  and 
without  taking  a  single  note  at  the  time,  shall  write  down 
your  sermon  afterward.     Will  you  permit  us  to  compare 
what  he  writes  with  what  you  preach  ?'*     Mr.  Murgatroyd 
accepted- the  proposal  with  pleasure,  and  was  often  beard 
to  express  his  astonishment  at  the  event  of  this  trial  of 
memory.     "  The  lad,"  said  he,  "  has  not  omitted  a  single 
thought  or  sentiment  in  the  whole  sermon ;  and  frequently 
he  has  got  the  very  words  for  a  long  way  together." 

About  she  age  of  thirteen,  there  were  few  of  young  Mil* 
ner's  years  equally  skilled  in  Latin  and  Greek,  and  none 
who  were  to  be  compared  to  him  in  the  accurate  and  ex- 
tensive knowledge  of  ancient  history.  His  love  of  tbtf 
study  of  history  shewed  itself  as  soon  as  ever  he  could  read, 
and  he  employed  his  leisure  hours  in  reading,  as  a  weakly 
constitution,  and  early  disposition  to  asthma,  rendered  him 
utterly  ificapabte  of  mixing  with  his  schoolfellows  in  theift 
plays  and  diversions.  This  passion  for  the  study  of  history 
continued  strong  for  many  years,  and  was  his  favourite 
amusement  and  relaxation  to  the  last  With  such  acquire- 
ments, at  so  early  an  age,  it  cannot  be  thought  wonderful 
if  while  among  bis  poorer  and  more  ignorant  neighbours. 


he  went  by  the  name  of  the  "  learned  lad,"  his  school- 
master should  feel  some  degree  of  vanity  in  producing 
such  a  scholar;  but  his  regard. for  him  was  more  sincere, 
than  mere  vanity  could  have  produced,  and  Mr.  Moore 
now  meditated  in  what  way  he  could  be  able  to  send  his 
pupil  to  the  university,  where  talents  like  his  might  have  ft 
wider  range,  and  lead  to  the  honours  he  merited.  In  this 
benevolent  plan  be  seemed  at  first  to  be  obstructed  by  the 
death  of  Mr.  Milner' s  father,  who  had  been  unsuccessful 
\n  business,  and  had  little  to  spare  from -the  necessary  de- 
mands of  his  family*;  but  this  event  seemed  rather  to 
quicken  Mr.  Moore's  zeal  in  favour  of  bis  pupil,  and  us  the 
latter. bad  begun  to  teach  grown-up  children  of  both  sexes, 
in  some  opulent  families  in  Leeds,  &c.  there  seemed  a  ge- 
neral disposition  to  forward  the  plan  of  sending  him  to  the 
university*  At  the  moment  when  the  purses  of  the  wealthy 
were  ready  to  be  opened  in  favour  of  this  scheme,  the  tutor 
of  Catherine  hall,  Cambridge,  an  old  acquaintance  of  Mr. 
Moore,  wrote  to  him  to  the  following  effect :  "The  office 
of  Chapel-clerk  w.ith  us  will  soon  be  vacant ;  and  if  you 
have  any  clever  lad,  who.  is  not  very  rich,  and  whom  y on 
would  wish  to  assist,  send  him  to  us."  Mr.  Moore  instantly 
communicated  this  proposal  to  several  of  the  liberal  gen-* 
tlemen  above  alluded  to,,  who  all  cheerfully  concurred  in 
it,  and  young  Milner  was  thus  enabled  to  go  to  Catherine* 
hall  in  1762,.  in  his  eighteenth  year. 

Here  his  biographerexpresses  his  surprise  that  Mr.  Mil* 
ner  should  have  obtained  so  high  a  situation  as  he  did  in 
the  mathematical  and  philosophical  list  of  honours;  and  the 
more  so,  as  he  most  certainly  had  no  peculiar  relish  for 
those  studies.  He  was  the  third  senior  optime ;  but,  per- 
haps be  applied  to  these  studies  in  order  to  be  qualified  for 
the  honours  bestowed  on  classical  learning,  in  which  he 
was  more  familiar.  The  chancellor's  two  gold  medals  for 
the  best  proficients  in  classical  learning,  were  aunounced, 
and  none  but  senior  optimes  could  be  candidates.  He  be- 
came, therefore,  ii>  1766,  in  which  year  be  took  his  bache- 
lor's degree,  one  of  a  list  of  candidates  uncommonly  nu- 
merous and  able,  and  the  two  prizes  were  adjudged  to  Dn 

*  Old  Mr.  Milner  used  to  tell  the     seph,  instead  of  a  joint  of  meat  for  the 
tallowing  anecdote  with  a  good  deal     succeeding  Sunday's  dinner.     It 

ef  humour:    <<  Once   on  a  Saturday     too  true/1  added  be,  "  that  1  could  no* 
evening,  I  surprised  my  wife,  by  send- .    send  both  '."—.Life  bj  pr.  Milner. 
ing  home  a  Greek  book  for  my  son  Jo- 

MILN.EB.  17S 

Law,  tbe  late  bishop,  of  Elphin,  and  to  Joseph  Milner. 
Several  members  of  tbe  university  are  still  alive,  who  well 
remember  the.  general  surprise  caused  by  the  success  of  the 
latter;  and  how  his  humorous  and  spirited  translations  of 
Terence  and  Plutarch,  shown  by  tbe  examiners  to  their 
friends,  were  handed  about  through  the  colleges,  and  ex- 
cited general  admiration. 

.  He  would  have  now  gladly  remained  at  the  university, 
and  increased  bis  literary  reputation,  so  happily  begun, 
but  there  was  no  opportunity  of  electing  him  fellow,  at  Ca- 
therine-hall, and  he  was  already  somewhat  in  debt.  Du- 
ring bis  first  year's  residence  at  Cambridge,  he  had  lost 
by  a  premature  death,  his  affectionate  schoolmaster,  Mr. 
Moore;  and  the  management  of  his  slender,  finances  was 
transferred  from  the  hands  of  Mr.  Moore  to  those  of  a  care- 
less and  dissipated  person.  Mr.  Milner  was  not  old  enough 
for  deacon's  orders,  and  it  became  absolutely  necessary 
that  he  should  look  out  for  some  employment.  He  accord- 
ingly became  assistant  in  a  school,  and  afterwards  in  the 
cure  of  his  church,  to  the  rev.  Mr.  Atkinson  of  Thorp-Arch, 
near  Tad  caster.  Here,  we  are  told,  he  completed  an 
epic  poem,  begun  at  Catherine- hall,  entitled  "  Davideis," 
or  Satan's  various  attempts  to  defeat  the  purpose  of  the 
Almighty,  who  had  promised  that  a  Saviour  of  the  world 
should  spring  from  king  David.  The  MS.  is  still  in  exist- 
ence. His  biographer  pronounces  it  "  a  fine  monument 
of  the  author's  learning,  taste,  genius,  and  exuberant  ima- 
gination." He  submitted  it  to  Dr.  Hurd,  who  sent  him  a 
very  complimentary  letter;  but  he  laid  the  poem  aside, 
and  it  has  not  been  thought  proper  to  publish  it. 

When  he  had  obtained  deacon's  orders,  he  applied  for 
the  place  of  head-master  of  the  grammar-school  at  Hull, 
aud  having  obtained  it,  was  soon  after  chosen  afternoon 
lecturer  in  the  principal  church  in  that  town.  Under  his 
auspices,  the  school,  which  .had  decayed  through  the  neg- 
ligence of  his  .immediate  predecessors,  soon  acquired  ami 
retained  very  considerable  celebrity,  and  as  the  master's 
salary  rose  in  proportion  to  the  increase  of  scholars,  hit 
income  now,  on  the  whole,  amounted  to  upwards  of  200/. 
a  year.  .  The  first  use  he  made  of  this  great  change  of  cir- 
cumstances was  to  discharge  those  duties  that  arose  from 
the  situation  of  his  father's  family.  His  pious  affection  in- 
stantly led  him  to  invite  his  mother  (then  living  at  Leeds 
in  poverty)  to  Hull,  where  she  became  the  manager  of  hit 

176  M1LNEH 

boose.  He  also  sent  for  two  indigent  orphans,  the  children 
of  his  eldest  brother,  and  took  effectual  care  of  their  edu- 
cation. At  this  time  his  youngest  brother,  Isaac,  whose 
prospects  of  advancement  in  learning  were  ruined  by  his. 
father's  death,  was  now  humbly  employed  in  the  wool  led 
manufactory  at  Leeds.  From  this  situation  his  brother  Jo* 
seph  instantly  removed  him,  and  employed  him  aa  his  as- 
sistant in  teaching  the  lower  boys  of  his  crowded  school  at 
Hull.  By  bis  brother's  means  also,  he  was  sent  to  Queer*'* 
college,  Cambridge,  in  1770,  of  which  be  is  now  master, 
professor  of  mathematics,  and  dean  of  Carlisle.  Of  the 
affection  between  those  brothers,  the  survivor  thus  speaks, 
"  Perhaps  no  two  brothers  were  ever  more  closely  bound 
to  each  other.  Isaac,  in  particular,  remembers  no  earthly 
thing  without  being  able  to  connect  it,  in  some  way,  ten- 
derly with  his  brother  Joseph.  During  all  his  life  be  has 
constantly  aimed  at  enjoying  his  company  as  orach  as  cir- 
cumstances permitted.  The  dissolution  of  such  a  connec- 
tion could  not  take  place  without  being  severely  feh  by 
the  survivor.  No  separation  was  ever  more  bitter  and 
afflicting ;  with  a  constitution  long  shattered  by  disease,  he 
never  expects  to  recover  from  that  wound." 

Mr.  Milner's  labours  as  a  preacher  were  not  confined  to 
the  town  of  Hull.  He  was  curate  for  upwards  of  seventeen 
years,  of  North  Ferriby,  about  nine  miles  from  Hull,  and 
afterwards  vicar  of  the  place.  At  both  he  became  a  highly 
popular  and  successful  preacher,  but  for  some  yeats,  met 
with  considerable  opposition  from  the  upper  classes,  for 
his  supposed  tendency  towards  method  ism.  His  sentiments 
and  mode  of  preaching  had  in  fact  undergone  a  change, 
which  produced  this  suspicion,  for  the  causes  and  conse- 
quences of  which  we  must  refer  to  his  biographer.  It  may 
be  sufficient  here  to  notice,  that  he  at  length  regained  his. 
credit  by  a  steady,  upright,  presevering,  and  disinterested 
conduct,  and  just  before  his  death,  the  mayor  and  corpo- 
ration of  Hull,  almost  unanimously,  chose  him  vicar  of  the 
Holy  Trinity  church,  on  the  decease  of  the  rev.  T.  Clarke*' 
Mr.  Milner  died  Nov.  15,  1797,  in  the  fifty- fourth  year  of 
his  age,  and  perhaps  the  loss  of  no  man  in  that  place  taut 
ever  been  lamented  with  more  general  or  unfeigned  regret*? 
His  scholars,  almost  without  exception,  loved  and  revered 
him.  Several  gentlemen,  who  had  been  his  pupils  many* 
years  before,  shewed  a  sincere  regard  for  their  instructor,  by 
erecting  at  their  oivn  expence,  an  elegant  monument  (by 
Bacon)  to  his  memory  in  the  high  church  of  Hull. 

MILNEH  177 

Mr.  Milner's  principal  publications  are,  1.  u  Some  pas- 
sages in  the  Life  of  William  Howard,9'  which  has  gonfe 
through  several  editions ;  2.  An  Answer  to  Gibbon's  At- 
tack op  Christianity ;  3.  "  Essays  on  the  Influence  of  the 
Holy  Spirit."  But  his  principal  work  is  his  ecclesiastical 
history,  under  the  title  of  a  "  History  of  the  Church  of 
.  Christ/*  of  which  he  lived  to  complete  three  volumes, 
which  reach  to  the  thirteenth  century.  A  fourth  volume, 
in  two  parts,  has  since  been  edited  from  his  MSS.  by  his 
brother  Dr.  Isaac  Milner,  reaching  to  the  sixteenth  cen- 
tury, and  a  farther  continuation  may  be  expected  from  the 
same  pen.  Since  his  death  also,  two  volumes  of  his  prac- 
tical sermons  have  been  published,  with  a  life  of  the  au- 
thor by  his  brother,  from  which  we  have  selected  the  above 
particulars.  To  his  "  History  of  the  Church,"  we  have 
often  referred  in  these  volumes,  as  it  appears  to  us  of  more 
authority  in  many  respects  than  that  of  Mosheim ;  and 
whatever  difference  of  opinion  there  may  be  as  to  the  view 
Mr.  Milner  takes  of  the  progress  of  religion,  he  appears  to 
have  read  more  and  penetrated  deeper  into  the  history, 
principles,  and  writings  of  the  fathers  and  reformers,  than 
any  preceding  English  historian. ' 

MILTON  (John),  the  most  illustrious  of  English  poets, 
was  by  birth  a  gentleman,  descended  from  the  proprietors 
of  Milton,  near  Thame  in  Oxfordshire,  one  of  whom  for- 
feited bia  estate  in  the  contests  between  the  houses  of 
York  and  Lancaster.  His  grand-father  was  under-ranger 
off  the  forest  of  Shotover  in  Oxfordshire,  and  being  a  zea- 
lous Roman  catholic,  disinherited  his  son,  of  the  same 
name,  for  becoming  a  protestant.  This  son,  when  thus 
deprived  of  the  family  property,  was  a  student  at  Christ- 
church,  Oxford,  but  was  now  obliged  to  quit  his  studies, 
and  going  to  London  became  a  scrivener.  That  he  retained 
bis  classical  knowledge  appears  from  his  son  addressing 
him  in  one  of  his  most  elaborate  Latin  poems ;  he  was  also 
a  great  proficient  in  mtfsic,;  a  voluminous  composer,  and, 
in  the  opinion  of  Dr.  Burney,  "  equal  in  science,  if  not 
genius,  to  the  best  musicians  of  his  age."  He  married  a 
lady  of  the  name  of  Custon,  of  a  Welsh  family.  By  her 
he  had  two  sons,  John  the  poet,  Christopher,  and  Anne. 
Anne  became  the  wife  of  Mr.  Edward  Phillips,  a  native  of 
Shrewsbury,  who  was  secondary  to  the  crown  office  in 

1  Life,  as  above. 

Vol.  XXII.  N 

it*  Mi  IT  O.^: 

chancery.  Christopher,  applying  himself  tQ  the  study  of 
the  law,  became  a,  bencher  of  the  Inner  Teqaple,  wfflfr 
knighted  at  a  very  advanced  period,  of  life,  apd  raised  by. 
James  II.  first  to  be  a  baron  of  the;  Exchequer,  and  after- 
wards one  of  the  judges  of  the  Common-pleas.  .  During 
the  rebellion  he  adhered  to  the  rpyal  cause,  and  effected 
his  composition  with  the  republicans  by  the  interest  of  Jti& 
brother*  In  his  old  age  he  retired  from  the  fatigues  of 
business,  and  closed,  in  the  country.,  a  life  of  study  ar>4 

*  *  * 

John  Milton  was  bom  at  bis  father's,  house  in  Pread-^ 
street,  Cheapside,  Dec.  9,  1608.  From  bis  earl^st  ye#r% 
has.  father  appears  to  have  discerned  and  with  great  anxiejy 
cultivated  bis  talents.  He  tells,  us  bipiself  that  his  father 
destined  him  when  he  was  yet  a  child  to  th$  study  of  polite 
literature,  and  so  eagerly  did  be  apply,  that  frofq  bi§ 
twelfth  year,  he  seldom  quitted  bis  studies  tjll  .the  paiddJ% 
of  the  night;  this,  however,  be  adds,  proved  jibe  @rs£ 
cause  of  the  ruin  of  his  eyes,  in  addition  to  the  fl^tu^J 
weakness  of  which,  he  was  afflicted  with  frpqijept  head- 
acb*.  Some  part  of  his  early  education  wad  cptp%>ute4  U* 
the  care  of  Mr.  Thomas  Young,  ft  puritap  miniver,  ^uf^ 
he  was  also  placed  for  soma  Iwe  at  jSu  Paul's  schepl* .  tfeer* 
under  the  direction  of  Mr.  Ale*apder  GUI,  with  whofa  s^r 
Alexander,  Milton  seeps  to  have  contract  *  WW»  WG? 
lasting  friendship.  In  February  16?5,  when  ip  big  s§vf&T 
teentb  year,  he  was  entered  a  pepsipuer  at  Chrisf'^^Hag^^ 
Cambridge,  where  be  bad  for  his.  tijtor  Mr.  WlUvRR  CfeWr. 
pel,  afterwards  bishop  of  Corfc  and  Ross.  Qf  b$  cqncjupt 
and  the  treatment  which  he  experience*!  in  {m  colleger 
much  has  been  made  tbe  «u*bjert  <*f  dispgfe-  Th^Jftttt 
serious  charge  brought  against  Uisp  its  was  expftyed* 
for  which  there  seetps.  no,  ceaspnable  foundation  wh^tev^y. 
The  register  of  tbe  college  peeves,  that  kfl  FeguUriy  k$R£ 
his  terms,  and  as  regularly  tppfc  bqtb  bis,  degfpf a. ,  4dnflgff , 
of  le$s  consequence,  thai  he  lw*  °Mfc  received  c^rpora^ 
punishraent,  seems  scarcely  wojtfo  the  paifls  that  have  beqxf 
bestowed  in  refuting  it,  if,  according  tp  fjie  }ajt*st  pf  hi?, 
zealous  apologists,  no  injury  to  his  F^pot%tion  W04I4  h? ' 
the  necessary  result  of  its  admission.  It  is  ajlp^dj,  b0*^ 
ever,  to  be  probable  that  be  might  offend  the&^rngfg  9& 
his  college  by  tbe  dislike,  ea/4y  instilled  ittfo  bis  qu^l  by 
his  tutor  Young,  of  the  discipline  of  the  church,  or  the 
plan  of  education  then  observed.     Whatever  may  be  i^ 


tfeis»  bfe  passed  seven  y$ars  at  the  university,  *nd  after 
taking  his  master's  degree,  retired  to  bis  father's  house,  at 
Horfcon  in  Buckinghamshire. 

During  these  seven  years  of  college  residence,  his  genius, 
4ppeai$d  jft  various  attempts,  not  unworthy  of  the  future. 
^utbor  of  '<  Gomoa"  and  "  Paradise  Lost*"     He  was  a  poet 
#i>ei)  he  was  only  ten  years  old,  and  his  translation  of  the. 
136th  psahn  evinces  his  progress  in  poetic  expression  at 
the  early  age  of  fifteen.     He  renounced  his  original  pur* 
pose  of  entering  the  church*  for  which  he  assigns  ?s  a 
reason*  "  that  cooling  to  some  maturity  of  years,  be  had. 
perceived  what,  tyranny  bad  pervaded  it,  and  that  he  who 
would  take  orders*  must  subscribe  slave,  and  take  an  oath, 
withal,  which,  unless  he  took  with  a  conscience  that  could 
fetch,  he  must  either  strain,  perforce,  or  split  bis  faith;; 
I  thought  it  better  to  prefer  a  blameless  silence  before  the. 
office  of  speaking,  bought  and  begun  with  servitude  and, 
forswearing."     These  expressions  have  been  supposed  to 
allude  to  the  articles  of  the  church;  but,  as  far  as  we  know' 
of  Milton's  theology,  there  was  none  of  those  articles  to 
vvhicfr  he*  had  any  objection.     It  seems  more  reasonable- 
therefore  to  conclude,  that  he  considered  subscription  as 
involving  an  approbation  of  the  form  of  church  govern* 
ijnent,  which,  we  know,  was  his  abhorrence. 

He  spent  five  years  at  his  father's  house  at  Hgrton,  and 
during  this  time  exhibited  some  of  the  finest  specimens  of 
hk  genius.     The  "  Com  us,"  in  1634,  and  the  "  Lycidas," 
ifr  1637,  were  written  at  Horton;  and  there  is  strong  in ^ 
ternal  proof  that  the  "  L*  Allegro"  and  "  II  Penseroso'*, 
wfcfe'also  composed  here,     The  Mask  of  Comus  was  apted 
befqre  the  earl  .of  Bridgwater,  the  president  of  Wales,  in 
1.634,  $t  Ludlow-castle:  and  the  characters  of  the  lady- 
and  her  two  brothers  were  represented  by  the  lady  Alice 
JBgertofi,  then  about  thirteen  years  of  age,  and  her  two 
brothers,  lprd  $rackley  and  Thomas  Egerton,  who  were 
still  younger.    The  story  of  this  piece  is  said  to  have  been 
suggested  by  the  circumstance  of  the  lady  Alice  having 
been  separated  from  her  company  in  the  night,  and  having 
u&Qdgred  for  spme  time  by  herself  in  the  forest  of  Hay* 
wo^d,  as  she  was  returning  from  a  distant  visit  tp  meet  her 
father.     This  admirable  drama  was  set  to  music  by  Lawes* 
amd  fifst  published  by  him  in  1637,  and,  in  the  dedication 
t?  lord  Brackley,  he  speaks  of  the  work  as  not  openly 
acknowledged  by  the  author.    The  author  surely  had  little. 

1*0  M  r  L  T  o  ri. 

to  fear ;  it  would  be  difficult  to  discover  an  age  barfranoo* 
enough  to  refuse  the  highest  honours  to  the  author  of  at 
work  so  truly  poetical.  The  "  Lycidas"  was  written,  a» 
there  is  reason  to  believe,  at  the  solicitation  of  the  author's 
Old  college,  to  commemorate  the  death  of  Mr.  Edward 
King,  one  of  its  fellows,  a  man  of  great  learning,  piety, 
and  talents,  who  was  shipwrecked  in  his  passage  from 
Chester  to  Ireland.  It  formed  part  of  a  collection  of 
poems,  published  on  this  melancholy  occasion,  in  1638,  at 
the  university  press ;  and  its  being  thus  printed  in  a  coUec~ 
fion,  may  perhaps  diminish,  the  wonder  expressed  by  one 
of  Milton's  biographers,  that  a  poem,  breathing  suck 
hostility  to  the  clergy  of  the  Church  of  England,  and  me- 
nacing their  leader  with  the  axe,  should  be  permitted  to 
issue  from  the  university  press.  There  is  no  other  way  oif 
accounting  for  this  than  by  supposing  that  it  had  not  been 
read  before  it  went  to  press.  "'  Lycidas"  has  been  severely' 
Criticised  by  Dr.  Johnson,  and  but  feebly  supported  by 
Milton's  other  biographers. 

Of  the  "L'Allegro,"  and  "II  Penseroso,"  the  precise, 
time  of  writing  cannot  be  positively  ascertained.  They 
made  their  first  appearance  in  a  collection  of  our  author  V 
poems,  published  by  himself  in  1645  ;  but  there  is  reason 
from  internal  evidence  to  infer,  that  they  were  written  ii> 
the  interval  between  the  composition  of  "  Comus"  and 
that  of  "  Lycidas,"  consequently  while  he  lived  at  Horton. 
Of  these  two  noble  efforts  of  the  imagination,  tbe  opinion 
of  the  public  is  uniform ;  every  man  that  reads  them,  reads 
them  with  pleasure. 

In  1638,  on  the  death  of  his  mother,  he  obtained  his 
father's  leave  to  travel,  and  about  the  same  time  a  letter  of 
instructions  from  sir  Henry  Wottoh,  then  provost  of  Eton, 
but  who  had  resided  at  Venice  as  ambassador  from  James  I. 
He  went  first  to  Paris,  wherie,  by  the  favour  of  lord  S'cuda- 
more,  he  had  an  opportunity  of  visiting  Grotius,  at  that 
time  residing  at  the  French  court  as  ambassador  from 
Christina  of  Sweden.  From  Paris  he  passed  into  Italy,  of 
which  he  had  with  particular  diligence  studied  the  lan- 
guage and  literature;  and,  though  he  seems  to  have  inn 
tended, a  vfery  quick  perambulation  of  the  country,  h^ 
staid  two  months  at  Florence,  where  he  was  introduced  to 
the  academies,  and  received  with  every  mark  of  esteeiov 
Among'  other  testimonies  may  be  mentioned  the  ver&ej* 
addressed  to  him  by  Carlo  Dati,  Francipi,  and  others,  whitk 

M  I  L  T.  O  IS.  1*1 

prove  that  they  considered  a  visit  from  Milton  as  no  com*> 
sbod  honour.  From  Florence  he  went  to  Sienna,  and  from 
^Sienna  to  Rome,  where  he  was  again  received  with  kind- 
ness by  the  learned  and  the  great.  Holstenius,  the  keeper 
erf  the  Vatican  library,  who  had  resided  three  years  at  Ox- 
-ford,  introduced  him  to  cardinal  Barberini;  and  he,  on 
orte  occasion,  at  a  musical  entertainment,  waited  for.  him 
-at  the  door,  and  led  him  by  the  hand  into  the  assembly. 
Here  it  is  conjectured  that  Milton  heard  the  accomplished 
-and  enchanting  Leonora  Baroni  sing,  •  a  lady  whom  be  has 
•honoured  with  three  excellent  Latin  epigrams.  She  is  also 
supposed  to  have  been  celebrated  by  Milton  in  her  own 
language,  and  to  have  been  the  object  of  his  love  in  his 
Italian  sonnets.  While  at  R6me,  Selvaggl  praised  Milton 
m  a  distich,  and  Satsiili  in  a  tetrastic,  on  which  he  put 
some  vahie  by  printing  thetn  before  his  poems.  The 
Italians,  says  Dr.  Johnson,  were  gainers  by  thw  literary 
cothtnerce ;  for  the  encomiums  with  which  Milton  repaid 
Salsilli,  though  pot  secure  against  a  stern  grammarian, 
turn  the  balance  indisputably  in  Milton's  favour. 

From  Rome,  after  a  residence  of  two  months,  he  went 
to  (Naples,  'in  company  with  a  hermit,  who  introduced  him 
to  Menso,  marquis >  of  Villa,  who  had  been,  before  the 
patron  of  Tasso,  and  who  showed  every  mark  of  Attention 
-to  Milton,  until  the  latter  displeased,  him  by  certain  senti- 
ments on. the  subject  of  religion.  In  return,  however,  for 
.a  few  verses  addressed  to  him  by.  the  marquis,'  in  which  he 
commends  him  for  every1  t^tng  but  his  religion,  Milton 
sent:  him  a  , Latin  poem,  which  must  have  raised  a  Jiigh 
opinion  of  Engbish  elegance  and- literature.  It  ought  in- 
deed never  tpi  be  fdrgot,}  that' ii  the  whole  course  of  this 
-tour,  Milton-  pitteurdd uespeotufor  the  English,  wherever 
he  went ;  nor  does  it  appear  to  be  less  memorable  that  he 
.rarely  found  hiai  superior  among-  the  learned  men  of  the 
-continent,,  who  considered  his- doom  try  as  only  just  emerg- 
ing from  baAairism;  •        ?  :     •• 

He  wasiriow<to  have  visited- Sicily  and  Greece*  but  in- 
telligence; frota. En  glarfd  changed  his. purpose.'  "■  As  I  was 
-desirous^"  he  says,  M  te  pass:  into.  Sicily  siid  Greefce,  the 
melancholy  ibtelligfence  of  the' civil- war  recalled  me-;  for 
I  esteemed/it  dishonourable  for  me  to  be . lingering  abroad, 
even  for  the  improvement. o£  my  mind,  when  my  fellow- 
citizens  were  contending  for  their  liberty  at  home."  He 
.therefore- came  back  to  Rbole,  though  the  merchants  in- 

183  M  I  L  T  O  H. 

formed  him  of  plots  laid  against  bkn  by  tbe  English  Jesttrt% 
for  bis  free  sentiments  on  religion;' but  he  fad  sens* 
enough  to  judge  that  tbeve  was  no.  danger,  and  theeeforte 
kept  on  bis  way,  and  acted  as.  before,  neither  obtruding 
nor  shunning  conversation.  He  now  *taiid  two  month* 
more  at  Rome,  and  went  on  to  Ftorende  without  molesta- 
tion. From  Florence  be  visited  Lucca,  a  ad  aiterwnrak 
went  to  Venice,  whence  be  travelled  to  Geneva,  and  these 
became  acquainted  with  John  Diodati  and  Frederic  Sffitt- 
heina,  two  learned  professors  of  divinity.  From  <****%* 
he  passed  through  France,  and  came  home  after  a*  ahe 
sence  of  a  year  and  three  months* 

For  some  time  after  hi&arrival,  he  employed  tohjwetf  ib 

the  business  of  education,  a  circumstance  at*  which  sonde 

have  dilated  with  unnecessary  prolixity,  as  if  tbetoe  had 

been  any  thing  degrading  in  tile  character  or  <employsactot 

of  a  schoolmaster.     Dtj  Johnson  has  obseBved  that  ^  this  Is 

the  period  of  his  life  fwmt  winch  alL  his  "biographer*  seem 

inclined  to  shrink;     Milton  himself  says,  that  lie  hastened 

home  (and.  hia  haste,  after  alt,  was  not  gfleaij)  beoause  4ne 

■  esteenied  it  dishonourable  to  be  lingering  abroad  white  his 

j«fellQw-»chiaeos  were  contending  for  tbeic  liberty.    This 

-  seem  to. imply  h  promise  of  joining)  tbetp  its  their  estdtife- 

•  yours,;  but  as*  instead  df  this,  be  seta  up  a  school  imaiee 
diately  on  bis,  arrival,  bis  biographers  are  puazled  U*  ao- 
comK  for  hi^;  conduct,  and  yet  destroys  of  defending  it. 
What  can  he  said  in  his  favour'  has  been  better  said  by 
Johnson  than  by  any  of  hja  apologists,  urid /in. fewer  wwrda; 
*'  Hia  father  was  alive ;  his  allowance  waa  not  ample ;  aftd 
be  supplied  its.  deficiencies  by  an  honest  and  useful  ew>- 

*  plojtmanfc.''  And  we  shall  findi  that  >fa  v*ny  anon,  joined 
bisyfeUowficitiaens,  and  contribfttHed  his  share  to  ttte  cm*- 
trenjejsies  of  the  times. 

As  the  mode*  oil  education  which  he  iatitoAneed  in  iris 
school  bas.bgen  given  up  by  all  his  biographers,  it  may  be 
sufficient  here  only  to  notice  briefly  that  his  i  purpose  was 
t0  teafcb  things  more  than  Words*  Not  content  with  the 
common  school  authors,  he  placed  in  the  hands  of  bays 
,frjor/i  ten  to  fifteen  years  of  age,;  soch  writers  as  wave  oa- 
.  ppfyle  of  giving' information  in  some  of  the  departments  of 
science.  J&yenJn  the  selection  of  these  be  was  unfortu- 
nate* as  his.  most  zealous  advocates  ace  willing  to  aHow>: 
the  only  part  of  his  method  which  desetwes  general  ktiSlsj- 
tion,  was.  the  care  -with  which  he  instructed  bis  sobohnrs'M* 


Every  Sunday  was  spent  upota  theology,  of 
*pfeich  he  dictated  a  system;  to  them  founded  on  the  prio- 
otptes  of  the  Genevan  divines.  He  also  read  and  probably 
commented  on  a  chapter  in  the  Gredc  Testament.  Hhr 
first  tebool'  war  at  his  lodgings,  hi  St  Bride's  church-yard, 
hot  as  the.  number  of  his  scholars,  increased,  he  removed 
to  a  house  in  Aldersgate*streec 

.  The  time,  however,  was  now  come  when,  as  Johnson 
4ayt,  he  was  to  lend  "  his  breath  to  blow  the  flames  of 
contention."  In  1641  he  published  a  treatise  of  "  Refor- 
mation?" is*  tvfa  books,  against  the  established  church; 
and  soon  after  one,  "  Of  Prelatical  Episcopacy,"  against 
the  learned  Usher,  who  had  writtth  a  confutation  of 
-{*  SmeetymtMMis*"  which  was  intended  as  an  answer  to 
bishop  Hall's  "  Humble  Remonstrance,7'  in  defence  of 
Episcopacy.  His  next  work  was  "  The'  Reason  of  Church 
:  Gojenulent  urged  against  Prelafcy,"  1 64Z.  In  this  book, 
sagps  Jbbnson,  be  discovers,  not  with  ostentatious  exuha- 
tion^  but  with  calm  confidence,  hi*  high  opinion  of  his 
Qwd  powers  i  and  promises  to  undertake  something,  he 
j^baow*  not  what,  that  qmy  be  of  .ufee  and  honour  to  bia 
country.  "This,"  says  Milton,  "is  not  to  be  obtained 
but  bjfr  devout  player  to  the  eternal  Spirit  that  can  enrich 
with  ail  utterance  and  knowledge,  and  sends  out  his  Sera* 
pbktt  with  the  hallowed  fire  of  his, altar*  to  touch  and  purify 
the  lips  of  whom  be  please*.  To  this-  must  be  added,  in- 
dustrious .and  select  reading,  steady  observation,  and  hi- 
9tghfc  into  all  seemly  and  generous  arts  and  .affairs ;  till 
.whipb'iiir  some  measure  be  compost,  I  rtefuse  not  to  sustain 
tkis  eitpectation."  From  a  promise  Kkd  tbi&i  add?  Jobn- 
tmv  at  once  fervid^  pious,  and  rational,,  might  be  expected 
the  "  Paradise  Lost;"  He  published  the  same  year  tiro 
mere  pamphlets  on  the  same  qufestion,  with  which  the 
eontntaeiay  appears  to  have  ended,  and  episcopacy  was 
loon  afteawards  overwhelmed  by  the  violent  means,  for 
which  the  press  bad  long  prepared. 

.  About  thfe  time  that  the  town  of  Reading  was  taken  by 
tbfe  earl  of  Essex,,  Milton's  father  came  to  reside  in  his 
houses  and  his  school  increased.  In  1643,  his  domestie 
oemfeot  mm  disturbed  by  an  incident  which  he  had  hoped 
neieid  bfcve  rather  promoted  it*  This  wa*  his  marriage  to 
Mary,-  the  dkughfaer  of:  Richard  Powell,  esq.  a  magistrate 
in  Osfordahire^  and  a  loyalist  The  lady  was  brought  to 
Let*de%  hut  did  not  remain  above  a  month  with  her  bus-* 

184  MILTON. 

batkl,  when  under  pretence  of  a  visit  to  her  .relations*  a&e 
wholly  absented  <herself,  and  resisted  bis  utmost  and  re- 
.  peated  importunities  to  return.  His  biographers  inform 
us  that  the  lady  had  been  accustomed  to  the  jovial  hospi- 
tality of  the  loyalists  at  her  father's  house,  and  that  after  a 
month's  experience  of  her  new  life,  she  began  to  sigh  for 
the  gaieties  she  had  left,  &c.  Whether  this  will  suffi- 
ciently account  for  her  conduct,  our  readers  may  consider. 
Milton,  however,  appears  to  have  felt  the  indignity,  and 
determined  to  repudiate  her  for  disobedience;  and  finding 
no  court  of  law  able  to  assist  him,  published  some  treatises 
to  justify  his  intentions ;  such  as  "  The  Doctrine  and  Dis- 
cipline of  Divorce;"  "The  Judgment  of  Martin  Bucer, 
concerning  Divorce,"  &c.  In  these  he  argued  the  point 
with  great  ingenuity,  but  made  few  converts,  and  the 
principal  notice  taken  of  these  writings  came  in  a  very 
unfortunate  shape.  The  Westminster  assembly  of  divines 
procured  that  the  author  should  be  called  before  the  Hoitye 
of  Lords,  who  did  not,  however,  institute  any  process  on 
the  matter  ;  but  in  consequence  of  this  attack,  the  presby- 
terian  party  forfeited  his  favour,  and  he  ever  after  treated, 
them  with  contempt.  .... 

As  in  these  writings  on  divorce,  he  had  convinoed  him- 
self of  the  rectitude  of  his  principles,  his  next  step  was  to 
carry  them  into  practice,  by  courting  a  young  woman  of 
great  accomplishments,  the  daughter  of  one  Dr.  Davis,  or 
Davies,  This  alarmed  the  parents  of  his  wife,  who  bad 
now  another  reason  for  wishing  a  reconciliation,  namely, 
the  interest  of  Milton  with  the  predominant  powers,  to 
whom  they  had  become  obnoxious  by  their  loyalty.  It 
was  contrived,  therefore,  that  his  wife  should  be  at  a  house 
where  he  was  expected  to  visit,  and  should  surprize  him 
with  her  presence  and  her  penitence.  All  this  was  suc- 
cessfully arranged  :  the  lady  played  her  part  to  admira- 
tion, and  Milton  not  only  received  her  with  his  wonted 
affection,  but  extended  his  protection  to  her  family  in  the 
most  generous  manner.  He  was  now  obliged  to.  take  a 
larger  mansion,  and  removed -to  Barbican.  In  16*44,  he 
published  his  "Tractate  on  Education,"  explaining  the 
plan  already  mentioned,  which  he  had  attempted  to 
carry  into  execution  in  his  school.  His  next  publication 
was  his  "  Areopagitica,  or  a  speech  for  the  liberty  of  un- 
licensed printing ;"  a  treatise  which  at  least'  served  -to  ex- 
posg  the  hypocrisy  of  the  usurping  powers,  during  whose 

MILTON.  48* 

tetgn  the  liberty  of  the  press  was  as  much  restrained  .as  in 
«iy  period  of  the  monarchy,  nor  perhaps  at  any  time  was 
Milton's  unbounded  liberty  less  relished.  - 

Though  his  controversial,  and  other  engagements,  had 
for  some  time  suspended  fthe  exertion  of  Ms  poetical  ta* 
lents,  yet  he  did  not  suffer  his  character  as  a  poet  to  sink 
into  oblivion,  and  in  1645,  he  published  his  juvenile  poeris 
in  Latin  and  English,  including,  for  the  first  .time,  the 
"Allegro"  and  "  Penseroso."  In  1646,  Milton's  wife  pro* 
doced  her  first  child,  and  in  the  following  year,  in  which 
bis  father  died,  the  family  of  the  Powells  returned  to  their 
own  mansion,  and  his  house  was  resigned  once  more  to 
literature.  ln>this  house,  in  which  his  second  daughter 
Mary  was  borrt,  he  did  not  continue  long,  but  exchanged 
it  for  one  of  smaller  dimensions  in  High  Holborn.  He  is 
not  known. to  have  published  any  thing  afterwards  till  the 
king's  death,  when  finding  that  measure  condemned  by  the 
Presbyterians,  he  wrote  a  treatise  to  justify  it.  Of  all 
Milton's  political  works  this  reflects  least  credit  on  his  ta- 
lents, or  his  principles.  .  Even  those  who  have  been  most 
disposed  to  vindicate  him  against  all  censure,  and  to  re- 
present him  invulnerable  both  as  a  politician  and  a  poet, 
seem  to  shrink  from  the  task  of  defending  him  in  this  in- 
stance, and  candidly  tell  us,  that  they  meet  with  an  in- 
superable difficulty  in  the  very  title  of  the  book;  "The 
Tenure  of  Kings  and  Magistrates ;  proving,  that  it  is  law- 
ful, and  hath  been  held  so  through  all  ages,  for  any 
who  have  the  power,  to  call  to  account  a  tyrant  or  wicked 
king :  and  after  due  conviction,  to  depose  and  put  him  to 
death,  if  the  ordinary  magistrate  have  neglected  or  denied 
to  do  it."  Here,  therefore,  the  right  to  punish,  kings  be- 
longs to  any  who  have  the  power,  and  their  having  the  power 
makes  it  lawful,  a  doctrine  so  monstrous  as  to  be  given  up 
.by  his  most  zealous  advocates,  as  "  a  fearful  opening  for 
mischief:"  but  it  was,  in  truth,  at  that  time,  what  Mil- 
ton intended  it  to  be,  a  justification,  not  of  the  people  of 
England,  for  they  had  no  hand  in  the  king's  murder,  but 
of. the  army  under  foretop  and  Cromwell.  That  Milton  was 
also  -  at  this  .time  under  the  strong  in  flueoce  -  of  party-spi- 
rit,* appears  from  his  attack  ^n'  the  Presbyteriane  in  this 
work,  the  avowed  grounki  of  which  is  their  inconsistency. 
When,  however,  we  examine  their  inconsistency,  as  be 
baa  been  pleased  tp  state  it,  it  amctants  toonly  this*  ttatt 
they  contributed  in  common  with,  the  Independents  and 

156  M  I  L  TO  N. 

other  aeefcurasi  and  parties,  to  dethrone  die  king  j  bwt 
ssisfaed  to  stop  short  of  bis  murder.  Eye* y  spetic*  of  ©p- 
position  to  what  they  considered  as  tyranny  in  the  king)  they 
could  exert,  but  they  thought  it  sufficient  to  deprire  Mm  of 
ptfwer,  without  depriving  him  of  life 

His  next  publication  was,  "  Observations  upon  the  ami* 
cfes  of  Peace,  which  the  earV  of  Ormond  had  concluded  at 
Kilkenny,  on  Jam  17, 1648^,  in  the  king's  name*  and  by 
bis  authority,  with  the  popish  Irish  rebels,"  &c.  The  pur- 
p©rt  ot  this  also  was  to  fender  the  royal  cause  more  odicras 
by  connecting  it  with  the  Irish  massacre *,  and  that  the  sen- 
titnents  of  the  nation  might  become  yet  more  completely 
republican,  he  now  employed*  himself  in  ^composing.  €*  A 
History  of  England."  Of  this,  however,  he  wrote  only 
six  books,  which  bring  it  no  lower  down  than  to  the  bottle 
of  Hastings.  It  presents  a  perspicuous  arrangement  of  the 
fabulous,  and  less  interesting  part  of  our  history;  but,  as 
he  neter  resumed  the  task,  it  is  impossible  to  say  in  what 
way  be  could  have  rendered  the  events  of  more  recent 
times  subserrient  to  his  purpose;  His  regicide  perfor- 
mance evidently  shews  that  bis  ideas  of  our  constipation 
me  totally  at  variance  with  the  opinions  of  the  most  en* 
lightened  of  our  present  writers;  and  he  probably  farad 
that  even  in  the  favourite  republic  now  established,  there 
was  but  little  that  suited  with  the  order  of  things  he  bad 

The  immediate  cause,  how  even,  of  tbeinterntptioniigiuen 
to  his  "  History,"  was  his  being  appointed  Latin  secretary 
to  die  new  council  of  state,  which  was  to  supply,  all  the 
i&ftces  of  royalty.  He  had  scarcely  aoeepted  this  appoint* 
ment,  when  his  employers  called  upon  him  to  answer  the 
famous  book  entitled  a  Icon  Basil ike\  ec  the  portraiture  of 
'bis'sacrcd  majesty  in  his  solitudes  and  sufferings.'*  This 
sv*s  then?  understood  to  be  the  production  of  CharlesrJL 
-jind  was  published. unquestionably  with  tfte'vietf  to*  exhibit 
Jhm  to  the  people  ma  more  ferourable  light  than  he  had 
Keen  represented  by  those  who  brought  him  to  the  btoeM. 
It  probably  -too  was  beginning  to  produce  tha*  effect,  asctfae 
-jroVernmen*  thought  it  necessary  to  employ  the  taiantsri»f 
'Milton  to  answer  it*  which  he  did  in  a  work. entitled  "Ipe*- 
Docbstes^  or"Imtfge-breabei%  In  this  hefoHawetheaosjs*- 
mon  opinion,  thatr  the  king  was  the  writer*  although  be 
sometimes  seems  to  admit  of  doubtsv  audi  makes;  his  answer 
•a>soitt  otpenri^w  and  vmdidavio»<rf  ail  the  proceedings;  a  j 

at  ILTO  K  1ST 

the  cooru  This  bin  been  praiaed  as  one  of  the  ablest  of 
ail  Milton's  political  tracts*  white  it  is  at  the  same  time 
confessed  that  it  did.  not  in  the  least  diminish  the  popularity 
of  the  "  lean,"  of  which  46,500  are  said  to  have  been  said, 
and  whether  h  was  the  production  of  th&  king  oc  of  bishop 
€audear  it  must  have  kmrmomzed  with  the  feelings  and 
sebtiaaewts  of  a  great  .proportion  of  the  public.  The  story 
*f  Mitten's  insertaug  a  prayer  taken  from  Sidney's  u  Arca- 
dia/* and  imputing  the  use  of  it  to  the  king  as* a  crime* 
appeals  to  have  no  foundation ;  but  we  know  not  how  00 
vindicate,  this  and  other  petty  objections  to  tfce  king's 
eharacter,  froiathe  charge  of  personal  animosity. 
.  Milton's  nest  employment  was  to  answer  the  celebrated 
Selmasius,  who,  at  the  instigation  of  the  exiled  Charles  II. 
Jiad  written  a  defiance  of  his  father  and  of  monarchy; 
Sklmasius  w&oaa antagonist  worthy  of  Milton,  as  a  general 
scholar,  but  scarcely  his  equal  in  that  species  of  political 
talent  which  rendered  Mittoirfs  services  so  important  to  the 
new.1  government.  Salmaaius's  work  was  entitled  "Defew~ 
sio  Bggia,''  and  MUton?s."  Defeoiio  pro  populo-  Anglic 
cjtnoy"  which  greatly  increased  Milton's'  reputation  abroad, 
-aadk  at  home  we  may  be  certain  would  procure  him- no 
small  share  of  additional  faaour.  That  bis  work  includes 
awry-  great  portion  of  controrensal  bitterness,  may  be  at- 
tributed either  to  the  temper  of  the  times,  or  of  the  wrioer, 
as  the  reader  pleases  \  but  the  former  was  entirely  in-  hjs 
faoury  and  his  triumph  waa  therefore  complete.  Of  Sal- 
jBasiuVs  work,  the  highest  .praise  has  been  reserved  to  our 
own:  times,  in  which  the  last  biographer  of  Milton  has  com* 
pared  it. to  Mr.  Burke V celebrated  book  on  the  French 

Mutator's  eye-sight,  wkieb  had  been  some  time  declining; 
<wa*  now  totally  gone ;  but,,  greatly  fek  as  this  privation* 
mnsto  have  been  to  a  man  of  studious  habits,  bis  intellectual 
powers?  suffered  no  dinrinutixmj  About-  this  time  (1658), 
k4  jwaa^  involved  in  another  controversy  respecting  tbef 
f^JJefeasi©,  pro  popnlo  Angltcano,"  in  oonbequence  o£  « 
work  published  at  the  Hague,  entitled  "  Regii  sanguinis 
'abator*  ad  cerium  adversas  parricidas  AnglicanosV' written) 
ky  Peter  dp  Moulin,  but  published  by,  and  under  tb^ 
ttame<af,  Alexander?  Mosus,  onMbre.  This  prodo^ed'frot* 
Jtitkon,  hi*  *f.  Defensio  seettnda  pro  populo  Apglieane*** 
and<a  few-replies  to  the  answers  erf  fads  antagonists.  Ib  this 
soc^iwL  "  Befeusio,"    written  in  the  .same  spirit  an  tfr# 

N     < 




preceding,  is  introduced  a  high  panegyric  upon  CnxAweft* 
who  bad  now  usurped  the  supreme  power  with  the  title. of 
Protector.    It  seems,  acknowledged  that  his  biographers 
have  found  it  very  difficult  to  justify  this  part  of  his  con* 
duct.     Tbey  have,  therefore,  had  recourse  to  those  conjee* 
tural  reasons  which  shew  their  own  ingenuity,  but  perhaps 
never  existed  in  the  mind  of  Milton.     Their  soundest  de- 
fence would  have   been  to  suppose  Milton   placed  in  a 
choice  of  evils,  a  situation  which  always  admits  of  apolpgy. 
It  is  evident,  however,  that  he  had  now  reconciled  himself 
to  the  protector- king,  and  went  on  with  bis  business  as 
secretary,  and,   among  other  things,  is  supposed  to  have 
written  the  declaration  of  the  reasons  for  a  war  with  Spain. 
About  this  time  (1652)  his  first  wife  died  in  childbed,  leav- 
ing him  three  daughters.   He  married  again,  mot  long  after, 
Catherine,  tbe  daughter  of  a  captain  Woodcock,  -  of  Hack* 
Dey,  who  died  within  a  year  in  child-birth,  and  (was  la- 
mented by  him  in  a  sonnet,  which  Johnson  terms  "  poor,'.' 
but  others  "pleasing  and  pathetic."     To  divert  his  grief 
he  is  said  now; to  have  resumed  bis  "  History  of  England,'? 
?nd  to  have  made  some  progress  in  a  Latin  dictionary. 
This  last -appears  to,  have  engaged  his  attention  occasion* 
aUyfor  many  years  after,  for  he. left  three  folios  of  eollec- 
tion**  that  were  probably  used  by  subsequent  lexicographers, 
^ut  .could  not. of  themselves  have  formed  a.  publication. 
;    He  had  praised  Cromwell  as  the1  only  person  who  could 
allay  the  contentions  of  parties,  and  ^he  time  was.  now 
come  When  the  nation  was  to  lose  this  protecting  genius. 
Another  Cromwell  was  not  to  be  found,  and  general  anarchy 
seemed  approaching.     Milton,  somewhat  alarmed,  but  not 
wholly  dispirited  with  this  state  of  things,  took  up  his  pen 
to, give  advice  on  certain  urgent  topics,  and  having  as  ra&ch 
dread  of  presbyterianism  as  of  royalty,  he  published  two 
treatises,  one,  *!  Of  the  civil  pewenin  ecclesiastical  .causes," 
^nd  the  other,  "  Considerations  touching,  the  likeliest  mean? 
tp  remove  hirelings  out  of  the  church."     In  both  these  he 
shewed  bis  sentiments  to  be  unaltered  on  the  subjects  of  iiivil 
aftd  ecclesiastical  government ;  and  he  urged  them  yetifav* 
the*: in  "The  present  means  and  brief  delineation  of  aifiree 
C$f»H>onweidtb,7  and  "  The  ready  and  easy  way  to  establish 
9.  \frefc  Cctemon wealth."     In  this  last  his  inconsistencies 
haee.btffen  justly  exposed  by  one  of  his  recent  biographers. 
'A  .With  tbe  strongest  prepossession  of  a  party-zealot,  he 
defterte  bis  general  principle  for  the  attainment  of  his  parr  * 

MILTON,  *9st 

tteular  object :  and  thinks  that  his  own  opinions  ought  ti> 
be  enforced  in  opposition  to  those  of  the  majority  of  thfe 
nation.  Aware  also  that  a  frequetit  change  of  the  'govern- 
ing body  might  be  attended  with  inconvenience  and  pos- 
sible danger,  he  decides  against  frequent  parliaments,  and 
in  favour  of  a  permanent  council.*  Into  such  inconsistencies 
was  he  betrayed  by  bis  animosity  to  monarchy,  and  his 
bigoted  attachment  to  whatever  carried  the  name  of  a  re- 
public."  These  pamphlets  were  answered  both  in  a  spor- 
tive and  serious  way,  but  neither  probably  gave  him  much 
uneasiness.  His  last  effort  in  the  cause  of  republicanism 
was  entitled  "  Brief  notes"  on  a  loyal  sermon  preached  by 
Dr.  Matthew  Griffith,  one  of  the  late  king's  chaplains  :  and 
with  this  terminated  his  political  controversies. 

Charles  II.  was  now  advancing,  with  the  acclamations 
of  the  people,  to  the  throne,  and  Milton,  it  was  natural 
to  suppose,  might  expect  his  resentment:  for  some  time, 
therefore,  he  secreted  himself,  but  on  the  issuing  of  the 
act  of  oblivion,  his  name  was  not  found  among  the  except 
tions,  and  he  appeared  again  in  public.  Various  reasons 
have  been  assigned  for  this  lenity,  but  the  most  probable 
was  the  interest  of  his  friends  Andrew  Marvel  I,  sir  Tho- 
mas Clarges,  and  especially  sir  William  Davenant,  whom 
Milton  had  once  rescued  from  a  similar  danger.  The  only 
notice  taken  of  him  was  by  the  House  of  Commons,  who 
ordered  his  "  Iconoclastes"  and  "  Defence  of  the  people 
of  England"  to  be  burnt  by  the  hands  of  the  hangman ;  and 
it  appears  that  he  was  once,  and  for  a  short  time,  in  cus- 
tody, but  on  what  pretext  is  not  known. 

In  1662  he  resided  in  Jewin-street,  and  from  this  he 
removed  to  a  small  house  in  the  Artillery-walk,  adjoining 
Bunhill-fields,  where  he  continued  during  the  remaining 
parfcof  his  life.  While  living  in  Jewin-street,  he  married 
his  third  wife,  Elizabeth  Minshull,  the  daughter  of  a  gen- 
tleman of  Cheshire.  He  was  now  employed  on  "  Paradise 
Lost,"  to  which  alone,  of" all  his  works*  be  owes  his  fame* 
Whence  he  drew  the  original  design  has  been  variously 
Conjectured,  but  nothing  very  satisfactory  has  been  pro- 
duced. It  was  at  a  very  early  period  that  he  meditated  an 
epic  poem,  but  then  thought  of  taking  his  subject  from  the 
heroic  part  of  English  history.  At  length  "  after  long' 
choosing,  and  beginning  late,"  he  fixed  upon  "  Paradise 
Lost:"  a  design  so  comprehensive,  that  it  could,  says  Dr. 
Johnson,  be  justified  only  by  success.    We  may  refer  to 


1$0  MILTO  N. 

tha£  eminent  critic,  and  bis  other  biographers,  for  a  regular 
examinatioa  of  the 'beauties  aac^  defect*  of  this  immortal 
poem,  as  well  aus  for  many  particuhn*  relative  to  the  time* 
and  mode  in  which  be  composed.  These  it  would  have 
been  delightful  to  trace,  bad  our  information  beeo  as  ac- 
curate as  it  i*  various ;  but,  unhappily*  every  step  in  MiUoa> 
progress  has  been  made  the  subject,  of.aagry  controversy* 
and  they  who  cao  take  any  pleasure  in  the  effusions  of  cri- 
tical irritation,  may  be  amply  gratified  in  the  more  recent 
Jives  of  Milton. 

The  "  Paradise  Lost"  was  first  published  in  1667;  and 
much  surprize  and  concert*  have  been  discovered  at  the 
small  pecuniary  benefit  which  the  author  derived  from  this 
proud  display  of  bis  genius.  It  must,  in  our  view  of  the 
matter,  and  considering  only  the  merit  and  popularity  of 
the  poem,  s$em  deplorable  that  the  copyright  of  such  a 
composition  should  be  sold  for  the  sum  of  five  pounds,  and 
a  contingent  payment,  on  th$  sale  of  2600  copies,  of  twe 
other  equal  sums,  making  in  all  fifteen  pounds,  as  the 
whole  pecuniary  reward  of  a  poem  which  has  never  beet* 
equalled.  It  will  not  greatly  diminish  our  wonder  at  thi# 
paltry  sua)  if  we  add,  upon  the  authority  of  his  biographers* 
that  this  fifteen  pounds  purchased  the  bookseller'*  right 
only  to  tjie  several  editions  for  which  they  were  paid,  and 
that  Milton's  widow  sold  (be  irreverubte  copyright  to  the 
sfune  bookseller,  Samuel  Simmons,  for  eight  pounds.  Here 
is  still  oply  a  sum  pf  twenty-three  pounds  derived  from  the 
work,  to  the  author  and  bis  family.  In  defease  of  the 
bookseller,  however,  we  are  referred  to  the  risk  be  ran? 
from  the.  publication  of  a  work  in  all  respects  new,  and 
written  by  a  wao  under  peculiar  circumstances :  and  to  the 
state  of  literary  curiosity  and  liberality  so  different  from 
what;  prevail  in  our  own  days.  This  is  specious,  and  ipust 
be  satisfactory  for  want  pf  information  respecting  the  usqak 
prices  of  literary  labour,  which  we  cannot  now  easily  ac*» 
quire.  We  have  seen  a  manuscript  computation  by  the 
\ate  John  Whiston  the  bookseller,  whteh  would  be  value* 
tie,  as  coming  from  a  good  judge  pf  the  article,  if,  unfor*. 
{unately,  he  had  been  correct  in  the  outset :  but  as  he  re+, 
presents  Jacob  Tonson  giving  the  author  30/.  for  the.  first 
edition,  apd  10/,  more  when  it  should  come  toa  second,, 
we  know  all  this  to  be  erroneous,  and  that  the  author's  fa*, 
mily  bad  disposed  pf  the  whole  before  the  work  became 
Tonson'*  property.    This,  hc-wever,  b$  call* '?  ft  genewmf 


price,  as  copies  then  sold ;"  and  if  this  be  trutt  **  oartnot 
juppose  for  a  moment,  that  *  scholar  could  it)  that  age  in-* 
dplge  any  hopes  of  being  rewarded  by  the  public.  In  MiK» 
totfp  c#ae  we  hope  be  had  no  dependapce  on  it,  for  the 
\rqe  w*y  to  ascertain  bow  very  paltry  the  sum  was  which 
he  received*  i*  by  comparing  it  with  bis  property,  which, 
at  bis  death9  amounted,  to  3QQ0/, 

In  1671,  Mil  ton  published  his  "  Paradise  Regained,1* 
written  on  the  suggestion  of  $lwood,  the  quaker*  who  had 
heen  one  of  his  amanuenses*     Elwood,  after  reading  the 
"  Paradise  Lost,"  happened  to  say,  "  Thou  hast  said  much 
here  on, Paradise  Lost,  but  what  bast  thou  to  say  of  Para* 
fkise  Found  ?"     This  poem  was  probably  regarded  by  the 
anther  «9  the  theplogical  completion  of  the  plan  com* 
ipepced  ip  **  Paradise  Lost,9'  and  he  i&  said  to  have  viewed 
It  with  strong  preference;  but  in  this  last  opinion  few  have 
been  fcwad  to  coincide.    Its  inferiority  in  point  of  grandeur 
and  invention  is  very  generally  acknowledged,  although  it 
j*0K>t:  by  any  means  unworthy  of  hi*  genius.    About  the 
saiqe  tipe  appeared  bis  "  Samson  Agonistes,"  a  drama, 
Oftippofed  upon  thespcient  model*  and  abounding  in  moral 
apd  descriptive  beauties,  bet  never  intended  or  calculated 
for  the  stage- 
To  that  multiplicity  of  attainments,  and  extent  of  cam- 
jMFpben?iop,  that  entitle  this  great  author  to  our  veneration, 
may  be  added,  says  Johnson,  a  kind  of  bumble  dignity, 
which  did  not  disdain  the  meanest  services  to  literature. 
The  epic  poet,  the  cpntrqvertiist,  and  politician,  having 
already  descended  te  aceommedate  qbiWren  with  a  book 
of  elements*  now,  in  the  last  years  of  his  Sfe,  composed  a 
book  ef  Lqgic,  for  the  initiation  of  students  in  philosophy  t 
Sfflfd  published,  in  1672,  "  Artis  L,egiccp  plenior  institutt* 
aM  ftttri  Haaji  me&odiwn  concinnata."     In  the  following 
yea/ie  ventured,  once  more  to  meddle  with  the  controvert 
flip*  of  the  times,  and  wrote  "  A  Treatise  of  true  Religion^ 
$p*  and  the  t>e?t  means  to  prevent  the  Growth  of  Popery." 
The  latter  wan  became  the  dread  of  the  nation,  and  Milton 
was  amgr^g  the  *¥pst  zealous  of  its  opponents.    The  ptrinci* 
pie  of  toleraUpn  which  be  Uy*  down  is,  agreement  ie  the 
spftcieacy  of  the  scripture*,  whieh  be  denies  to  the  Pa* 
pists,  be$aq*e  they  appeal  to  another  authority.    }n  thf 
jftipne  jeax  MjUqu  pqhlishtid  a  *ee<3ftd  edition  of  his  youth* 
^paepPft  wth  bU  ^  Tractate  on  :Edue*tio\i,u  in  one  wo* 
\mst  ift  *ift&  fe»  i*&ki!k&  Vime  pieces  not  oampreben^ei 

19*  MILTON. 

in  the  edition  of  1 645.  In  1 674  be  gatve  the  world-  Ms  fa* 
miliar  letters,  and  some  college  exercises,  the  former  with 
the  title  of  "  Epistolarum  Familiarum  Liber  unus,"  and  the 
latter  with  that  of  "  Prolusiones  "qusedam  oratories  in  Col-< 
legio  Christi  habitoe."  He  is  also  said,  but  upon  doubtful 
authority,  to  have  translated  into  English  the  declaration 
of  the  Poles,  on  their  elevating  John  Sobieskt  to  their 
elective  throne.  With  more  probability  he  bas»  been  rec- 
koned the  author  of  "  A  brief  History  of  Muscovy,**  which 
was  published  about  eight  years  after  his  death.  With  this 
.  work  terminated  his  literary  labours ;  for  the  gout,  which 
had  for  many  years  afflicted  him,  was  now  hastening  his 
end.  He  sunk  tranquilly  under  an  exhaustion  of  the  vital 
powers  on  the  8th  of  November,  1674,  when  he  had  nearly 
completed  his  sixty-sixth  year.  His  remains  were  carried 
from  his  house  in  Bunhtll-fields  to  the  church  of  St.  Giles, 
Cripplegate,  with  a  numerous  and  splendid  attendance,  ahd 
deposited  in  the  chancel  near  those  of  his  father.  No  mo* 
nument  marked  the  tomb  of  this  great  man,  but  one  was 
erected  to  his  memory  in  Westminster  Abbey,  in  1737,  at 
the  expence  of  Mr.  Benson,  one  of  the  auditors  of  the  im- 
prest. His  bust  has  since  been  placed  in  the  church  where 
h^  Was  interred,  by  the  late  Samuel  Whitbread,  esq. 

In  the  July  preceding  his  death,  Milton  had  requested 
the  attendance  of  his  brother  Christopher,  and  in  his  pre* 
fence  made  a  disposition  of  his  property  by  a  formal  de- 
claration of  his  will.  This  mode  of  testament,  which  is 
called  nuncupative,  was  set  aside,  on  a  suit  instituted  by 
his  daughters.  By  this  nuncupative  will  he  had  given  all 
his  property  to  his  widow,  assigning  nothing  to  his  daugh- 
ters but  their  mother's  portion,  which  had  not  yet  been 
paid.  On  this  account,  and  from  exacting  from  his  chil- 
dren some  irksome  services,  such  as  reading  to  him  in  lan- 
guages which  they  did  not  understand,  a  necessity  result- 
ing from  his  blindness  and  his  indigence,  he  has  been 
branded  as  an  unkind  father.  But  the  nuncupative  will, 
discovered  some  years  since,  shews  him  to  have  been  amia- 
ble, and  injured  in  that  private  scene,  in  which  alone  be 
has  generally  been  considered  as  liable  to  censure,  or  ra- 
ther, perhaps,  as  not  entitled  to  affection.  In  this  will, 
published  by  Mr.  Wart  on,  and  in  the  papers  connected 
with  it,  we  find  the  venerable  parent  complaining  of  "  un- 
kind children,**  as  he  calls  them,  'for  leaving  and  neglect- 
ing him  because  he  was  blind ;  and  we  see  him  compelled* 

MILTON.  135 

by  .their  injurious  conduct,  t6  appeal  against  thjeqa  even  to 
his  servants.  By  the  deposition  of  one  of  those. servants, 
it  is  certain,  that  his  complaint*  were  not  extorted  by  slight  • 
wrongs,  or  uttered  by  capricious  passion  on  trivial  provo- 
cations :  that  his  children,  with  the  exception  of  the 
youngest,,  would  occasionally  sell  his  books  to  the  dunghill 
women,  as  the  witness  calls  them.  That  these  daughters 
were  capable  of.  combining  with  the  maid-servant,  and  of 
advising  her  to  cheat  ber  master,  and  their  father,  in  her 
marketings;  and  that  one  of  them,  Mary,  on  being  told 
that  her  father  was  married,  replied,  "  that  was  no  news; 
but  if  she  could  bear  of  his  death,  that  would  be  something." 

Of  the  three  daughters  of  MiltQn,  Anne,  the  eldest, 
married  a  master-builder,  and  died  with  her  first  child  in 
her  lying-in;  Mary,  the.  second,  died  in  a  single  state: 
and  Deborah,  the  youngest,  married  Abraham  Clarke,  a 
weaver  in  Spitalfields.  She  had  seven  sons  and.  three 
daughters;  but  of  these  she  left,  a^t  her  decease,  only  Caleb, 
who,  marrying  ir>  the  East  Indies,  had  two  sons,,  whose  his* 
tory  cannot  be  traced  ;  and  Elizabeth,  who  married  Tho*> 
mas  Foster,  of  the  same  business  with  her -father,  and  had 
by  him  three  sons  and  four  daughters,  who  all  died  young 
and  without  .issue.  Mrs.  Foster  died  in  poverty  and  distress, 
on  the  ninth  of  May,  1754.  This  was  the  lady  for  whose 
benefit  "  Corn  us"  was  played  in  1750,  and  she  had  so  lit- 
tle acquaintance  with  diversion  or  gaiety,  that  she  did  not 
know  what  was  intended  when  a  benefit  was  ottered  hen  < 
The  profits  of  the  night  were  only  13Q/. ;  yet  this,  as  Dr# 
Johnson  remarks,  was  the  greatest  benefaction  that  "  Pa- 
radise Lost"  :ever  procured  the  author's  descendants, 

Milton  was  in  youth  so  eminently  beautiful  that  he  was 
called  the  lady  of  his  college.  His  hair,  which  was  of  a 
light  brown,  parted  at  the  foretop,  and  hung  down  upon 
his  shoulders,  according  to  the  picture  which  he. has  given 
of  Adam.  He  was  rather  below  the  middle  size,  but  vi- 
gorous  and  active,  fond  of  manly  sports,  and  even  skilful 
in  the. exercise  of  the  sword.  His  domestic  habits,,  as  far 
as  they  are  known,  were  those  of  a  severe  student.  He 
was  remarkably  temperate  both  in  eating  and  drinking.  In 
his  youth,  as  we  have  noticed,  he  studied  late  at  night ; 
but  afterwards  changed  his  hours,  and  became  a  very  early 
riser.  The  course  of  his  day  was  best  known  after  he  lost 
his  sight.  When  he  first  rose,  he  heard  a  chapter  in  the 
Hebrew  Bible,  and  then  studied  till  twelve;   then  took 

Vol.  XXII.  O 

194  MILTON; 

some  exercise  for  an  hour ;  then  dined,  then  played  on 
the  organ,  and  sung  or  heard  another  sing ;  studied  to  the 
hour  of  six,  and  entertained  his  visitors  till  eight ;  then 
supped,  and  after  a  pipe  of  tobacco  and  a  glass  of  water 
went  to  bed.  To  his  personal  character  there  seems  to 
have  been  little  to  object.  He  was  unfortunate  in  his 
family,  but  no  part  of  the  blame  rested  with  him.  His 
temper,  conduct,  morals,  benevolence,  were  all  such  as 
ought  to  have  procured  him  respect  His  religion  has 
been  a  fertile  subject  of  contest  among  his  biographers. 
He  is  said  to  have  been  in  early  life  a  Calvinist,  and  when 
be  began  to  hate  the  presbyterians,  to  have  leaned  towards 
Arminianism.  Whatever  were  bis  opinions,  no  sect  could 
boast  of  his  countenance  ;  for  after  leaving  the  church  he 
never  joined  in  public  worship  with  any  of  them. l 

MIMNERMUS,  an  ancient  Greek  poet,  was  born  either 
at  Colophon,  according  to  Strabo,  or  according  to  others 
at  Smyrna,  some  time  in  the  sixth  century  B.  C.  Strabo 
informs  us  that  he  was  a  musician,  as  well  as  a  writer  of 
elegies,  which  was  bis  chief  pursuit':  and  Nanno,  the  lady 
who  passes  for  his  mistress,  is  recorded  to  have  got  her 
livelihood  by  the  same  profession..  There  are  but  few  frag- 
ments of  his  poems  remaining,  yet  enough  to  shew  him  an 
accomplished  master  in  his  own  style.  His  temper  seerrts 
to  have  been  as  truly  poetical  as  his  writings,  wholly 
bent  on  love  and .  pleasure,  and  averse  to  the  cares  of 
common  business.  He  appears  to  have  valued  life  only 
as  it  could  afford  the  means  of  pleasure.  By  some  he  is 
said  to  have  been  the  inventor  of  the  pentameter,  but  va- 
rious specimens  of  that  verse  of  older  date  are  still  extant 
Mimnermus's  fragments  are  printed  by  Brunck,  in  his 
"  Analecta,"  and  in  the  "  Gnomici  Poetae."  f 

MINDERER  (Raymond),  a  physician  of  Augsburg,  of 
the  chemical  sect,  lived  in  the  early  part  of  the  seven- 
teenth century.  He  was  eminent  as  a  military  physician, 
in  which  capacity  he.  served  several  campaigns,  and  also 
rose  to  high  reputation  and  practice  in  the  courts  of  Vienna 
and  Munich,  where  he  was  consulted  by  the  principal  no- 
bility. He  published  the  result  of  his  experience  relative 
to  the  diseases  of  armies,  in  the  German  language;  and  this 
work  was  translated  into  Latin,  with  the  title  of  u  Medicina 

1  Life  of  Milton  by  Dr.  Johnson,— and  Dr.  Symmons,  &c.  &c.  &c. 
*  Strabo. — Fabric.   Bibl.   Grace-  Athenecum,  vol.   II. — Burney's   IJist    of 
Music— Saxii  Onomast. 

M  I  N  D  E  R  E  R.  19* 

Militaris,  seu,  Liber  Castrensis,  euporista  et  facile  para* 
bilia  Medicamenta  continens,"  Vienna,  1620,  8vo.  This 
work  was  several  times  reprinted,  and  was  also  translated 
into  English  in  1674.  He  was  likewise  author  of  the  fol- 
lowing  works:  "  De  Pestilenti&  Liber  unus,"  ibid.  1608; 
*'  Aloedarium  Marocostinum,"  ibid.  1616,  and  afterwards 
republished  ;  €€  De  Calcantho,  seu  Vitriolo,  ejusque  qua* 
litate,  virtute,  et  viribus,"  1617.;  "  Threnodia  Medica, 
seu,  Planctus  Medicinse  lugentis,"  1619.  His  chemical 
reputation  is  evinced  by  the  connection  of  his  name  ia  the 
shops,  even  at  this  day,  with  the  neutral  salt,  the  acetate 
of  ammonia,  which  is  called  Mindererus'  spirit.1 

MINELLIUS  (John),  a  Dutch  grammarian,  born  at 
Rotterdam  about  1625,  was  occupied  for  the  chief  part  of 
bis  life  in  teaching  the  learned  languages,  and  died  about 
1683.  He  published  editions  of  Terence,  Sallust,  Virgil, 
Horace,  Florus,  Valerius  Maximus,  and  most  of  the  clas- 
sics, with  short  notes,  rather  for  the  aid  of  mere  school- 
boys, than  of  any  kind  of  utility  to  the  learned.  Most  of 
these  editions  are  also  printed  in  a  very  incorrect  manner, 
at  least  the  republications  of  them,  in  this  and  other 
countries.  * 

MINOT  (Laurence),  an  ancient  English  poet,  who 
flourished  in  the  fourteenth  century,  but  appears  to  have 
been  unknown  to  Leland,  Bale,  Pits,  and  Tanner,  was 
lately  discovered  by  Tyrwhitt,  and  edited  by  Mr.  Ritsoa  ia 
1794,  8vo.  The  discovery  was  owing  to  a  remarkable  cir- 
cumstance. Some  former  possessor  of  the  manuscript  in 
which  his  poems  are  contained  had  written  his  name,  Ri- 
chard Cbawser,  on  one  of  the  supernumerary  leaves.  The 
compiler  df  the  Cotton  catalogue,  printed  at  Oxford  in 
1696,  converted  this  signature  into  Geoffrey  Chaucer,  and 
therefore  described  the  volume  in  these  words,  "  Chaucer. 
Exemplar  emendate  scriptum.".  Mr.  Tyrwhitt,  whilst  he 
was  preparing  his  edition  of  the  Canterbury  Tales,  con- 
sulted this  manuscript,  and  thus  discovered  the  poems  of 
Laurence  Minot  The  versification  of  this  poet  is  uncom- 
monly easy  and  harmonious  for  the  period  in  which  he 
lived,  and  an  alliteration,  as  studied  as  that  of  Pierce  Plow- 
man, runs  through  all  his  varieties  of  metre.  He  has  not 
tbe  dull  prolixity  of  many  early  authors  ;  nor  do  we  find 

1  Eloy  Diet.  Hiit  de  Medicine. — Rees**  Cyclopaedia. 
•  Moreri. — Heumanni  Via  ad  Hilt.  Lit.— Saxii  Onomait, 


196  MINOT. 


in  his  remains  those  pictures  of  ancient  tirae^  and  manners, 
from  which  early  writers  derive  their  greatest  value:  In 
the  easy  flow  of  his  language  he  certainly  equals  Chaucer; 
but  here  the  merit  of  .Laurence  M mot  ends,  although  Mr. 
Ritson  endeavours  to  carry  it  much  farther. l 

MINUCIUS  FELIX  (Marcus),  a  father  of  the  primitive 
church,  flourished  in  the  third  century.  He  is  said  to  have 
been  an  African. by  birth,  but  little  is  known  of  his  history, 
except  that  he  was  a  proselyte  to  Christianity,  resided  at 
Rome,  and  followed  the  profession  of  a  lawyer.  He  is  now 
known  by  bis  excellent  dialogue,  entitled  "  Octavius."  At 
what  time  he  wrote  it  is  a  contested  point,  but  as  he  ap- 
pears to  have  imitated  Tertullian,  and  to  have  been  copied 
by  Cyprian  in  bis  treatise  "  De  idolorum  vanitate,"  it 
may  probably  be  referred  to  the  reign  of  the  emperor  Ca- 
racalla.  The  speakers  in  this  dialogue  are  Ca?cilius,  a 
heathen,  and  Octavius,  a  Christian  ;  and  Minucius,.as.  their 
common  friend,  is  chosen  to  moderate  between  the  two 
disputants.  Octavius  is  made  to  encounter  the  arguments 
of  Csecilius,  and  maintains  the  unity  of  God,  asserts  his 
providence,  vindicates  the  manners  of  Christians,  and 
partly  attempts  to  explain  their  tenets,  and  partly  refers  a 
more  ample  consideration  of  them  to  some  future  oppor- 
tunity of  discourse.  It  is  a  learned,  elegant,  and  ingenious 
performance,  although  critical  objections  may  be  made  to 
the  form  of  the  dialogue,  and  to  some  of  the  sentiments. 
This  work  was,  for  a  considerable  time,  attributed  to  Ar- 
nobius;  but  in  L  5 6Q,  Francis  Baldwin*  a  learned  lawyer, 
published  it  at  Heidelberg,  in  8vo,  and  made  the  disco* 
very  in  a  preliminary  dissertation,  that  Minucius  wa$  its 
true  author.  It  has,  since  that  time,  gone  through  many 
editions,  of  which  the  best  is  that  printed  at  Cambridge 
in  1712,  with  the  dissertation  of  Baldwin  prefixed,  a#d 
"  Commodiani  Instructiones  adversus  Gentium  Deos," 
added  in  the  .way  of  appendix.  We  have  likewise  an 
excellent  translation  of  it,  with  notes  and  illustrations, 
published  by  sir  D.  Dalrymple,  lord  Hailes,  in  1781,  from 
the  preface  to  which  part  of  the  above  account  is  taken.  * 

MIRABAUD  (John  Baptist),  a  learned  man,  who  held 
the  place  of  perpetual  secretary  to  the  French  academy, 
was  born  in  Provence  in  1674,  and  lived  to  the  age  of 

»  Ritson's  edit— Crit.  Rev.  and  Brit.  Grit  for  1797.  , 

*  Cave,  vol.  I.— -Lord  Hailes's  preface,— Larduer's  Works.— Saxii  Onoomit 

M  I  R  A  B  A  U  D. 


eighty-six.  He  is  chiefly  known,  as  an  author,  by  1.  «A 
translation  of  Tasso's  Jerusalem  delivered/'  which  has 
gone  through  several  editions,  but  has  since  been  super- 
seded by  a  better,  written  by  M.  le  Brun.  Mirabaud  took 
upon  him,  rather  too  boldly,  to  retrench  or  alter  what  he 
thought  unpleasing  in  his  author.  2.  "  A  translation  of 
the  Orlando  Furioso,"  which  has  the  same  faults.  He 
wrote  also  a  little  tract  entitled  "  Alphabet  de  la  Fge  Gra- 
de use,"  1734,  12ibo.  His  eulogiurn  at  the  academy  was 
drawn  up  by  M.  de  BufFon,  and  is  full  of  high  encomiums.1 
MIRABEAU  (Honore'  Gabriel,  comte  de),  well 
known  both  by  his  writings,  and  the  active  part  he  took  in 
bringing  about  the  French  revolution,  was  born  in  1749, 
of  a  noble  family.  Throughout  life  he  displayed  a  spirit 
averse  to  every  restraint,  and  was  one  of  those  unhappy 
geniuses  in  whom  the  most  brilliant  talents  serve  only  as  a 
scourge  to  themselves  and  alt  around  them.  It  is  told  by 
his  democratical  panegyrists,  as  a  wonderful  proof  of  fa- 
mily tyranny,  under  the  old  government,  that  not  less  thai* 
sixty- seven  lettres  de  cachet  had  been  obtained  by  Mira- 
beau the  father*  against  this  son,  and  others  of  his  rela- 
tives'. It  proves  at  least  as  much,  what  many  anecdotes 
confirm,  that,  for  his  share  of  them,  the  son  was  not  less 
indebted  to  his  own  ungovernable  disposition,  than  to  the 
s&evhy  of  Ms  parent.  The,  whole  course  of  his  youth  was 
passed  in  this  manner.  Extravagance  kept  him  always 
poor ;  and  this  species  of  paternal  interference  placed  him 
very  frequently  in  prison.  It  may  be  supposed  also,  that 
the  part  taken  by  the  government  in  these  unpleasant  ad- 
monitions, did  not  tend  to  attach  young  Mirabeau  to  that 
system.  The  talents  of  Mirabeau  led  him  frequently  to 
employ  his  pen,  and  his  publications  form  the  chief  epochas 
of  his  life.  His  first  publication  was,  1.  "  Essai  sur  le 
Despotisme,"  "  An  Essay  on  Despotism,"  in  8vo.  '  Next, 

*  Diet.  Hist. 

*  His  father,  Victor  Biquetti,  mar- 
quis of  Mirabeau,  was  a  political  wri- 
ter, and  one  of  the  sect  of  the  oeco- 
nomistt.  His  first  literary  work,  en- 
titled "  JL'Ami  des  Homines,"  pub- 
fiahed  in  1755,  In  three  volumes,  con- 
tains many*  useful  ideas  on  rural  and 
political,  economy /and  atone  time  was 
such  a  favourite  in  France  as  to  pro- 
cure him  the  epithet  of  "  Mirabeau 
I'ami'des  homines." .  He  afterwards 
wrote  in  favour  of  provincial  admini- 

strations, and  published  "  Tbeorie  da 
l'lmpdt:"  but  many  of  the  principles 
advanced  here  were  thought  so  dan- 
gerous that  be  was  for  a  short  time  im* 
prisoned  in  the  Bastille.  He  died  in 
1790,  at  the  commencement  of  the  re- 
volution. His  writings  were  published 
collectively  in  eight  volumes  lgmo* 
with  the  exception  of  one,  entkle<| 
"  Hommes  acelebrer,"  in  two  vol  antes 
8vo,  which  his  friend  Father  BoSQovtek 
printed  at  Bassano. 


in  one  of  his  confinements,  he  wrote,  2.  a  work  ?rOn 
Lettres  de  Carfiet,"  2  vols.  8vo.  3.  "  Considerations  sur 
l'ordre  de  Cincinnatus,"  8vo ;  a  remonstrance  against  the 
order  of  Cincinnatus,  proposed  atone  time  to  be  established 
in  America.  The  public  opinion  in  America  favoured  this 
remonstrance,  and  it  proved  effectual.  4.  His  next  work 
was  in  favour  of  the  Dutcbt  when  Joseph  II,  demanded  the 
opening  of  the  Scheld,  in  behalf  of  the  Braban^ons.  .  It  is. 
entitled,  "  Doutes  sur  la  liberty  de  PEscaut,"  8vo.  5. 
"  Lettre  a  Pempereur  Joseph  II.  sur  son  r£glement  con- 
cernant  1' Emigration,'1  a  pamphlet  of  forty  pages,  in  8vo. 
6.  "  Be  la  Caisse  d'Escompte,"  a  volume  in  8vo,  written 
against  that  establishment.  7.  "  De  la  Banque  d'Espagne," 
8vo ;  a  remonstrance  against  establishing  a  French  bank  in 
Spain.  A  controversy  arising  on  this  subject,  he  wrote 
again  upon  it.  8.  Two  pamphlets  on  the  monopoly  of  the 
water  company  in  Paris.  Soon  after  writing  these  he 
went  to  Berlin,  which  was  in  1786,  and  was  there  when 
Frederic  II.  died.  On  this  occasion  also  he  took  up  his 
pen,  and  addressed  to  his  successor  a  tract  entitled,  9. 
"  Lettre  remise  a  Frederic  Guillaume  II.  roi  regnant  de 
Prusse,  le  jour  de  son  avenement  au  trine."  This  con* 
tained,  says  his  panegyrist,  "non  pas  des  £loges  de  lui, 
uiais  des  £loges  du  peuple;  non  pas  des  vceux  pour  lui, 
mais  des  vceux  pour  le  peuple  ;  non  pas  des  conseils  pour 
lui,  mais  des  conseils  pour  le  bonheur  du  peuple." 

Mirabeau  was  still  at  Berlin  when  he  heard  of  the  assem- 
bly of  notables  convened  in  France,  and  then  foretold  that 
it  would  soon  be  followed  by  a  meeting  of  the  states.  At 
this  period  he  published  a  volume  against  the  stockjobbing, 
then  carried  to  a  great  height,  entitled,  10.  "  Denoncia- 
tion  de  Pagiotage  au  roi,  et  a  1' assemble  des  notables," 
8vo.  A  lettre  de  cachet  was  issued  against  him  in  conse* 
quence  of  this  publication,  but  he  eluded  pursuit,  and 
published  a  pamphlet  as  a  sequel  to  the  book.  His  next 
work  was  against  M.  Necker.  11."  Lettre  a  M.  de  Cre- 
telle,  sur  ('administration  de  M.  Necker,"  a  pamphlet  in 
8 vo.  12.  A  volume,  in  8vo,  against  the  Stadthoidership ; 
^  Ajux  Bataves,  sur  le  Stadthouderat."  13.  "  Observations 
sur  la  maison  de  force  app£ll£e  BicStre,"  an  8vo  pamphlet. 
14.  Another  tract,  entitled  "  Conseils  a  un  jeune  prince 
qui  sent  la  n£cessite  de  refaire  son  education."  15.  He 
now  proceeded  to  a  larger  and  more  arduous  work  than  any 
h%  had  yet  published,  on  the  Prussian  monarchy  uuder 


Frederic  the  Great,  "De  la  Monarchic  Prussienne  sous 
Fr&teric  le  Grand/'  4  vols.  4to,  or  eight  in  Svo.  In  this 
work  he  undertakes  to  define  precisely  how  a  monarchy 
should  be  constituted.  When  the  orders  were  issued  for 
convening  the  states-general,  Mirabeau  returned  into  Pro- 
vence, and  at  the  same  time  published,  16.  "  Histoire  se- 
crette  de  la  cour  defterlin,"  two  volumes  of  letters  on  the 
secret  history  of  the  court  of  Berlin.  This  work  was  con- 
demned by  the  parliament ■'  of  Paris,  for  the  unreserved 
manner  in  which  it  delivered  the  characters  of  many  foreign 
princes.  As  the  elections  proceeded,  he  was  chosen  at 
once  for  Marseilles,  and  for  Aix ;  but  the  former  being  a 
commercial  town,  which  seemed  to  require  a  representative 
particularly  conversant  in  such  business,  Mirabeau  made 
his  choice  for  Aix. 

In  consequence  of  this  appointment  he  went  to  Paris. 
The  part  he  took  there  was  active,  and  such  as  tended  in 
general  to  accelerate  all  the  violences  of  the  revolution. 
He  now  published  periodically,  171  his  "  Lettres  a  ses 
commettans,"  Letters  to  his  constituents,  which  form, 
when  collected,  5  vols.  Svo.  It  is  supposed  that  the  fatal 
measure  of  the  junction  of  the  three  orders  into  one  na- 
tional assembly,  was  greatly  promoted  by  these  letters. 
The  public  events  of  these  times,  and  the  part  taken  in 
them  by  Mirabeau,  are  the  subject  of  general  history.  He 
lived  to  see  the  constitution  of  1789  established,  but  not 
to  see  its  consequences,  the  destruction  of  the  monarchy, 
the  death  of  the  king,  and  the  ruin  of  all  property.  He 
was  accused,  as  well  as  the  duke  of  Orleans,  of  hiring  the 
mob  which  attacked  Versailles  on  the  5th  and  6  th  of  Octo- 
ber, 1789  ;  but  with  him  was  also  acquitted  by  the  tribunal 
of  the  Chatelet.  The  dominion  of  his  eloquence  in  the 
national  assembly  had  long  been  absolute,  and  on  the  29th 
of  January  1791,  he  was  elected  president.  At  the  latter 
end  of  March,  in  the  same  year,  he  was  seized  by  a 
fever,  and  died  on  the  second  of  April.  The  talents  of 
Mirabeau  will  not  be  doubted ;  the  use  he  made  of  them 
will  be  long  lamented,  and  would  probably  have  been  re- 
gretted by  himself,  had  be  lived  only  a  few  months  longer  ; 
unless  we  may  believe  that  with  a  secret  attachment  to 
monarchical  government,  he  would  have  been  able  to  exert 
an  influence  sufficient  to  prevent  the  excesses  which  fol- 
lowed h\$  death.  * 

}  Discours  preliminaire,  prefixed  tq  hit  Worki. 

300  M  I  R  JE  U  S. 


<■  MIRANDULA.     See  PIC  US. 

MIR2EUS  (Aubertus),  a  learned  German,  was  born  at 
Brussels  in  1573;  and  was  first  almoner  and  librarian  of 
Albert,  archduke  of  Austria.  He  was  an  ecclesiastic,  and 
laboured  all  his  life  for  the  good  of  the  church  and  of  bis 
country.  He  died  in  1640.  His  works  are,  1."  Efogiaillus- 
trium  Belgii  scriptorum,"  1609,  4to.  2.  "  Opera  Historica 
et  Dipiomatica."  This  is  a  collection  of  charters  and  diplo- 
mas, relating  to  the  Low  Countries.  The  best  edition  is 
that  of  1724,  4  vols,  in  folio,  by  Foppens,  who  has  made 
notes,  corrections,  and  additions  to  it  5.  *'  Rerum  BeU 
gjcarum  Chronicon ;"  useful  for  the  history  of  the  Low 
Countries.  4'.  "  De  rebus  Bohemicis,"  12mo.  5.  "  Bib- 
liotheca  Ecclesiastica."  6.  "  Vita  Justi  Lipsii,"  &c.  Pe- 
netration, and  exactness  in  facts  and  citations,  are  usually 
esteemed  the  characteristics  of  this  writer. * 

MISSON  (Francis  Maximilian),  a  distinguished  law- 
yer, whose  pleadings  before  the  parliament  of  Paris  in 
favour  of  the  reformers,  bear  genuine  marks  of  eloquence 
and  ability,  retired  into  England  after  the  repeal  of  the 
edict  of  Nantes,  where  he  became  a  strenuous  assertor  of 
the  protestant  religion.  In  1687  and  1688,  he  went  on 
his  travels  into  Italy,  in  quality  of  governor  to  an  English 
nobleman.  An  account  of  the  country,  and  of  the  occur- 
rences of  the  time  in  which  he  remained  in  it,  was  pub- 
lished* at  the  Hague,  in  3  vols.  12mo,  under  the  title  of 
"  A  New  Voyage  to  Italy."  L'abbe  du  Fresnoy,  speaking 
of  this  performance,  observes,  "  that  it  is  well  written ; 
but  that  the  author  has  shewn  himself  too  credulous,  and 
as  ready  to  Relieve  every  insinuation  to  the  disadvantage 
of  the  Roman  catholics,  as  they  generally  are  to  adopt 
whatever  can  reflect  disgrace  upon  the  protestants."  The 
translation  of  this  work  into  the  English  language  has  been 
enlarged  with  many  additions:  the  original  has  /been  se- 
veral times  reprinted.  Addison,  in  his  preface  to  his  re- 
marks on  the  different  parts  of  Italy,  says,  that  "Mons. 
Misson  has  written  a  more  correct  account  of  it,  in  general, 
than  any  before  him,  as  he  particularly  excelled  in  the 
plan  of  the  country,  which  he  has  given  us  in  true  and 
lively  colours.'9  He  published,  after  his  arrival  in  Eng- 
land, "  The  Sacred  Theatre  >at  Cevennes,  or  an  account 
of  Prophecies  and  Miracles  performed  in  that,  part  of  Lan- 

1  Moreri.— Diet.  Hist. 

M  I  S  S  O  N.  SOf 

guedoc  :*'  this  was  printed  at  London  in  1707 ;  and,  accord- 
ing 4o  the  Roman  catholic  writers,  is  full  of  fanaticism  and 
ridiculous  stories.  He  also  left  behind  him  "The  Obser- 
vations and  Remarks,  of  a  Traveller, *'  in  12mo,  published 
at  the  Hague,  by  Vanderburen.     He  died  at  London,  Jan* 

MISSY.     See  DE  MISSY. 

MITCHELL  (Sir  Andrew),  knight  of  the  bath,  and  a' 
distinguished  ambassador  at  the  court  of- Berlin,  was  the 
only  child  of  the  rev.  William  Mitchell,  formerly  of  Aber^ 
deen,  but  then  one  of  the  ministers  of  St.  Giles*'*,  com- 
monly called  the  high  church  of  Edinburgh.  The  time  of 
his  birth  is  not  specified,  but  he  is  said  to  have  been  mar* 
ried  in  1715,  when  very  young,  to  a  lady  who  died  foui* 
years  after  in  child-birth,  and  whose  loss  he  felt  with  so 
much  acuteness,  as  to  be  obliged  to  discontinue  the  study 
of  the  law,  for  which  his  father  bad  designed  him,  ana- 
divert  his  grief  by  travelling,  amusements,  &c.  This  mode 
of  life  is  said  to  have  been  the  original  cause  of  an  exten- 
sive acquaintance  with  the  principal  noblemen  and  gentle*' 
men  in  North  Britain,  by  whom  he  was  esteemed  for  sense, 
spirit,  and  intelligent  conversation.  Though  his  progress 
in  the  sciences  was  but  small,  yet  no  person  had  a  greater 
regard  for  men  of  learning,  and  be  particularly  cultivated: 
the  acquaintance  of  the  clergy,  and  professors  of  the  uni- 
versity of  Edinburgh.  About  1736  he  appears  to  Jiave 
paid  considerable  attention  to  mathematics  under  the  di- 
rection of  the  celebrated  Maclaurin ;  and  soon  after  began 
bis  political  career,  as  secretary  to  the  marquis  of  Twee- 
dale,  who  was  appointed  minister  for  the  affairs  of  Scotland 
in  1741.  He  became  also  acquainted  with  the  earl  of  Stair, 
and  it  was  owing  to  his  application  to  that  nobleman  that 
Br.  (afterwards,  sir  John)  Pringle,  was  in  1742  kppointed 
physician  to  the  British  ambassador  at  the  Hague. 

Though  the  marquis  of  Tweedale  resigned  the  place  of 
secretary  of  state,  in  consequence  of  the  rebellion  in  1745, 
yet  Mr.  Mitchell  still  kept  in  favour.  He  had  taken  care, 
during  that  memorable  period,  to  keep  up  a  correspond-1 
ence  with  some  eminent  clergymen  in  Scotland,  and  from 
time  to  time  communicated  the  intelligence  he  received  y 
which  assiduity  was  rewarded  with  a  seat  in  the  House  of 
Commons  in  1747,   as  representative   for  the  burghs  of: 

1  Moreri.-— Diet.  Hist.  .   % 


Bamff,  Elgio,  Cullen,  Inverurie,  and  Kintore*  In  1751 
be  was  appointed  his  majesty's  resident  at  Brussels,  where, 
continuing  two  years,  he  in  1753  came  to  London,  was 
created  a  knight  of  the  bath,  and  appointed  ambassador 
extraordinary  and  plenipotentiary  at  the  court  of  Berlin. 
There,  by  his  polite  behaviour,  and  a  previous  acquaint- 
ance with  marshal  Keith,  he  acquired  sufficient,  influence 
with  his  Prussian  majesty  to  detach  him  from  the  French 
interest.  This  event  involved  the  court  of  France  in  the 
greatest  losses,  arising  not  only  from  vast  subsidies  to  the 
courts  of  Vienna,  Petersburgh,  and  Stockholm,  but  also 
from  the  loss  of  numerous  armies.  Sir  Andrew  generally, 
accompanied  the  great  Frederick  through  the  course  of  his 
several  campaigns,  and  when,  on  the  memorable  12th  of 
August,  1759,  the  Prussian  army  was  totally  routed  by 
count  Soltikoff,  the  Russian  general,  it  was  with  difficulty 
that  he  could  be  prevailed  upon  to  quit  the  king's  tent, 
even  while  all  was  in  confusion. 

.  From  a  very  recent  writer,  we  have  some  account  of  his 
mode  of  living  and  general  conduct  while  at  Berlin,  which 
was  highly  honourable  to  his  sense  and  spirit.  'When  he 
first  arrived  at  Berlin,  he  had  occasioned  some  perplexity  to 
those  who  invited  him  to  their  houses,  for  he  played  no 
game  of  chance,  so  that  his  hosts  constantly  said  to  each 
other,  "  What  shall  we  do  with  this  Englishman,  who 
never  plays  at  cards?9'  In  a  short  time,  however,  the 
contest  was,  who  should  leave  the  card -table  to  enjoy  the 
conversation  of  sir  Andrew  Mitchell,  whose  understanding, 
they  discovered,  was  no  less  admirable  than  the  virtues  of 
his  character.  His  bon-mots  came,  into  circulation,  and 
were  long  retailed.  Thiebault  has  recorded  a  few  whicb^ 
as  he  says,  explain  rather  his  principles  than  his  under- 
standing. On  one  occasion  that  three  English  mails  were 
due,  the  king  said  to  him,  at  the  levee,  "  Have  you  not 
the  spleen,  Mr.  Mitchell,  when  the  mail  is  thus  delayed  ?" — 
"  No,  Sire,  not  when  it  is  delayed,  but  often  enough  when 
it  arrives  duly.9/  This  alludes  to  bis  being  frequently  dis- 
satisfied with  his  own  court.  During  the  seven  years'  war, 
in  which,  as  we  have  already  noticed,  he  constantly  served 
immediately  under  Frederic,  the  English  government  bad 
promised  Frederic  to  send  a  fleet  to  the  Baltic,  for'  the 
protection  of  commerce,  and  to  keep  off  the  Swedes  and 
Russians  \  but  as  this  fleet  never  made  its  appearance,  the 
Swedes  were  enabled  to  trausport  their  army  without  in- 


terruption  to  Pomerania,  together  with  all  the  necessaries 
for  its  support,  and  the  Russians  conveyed  provisions  for 
their  troops  by  sea,  and  laid  siege  to  Colberg,  &c.  All 
this  could  to  give  umbrage  to  Frederic,  and  he  in- 
cessantly complained  to  sir  Andrew,  who  found  himself 
embarrassed  what  reply  to  make.  At  length  the  ambassa- 
dor, who  had  before  been  daily  invited  to  dine  with  the 
king,  received  no  longer  this  mark  of  attention ;  the  gene- 
rals, meeting  him  about  the  king's  hour  of  dinner,  said  to 
him,  "It  is  dinner-time,  M.  *  Mitchell.' ' — "Ah!  gentle- 
men,", replied,  he,  "no  fleet,  no  dinner!"  This  was  re- 
peated to  Frederic,  and  the  invitations  were  renewed. 
Frederic  in  his  fits  of  ill-humour  was  known  to  exercise  his 
wit  even  at  the  expence  of  his  allies;  and  the  English 
minister  at  home  expressed  to  sir  Andrew  Mitchell  a  wish 
that  he  would  include  some  of  these  splenetic  effusions  in 
his  official  dispatches.  Sir  Andrew,  however,  in  reply, 
stated  the  distinction  between  such  kind  of  intelligence, 
and  that  which  properly  belonged  to  his  office;  and  the 
application  was  not  repeated,  by  which  he  was  saved  from 
the  disgrace,  for  such  be  considered  it,  of  descending  to 
the  littlenesses  of  a  mere  gossip  and  tale-bearer.  We  ijiall 
only,  add  one  more  repartee  of  sir  Andrew  Mitchell,  be- 
cause, if  we  mistake  not,  it  has  been  repeated  as  the  pro- 
perty qf  other  wits.  After  the  affair  of  Port  Mahon,  the 
king  of  Prussia  said  to  him,.  "  You  have  made  a  bad  be- 
ginning, M.  Mitchell.  What!  your  fleet  beaten,  and  Port 
Mahon  taken  in  your  first  campaign !  The  trial  in  which 
you  are  proceeding  against  your  admiral  Byng  is  a  bad 
plaister  for  the  malady.  You  have  made  a  pitiful  cam- 
paign of  it;  this  is  certain." — "  Sire,  we  hope,  with  God's 
assistance,  to  make  a.  better  next  year."—"  With  God?* 
assistance,  say  you,  Sir  ?  I  did  not  know  you  had  such  an 
ally." — "  We  rely  much  upon  him,  though  he  costs  us.  less 
than  our  other  allies." 

.  In  1765,  sir  Andrew  came  over  to  England  for  the  re-, 
covery  of  bis  health,  which  was  considerably  impaired, 
and  after  spending  some  time  atTuubridge  Wells,  returned 
in  March  1766  to  Berlin,  where  he  died  Jan.  28,  1771. 
The  court  of  Prussia*  honoured  his  funeral  with  their  pre- 
sence, and  the  king  himself,  from  a  balcony,  is  said  to 
have  beheld  the  procession  with  tears.1 

i  St  Jaipes'*  Chronicle,  Feb.  1771.— Thieliauli's  Original  Auecd©tti>f  Fre- 
deric II.  vol.  II.  p.  V,  &c» 


MITCHELL  (Joseph),  was  the  son  of  a  stone-cutter  ift 
North- Britain,  and  was  born  about  1684.  Gibber  tells  us 
that  he  received  an  university  education  while  he  remained 
in  that  kingdom,  but  does  not  specify  where.  He  quitted 
his  own  country,  however,  and  repaired  to  London,  with 
a  view  of  improving  his.  fortune!  Here  he  got  into  favout 
with  the  earl  of  Stair  and  sir  Robert  Walpole ;  on  the  laty 
ter  of  whom  he  was  for  great  pari  of  his  life  almost  entirely 
dependent.  He  received,  indeed,  so  many  obligations 
froih  that  open-handed  statesman,  and0  from  a  sense  of 
gratitude  which  seems  to  'haw  been  strongly  characteristic 
of  his  disposition,  was  so  zealous  in  his  interest,  that  he 
Was  distinguished  by  the  title  of  "  Sir  Robert  Walpole's 
poet.**  Notwithstanding  this  valuable  patronage,  his  natu- 
ral dissipation  t>f  temper,  his  fondness  for  pleasure,  and 
eagerness  in  the  gratification  of  every  irregular  appetite, 
threw  him  into  perpetual  distresses,  and  all  those  uneasy 
situations  which  are  the  inevitable  consequences  of  extra- 
vagance. Nor  does  it  appear  that,  after  having  experi- 
enced, more  than  once,  the  fatal  effects  of  those  dangerous 
follies,  he  thought  of  correcting  his  conduct  at  a  time  he 
had  it  in  his  power:  for  when,  by  the  death  of  his  wife's 
uncle,  several  thousand  pounds  devolved  to  him,  instead 
of  discharging  those  debts  which  he  had  already  contracted,' 
he  lavished  the  whole  away,  in  the  repetition  of  his  former 
follies.  As  to  the  particulars  of  his  history,  there  are  not 
many  on  record,  for  his  eminence  in  public  character  not 
rising  to  such  an  height  as  to  make  the  transactions  of  his 
life  important  to  strangers,  and  the  follies  of  his  private 
behaviour  inducing  those  who  were  intimate  with  him, 
rather  to  conceal  than  publish  his  actions,  there  is  a  cloud 
of  obscurity  hanging  over  them,  which  is  neither  easy, 
nor  indeed  much  worth  while,  to  withdraw  from  them.' 
His  genius  was  of  the  third  or  fourth  rate,  yet  he  lived  in 
good  correspondence  with  most  of  the  eminent  wits  of  his* 
time*,  particularly  with  Aaron  Hill,  who  on  a  particular 
occasion  finding  himself  unable  to  relieve  him  by  pecu- 
niary assistance,  presented  him  with  the  profits  arid  repu- 
tation also  of  a  successful  dramatic  piece,  in   one  act, 

*  His  oorespondence  with  Thomson  .      "  Beauties  and  fault*  so  thick  lie 
most  be  excepted.     Gibber  informs  us  ■  scatter'd  here, 

that  as  soon  as  "  Winter"  was  pub*         Those  I  could  read,    if  these  were* 
lished,  Thomson  presented  a  copy  to  not  so  near." 

Mitchell,  who  gave  him  his  opinion  of 
it  in  the  following  couplet :  To  this  Thomson  answered,  * 


entitled  "  The  Fatal  Extravagance."  It  was  pcted  and 
printed  in  Mitchell's  name  ;  but  he  was  ingenuous  enpugh 
to  undeceive  the  worl.d  with  regard  to  its  true  author,  .and 
on  every  occasion  acknowledged  the  obligations  be  lay 
under  to  Hill.  The  dramatic  pieces,  which  appear  under 
this  gentleman's  name*  are,  1/  "  The  Fatal  Extravagance, 
a  tragedy,"  1721,  8vo.  2.  "The  Fatal  Extravagance,  a 
tragedy,  enlarged,"  1725,  12 mo.  .  3.  "  The  Highland  Fair, 
ballad  opera, "  1731,  8vo.  The  latter  of  these  is  really 
Mitchell's,  and  is  not  without  merit.  This  author  died 
Feb.  6,  1738;  and  Cibber  gives  the  following  character  of 
him  :  "  He  seems  to  have  been  a  poet  of  the  third  rate; 
he  has  seldom  reached  the  sublime ;  bis  humour,  in  which 
lie  more  succeeded,  is  not  strong  enough  to  last ;  his  ver- 
sification holds  a  state  of  mediocrity;  he  possessed  but 
little,  invention ;  and  if  he  was  not  a  bad  rhimester,  h$ 
cannot  be  denominated  a  fine  poet,  for  there  ar§  byt  few 
marks  of  genius  in  his  writings."  His  poems  were,  printed 
1729,  in  2  vols.  8V0.1 

MITTARELLI  (John  Benedict),  a  learned  monk  and 
historian  of  the  order  of  the  Camaldoli,  was  born  at  Venice 
Sept  10,  1708,  and  after  a  course  of  study,  during  which 
he  distinguished  himself  by  arduous  application,  and  ao 
quired  the  fame  of  great  learning,  he  became?  in  .1732, 
professor  of  philosophy  and  theology  in  the  monastery  pf 
St  Michael  at  Venice.  Being  also  appointed  master  of 
the  novices,  be  remained  in  that  office  until  .1747,  when 
he  removed  to  Faenza,  as  chancellor  of  his  order.  Here 
he  first  began  to  form  the  plan  and  cpllect  materials  fpc 
his  celebrated  work,  the  "  Annates  Camaldulenses,"  in 
which  he  had  the  assistance  of  father  Auselm  Costadoni. 
In  1756  he  wafr  chosen  abb6  of  his  order  in  the  state  of 
Venice,  and  became,  of,  course,  head  of  the.  monastery  of 
St.  Michael.  In  1764  h$  was  appointed  genera}  of  his 
order,  and  went  to  Rome,  where  he  was  received  with 
every  mark  of  respect  by  pope  Clemept  XIII.  He  died  at 
St.  Michael's  Aug,  14,  1777,     His  annals  were  published 

*« Why  all  not  faults,  injurious  Mit-  Upon  a  friend's  remonstrating  to  Mr. 

cfaell?  why  Thomson,     that    the     expression    of 

Appears  one  beauty  to  thy  blasted  ••  blasted  eye"  would  look  like  a  per^ 

eye  ?  sonal  reflection,  as  Mitchell  really  had 

Damnation  worse  than  thine,  if  worse  that  misfortune,  he  changed  the  epi- 

can  be,  thet,  perhaps  not  much  for  the  better* 

Is  all  I  ask  and  all  I  want  from  thee."     iuto  blasting.  w  .^  ^^ 

Cnm'i  Ufc  of  Thomson. 

*  Biofr,  Dram.— Cibber's  Lives. 



in  1773,  under  the  title  of  "  Annates  Camaldulenses  or* 
dinis  S. :  Benedict!  ab  anno  907  ad  annum  1764,  &c." 
Venice,  9  vols.  fol.  His  other  works  were,  1.  "  Memorie 
del  montstero  della  santissima  Trinita  in  Faenza,"  Faenza, 
1749.  2.  "  Ad  scriptores  rerum  Italicarum  CI.  Muratorrt 
accessiones  histories  FaventinaD,"  dec.  Venice,  1771.  5. 
u  De  litteratura  Faventinorum,  sive  de  viris  doctis,  et 
tcriptoribus  urbis  Faventinse  (Faenza),  appendix  ad  acces- 
siones hist.  Faventinas,"  Venice,  1775.  6.  "  Bibliotheca 
codicum  manuscriptorum  monasterit  8.  Michaelis  Vene- 
tiarum,  cum  appendice  librorum  impressorum  seculi  XV." 
ibid.  1779,  fol.1 

MOINE  (Francis  le),  an  ingenious  French  painter, 
born  at  Paris  about  1688,  was  the  pupil  of  Galloche. 
Though  born  without  the  least  traces  of  a  genius  for  paint- 
ing, it  is  incredible  what  lengths  his  perseverance,  and 
continual  reflections  on  the  theory  and  practice  of  his  art, 
carried  him.  His  manner  of  designing  was  never  correct* 
but  it  was  pleasing ;  and  the  heads  of  his  women  remark- 
ably graceful.  His  best  pictures  are,  the  nativity  at  S. 
Roche ;  a  transfiguration ;  the  flight  into  Egypt ;  a  St; 
John  in  the  desert  at  St.  Eustace's;  the  assumption  of  the 
virgin,  in  fresco,  at  St.  Sulpice;  the  conversion  of  St 
Paul  at  St  Germain- des-Pres ;  the  apotheosis  of  Hercules 
at  Versailles,  the  saloon  of  which  he  was  four  years  in 
painting,  and,  for  reward,  the  king  granted  him  a  pension 
of  3000  livres.  The  end  of  his  days  was  tarnished  by  the 
crime  of  suicide,  which  he  committed  in  a  melancholy  fit 
June  4,  1787,  aged  49  years.8 

MOINE  {Stephen  le),  a  very  learned  French  minister 
of  the  Protestant  religion,  was  born  at  Caen  in  1624.  He 
became  extremely  skilled  in  the  Greek,  Latin,  and  Orieh- 
tal  tongues,  and  professed  divinity  with  high  reputation  at 
Leyden,  in  which  city  be  died  in  16&B,  Several  disserta* 
tions  of  his  are  printed  together,  and  entitled  "  Varia  sacra,'* 
in  2  vols.  4to ;  besides  which,  he  wrote  other  works. 3 

MOINE  (Peter  le),  a  French  poet,  born  at  Chaumoit 
in  Bassigny  in  1602,  was  admitted  into  the  society  and 
confidence  of  the  Jesuits,  and  is  said  to  have  been  the  first 
Jesuit  of  France  who  acquired  any  fame  by  writing  poetry 
in  his  native  language.  He  was  not,  however,  a  poet  of 
the  first  order j  he  was  rather  a  college  student,  possessed 

*  Fabroni  Vitas  Italor.  vo!.  V.— Diet  Hist. 

*  -ArgenvMe,  vol.  IV.  *  Morm.^Dict.  Hitt, 


MOINE.  207 

of  an  ardent  imagination,  but  devoid  of  taste ;  who,  instead 
of  restraining  the  hyperbolical  flights  of  his  genius,  in- 
dulged them  to  the  utmost.  His  greatest  work  was  "  Saint 
Louis,  ou  la  Couronne  reconquise  sur  les  Infidelles,"  an 
epic  poem,  in  eighteen  books.  Bdileau  being  asked  his 
opinion  of  him,  answered,  "that  he  was  too  wrong-headed 
lo  be  much  commended,  and  too  much  of  a  poet  to  be 
strongly  condemned.9'  He  wrote  many  other  poems  of  a 
smaller  kind,  and  several  works  in  prose,  on  divinity,  and 
other  subjects.     He  died  at  Paris,  the22dofAug.  1672.1 


MOKET  (Richard),  warden  of  All  Souls  college,  Ox- 
ford, was  born  in  1578  in  Dorsetshire,  and  educated  first 
at  Brasenose  college,  whence  in ,  1599  he  was  elected  a 
fellow  of  All  Souls,  being  then  four  years  standing  yi  the 
degree  of  B.  A.  Afterwards  he  took  his  master's  degree, 
and  entered  into  holy  orders.  He  became  domestic  chap- 
lain to  archbishop  Abbot,  and  in  Dec.  1610  was  instituted 
to  the  rectory  of  St.  Clement's,  Eastcheap,  which  he  re- 
signed in  December  following.  In  1611  be  was  made  rec- 
tor of  St.  Michael,  Crooked-lane,  but  resigned  it  in  June 
1614*  in  consequence  of  having  been  in  April  preceding, 
elected  warden  of  All  Souls,  on  which  occasion  he  took  his 
degree  of  D.  D.  He  held  afterwards  the  rectory  of  Monks 
Risborow,  in  the  county  of  Buckingham,  and  of  Newing- 
ton,  near  Dorchester,  in  Oxfordshire.  He  was  one  of  the 
king'  commissioners  in  ecclesiastical  affairs,  and  died  July 
59  1618,  in  the  fortieth  year  of  his  age.  Wood  seems  to 
insinuate  that  his  death  was  hastened  by  the  treatment  his 
work  received.  This  was  a  folio  published  at  London  in 
1616,  containing  a  Latin  translation  of  the  Liturgy,  Cate- 
chisms, 39  articles,  ordination  book,  and  doctrinal  points 
extracted  from  the  homilies,  to  which  he  added,  also  in 
Latin,  a  treatise  "  de  politia  ecclesiae  Anglicans."  The  de- 
sign of  this  publication  was  to  recommend  the  formularies 
and  doctrines  of  the  Church  of  England  to  foreign  nations; 
but,  according  to  Wood,  there  was  such  a  leaning  towards 
*c  Calvin's  Platform,"  that  the  work  was  not  only  called  in, 
bttt  ordered  to  be  publicly  burnt.  Heylin,  who  speaks 
highly  of  the  author's  character  and  good  intentions,  thinks 
that  the  true  cause  of  this  work  being  so  disgraced  was, 
that  in  translating  the  20th  article,  he  omitted  the  first 

»  Mareri.— Diet  Hilt 

20S  M  O  K  E  T. 

clause  concerning  the  power  of  the  church  to  decree  rites 
and  ceremonies,  &c.  His  treatise  u  De  Politia"  was  re- 
printed at  London  in  1683,  8vo,  but  the  former  edition  we 
conceive  is  of  rare  occurrence,  as  we  do  not  6nd  it  in  the 
Bodleian  or  Museum  catalogues.1 

MO  LA  (Peter  Francis),  an  eminent  painter,  was,  ac- 
cording to  some,  born  at  Coldra,  and  to  others,  at  Lu- 
gano, 1609.     He  was  at  first  the  disciple  of  Cesari  d'Ar- 
pino,  but  formed  a  style  of  his  own,  selected  from,  the 
principles  of  Albani  and  Guercino.     He  never  indeed  ar- 
rived at  the  grace  of  the  former,  but  he  excelled  him  in 
vigour  of  tint,  in  variety  of  invention,  in  spirited  and  reso- 
lute execution.     He  bad  studied  colour  with  intense  ap- 
plication at  Venice,  and  excelled  in  fresco  and  in  oil.     Of 
the  many  pictures  with  which  he  enriched  the  churches  and 
palaces  of  Rome,  that  of  Joseph  recognised  by  his  bro- 
thers, on  the  Quirinal,  is  considered  as  the  roost,  eminent. 
If  Mola  possessed  a  considerable  talent  for  history,  he  was 
a  genius  in  landscape :  his  landscape  every  where  exhibits 
in  the  most  varied  combination,  and  with  the  most  vigorous 
touch,  the  sublime  scenery  of  the  territory  in  which  he 
was  born.     His  predilection  for  landscape  was  such,  that 
in  his  historic  subjects  it  may  often  be  doubted  which  is 
the  principal,  the  actors  or  the  scene ;  a  fault  which  may 
be  sometimes  imputed   to  Titian  himself.     In  many  of 
Mola's  gallery-pictures,  the  figures  have  been  ascribed  to 
Albano.     He  reared  three  disciples,  Antonio  Gherardi  of 
Rieti,  who  after  his  death  entered  the  school  of  Cortona, 
and  distinguished  himself  more  by  facility  than  elegance  of 
execution ;  Gia.  Batista  Boncuore  of  Rome,  a  painter  at 
all  times  of  great  effect,  though  often  somewhat  heavy ; 
and  Giovanni  Bonati  of  Ferrara,  called  Giovannino  del  Pio, 
from  the  protection  of  that  cardinal,  who  painted  three 
altar-pieces  of  consideration  at  Rome,    but  died  young* 
Mola  died  in  1665,  aged  fifty-six.    He  had  a  brother,  John 
Baptist,   who  was  born  in  1620,   and  also  learned  the 
art  of  painting  in  the  school  of  Albani.     He  proved  a  very 
good  painter  in  history,  as  well  as  in  landscape;  but  was 
far  inferior  to  his  brother,  in  style,  dignity,  taste,  and  co- 
louring.    In  his  manner  he  had  more  resemblance  to  the 
style  of  Albani,  than  to  that  of  his  brother ;  yet  his  figures 
are  rather,  hard  and  dry,  and  want  the  mellowness  of  the 

I  Heylift's  Life  of  Land,  p.  70— Ath.  Ox.  rol.  I.-^Wood's  Colleges  and  Halls. 

M  O  L  A.  209 

master.  However,  there  are  four  of  his  pictures  in  the 
Palazzo  Salviati,  at  Rome,  which  are  universally  taken 
for  the  hand  of  Albani.1 

MOLESWORTH  (Robert),    viscount  Molesworth  of 
Swordes  in  Ireland,  an  eminent  statesman  and  polite  wri- 
ter, was  descended  from  a  family,  anciently  seated  in  the 
counties  of  Northampton  and  Bedford  in  England ;  but  his 
father  having  served  in  the  civil  wars  in  Ireland,  settled 
afterwards  in  Dublin,  where  he  became  an  eminent  mer- 
chant, and  died  in  1656,  leaving  his  wife  pregnant  with 
this  only  child,  who  raised  his  family  to  the  honours  they 
now  .enjoy.     He  was  bom  in  Dec.  at  Dublin,  and  bred  in 
the  college  there  ;  and  engaged  early  in  a  marriage  with  a 
sister  of  Richard  earl  of  Bellamoht,  who  brought  him  a 
daughter  in  1677.     When  the  prince  of  Orange  entered 
England  in  1688,  he  distinguished  himself  by  an  early  and 
zealous  appearance  for  the  revolution,  which  rendered  him 
so  obnoxious  to  king  James,  that  he  was  attainted,  and  his 
estate  sequestered  by  that  king's  parliament,  May  2,  1689. 
But  when  king  William  was  settled  on  the  throne,  he  called 
this  sufferer,  for  whom  he  had  «  particular  esteem,  into 
his  privy  council ;  and,  in  1692,  sent  him  envoy  extraor- 
dinary to  the  court  of  Denmark.     Here  he  resided  above 
three  years,  till,   some   particulars  in  his    conduct   dis- 
obliging his  Danish  majesty,  he  was  forbidden  the  court. 
Pretending  business  in  Flanders,  he  retired  thither  with- 
out any  audience  of  leave,  and  came  from  thence  borne ; 
where  he  was  no  sooner,  arrived,  than  he  drew  up  "An 
Account  of  Denmark;99  in  which  he  represented  the  go- 
vernment of  that  country  as  arbitrary  and  tyrannical.  This 
piece  was  greatly  resented  by  prince  George  of  Denmark, 
eonsort  to  the   princess,  afterwards   queen   Anne ;    and 
Scheel,  the  Danish  envoy,  first  presented  a  memorial  to 
king  William,  complaining  of  it,  and  then  furnished  mate- 
rials for  an  answer,  which  was  executed  by  Dr.  William 
King.     From  King's  account  it  appears,  that  Molesworth's  , 
offence  in  Denmark  was,  his  boldly  pretending  to  some 
privileges,  which,  by  the  custom  of  the  country,  are  de- 
nied to  every  body  but  the  king;  as, travelling  the  king's 
road,  and  hunting  the  king's  game  :  which  being  done,  as 
is  represented,  in  defiance  of  opposition,^  occasioned  the- 


1  Pilkington,  by  Faseli.—fStratt's  Diet.— Argenville,  vols.  II.  and  IV.-— Diet. 
Hist,  in  which  it  is  denied  that  John  Baptist  was  the  brother  of  Peter  Francis. 

VOL.tfXII.  P 

21ft  ^OLESWORTH, 

rupture  between  the  envoy  and  that  court.  If  this  allega~ 
tion  bave  any  truth,  the  fault  lay  certainly  altogether  oq 
the  side  of  Molesworth ;  whose  disregard  of  the  custom^ 
of  the  country  to  which  he  was  sent,  cannot  be  defended. 

In  the  mean  time  his  book  was  well  received  by  the 
public,  reprinted  thrice  (and  as  lately  as  1758),  and  trans- 
lated into  several  languages.     The  spirit  of  it  was  particu- 
larly approved  by  the  earl  of  Shaftesbury,  author:  of  the 
"  Characteristics ;"  who  from  thence  conceited  a  great  e$«s 
teem  for  him,  which  afterwards  ripened  into  a  close  friend-, 
ship,    Molesworth' s  view  in  writing  the  "  Account  of  Den-j 
naarit,"  is  clearly,  intimated  in  the  preface,  where  he  plainly 
give  us  his  political,  a*  well  as  his  religious  creed.     He 
censures  very  severely  the  clergy  in  general,  for  defending 
the  revolution  upon  any  other  principles  than  those  of  re* 
distance,  and  the.  original  contract,  which  he  maintains  to 
be  the  true  and  natural  basis  of  the  constitution ;  and  that 
all  other  foundations  are  false,  nonsensical,  rotten,  dero^ 
gatory  to  the  then  present  government,  and  absolutely,  de- 
structive to  the  legal  liberties  of  the  English  nation.     As 
the  preservation  of  these  depends  so  much  upon  the.  right 
education  of  youth  in  the  universities*,  he  urges,  also,  ha 
the  strongest  terms,  the  absolute  necessity  of  purging  and 
reforming  those,  by  a  royal  visitation :  so  that  the  youth 
may  not  be  trained  up  there,  as  he  say*  they  were,  in  the 
slavish  principles  of  passive  obedience  and  jus  <&»*wnm, 
but  may  be  instituted  after  the  manner  of  the  Greeks  and 
Romans,  who  in  their  academies  recommended  the  duty  to 
their   country,   the  preservation  of  the  law  and  pubhft 
liberty  :  subservient  to  which  they  preached  up  moral  vis* 
tues,.  aneb  as  fortitude,  temperance*,  justice,  a  contempt 
of  death,  &c.  sometimes,  making  use  of  pious  cheats,  a* 
Elysian  fields,  add  an  assurance  of  future  happiness,  if  they 
died  in  the  cause  of  their  country ;  whereby  they  even  de<n 
cetved  their  hearers  into  greatness.     This  insinuation,  that 
religion  is  nothing  more  than  a  pious  cheat,  and  an  useful 
state-engine,  together  with  his  pressing  morality  as  the  one 
thing  necessary,   without  once  mentioning  the  Christian 
religion-,  could  not  but  be  very  agreeable  to  the.  author. of 
the. "  Characteristics."     In  reality,  it  made  a  remarkably 
strong  impression  on  him,    as  we  find  him  many  yeas 
after  declaring,  in  a  letter  to  our  author,  in  these  terms : 
*  You  have  long  had  my  heart,  even  before  I  knew  you 
personally.    For  the  holy  and  truly  pious  man,  who  re- 


Vfealtd  f  h6  greatest  of  mysteries  :  he  who,  with  a  truly  ge- 
nerous love,  to  mankind  and  his  country,  pointed  out  the 
state  of  Denmark  to  other  states,  and  prophesied  of  things 
highly  important  to  the  growing  age :  he,  I  say*  had  al- 
ready gained  me  as  his  sworn  friend,  before  he  was  to 
kind  as  to  m^ke  friendship  reciprocal,  by  his  acquaintance 
aod  expressed  esteem.     So  that  you  may  believe  it  no  ex- 
traordinary transition  in  me,  from  making  you  in  truth  my 
orltde  in  public  affairs,  to  make  you  a  thorough  confident 
in  my  private."  This  private  affair  was  a  treaty  of  marriage 
with  a  relation  of  our  author  ;  and  though  the  design  mis- 
carried, yet  the  whole  tenor  of  the  letters  testifies  the  most 
intimate  friendship  between  the  writers. 
*    Molesworth  served  his  country  in  the  House  of  Com- 
mons in  both  kingdoms,  being  chosen  for  the  borough  of 
Swordes  in  Ireland,  and  for  those  of  Bodmyn,  St.  Michael, 
and  East  Retford  in  England ;  his  conduct  in  the  senate 
being  always  firm  and  steady  to  the  principles  he  embraced. 
He  was  a  member  of  th4  privy-council  to  queen  Anne,  till 
the  latter  end  of  her  reign  ;  when,  party  running  high,  he 
was  removed  froto  the  board  in  Jan.  1713.     This  was  upon 
a  complaint  against  him  from  the  lower  house  of  convoca- 
tion, presented  Dee.  2,  by  the  prolocutor,  to  the  House  of 
Peers,  charging  him  with  speaking  these  words,  in  the 
hearing  of  many  persons:  "They  that  have  turned  the 
world  upside  down,  are  come  hither  also ;"  and  for  affront- 
ing the  clergy  in  convocation,  when  they  presented  their 
address  to  lord  chancellor  Phipps.     Steele's  "  Crisis"  was 
written  partly  in  vindication  of  Molesworth,  and  severely 
animadverted  upon  by  Swift  in  his  "  Public  Spirit  of  the 
Whigs.'9    But  as  Molesworth  constantly  asserted,  and  stre- 
nuously maintained  the  right  of  succession  in  the  house  of 
Hanover,  George  I.  on  the  forming  of  his  privy-council  in 
Ireland,  made  him  a  member  of  it,  Oct.  9,  1714,  and  the 
next  month  a  commissioner  of  trade  and  plantations.     His 
majesty  also  advanced  him  to  the  peerage  of  Ireland  in 
1716,  by  the  title  of  Baron  of  Philipstown,  and  viscount 
Molesworth  of  Swordes.     He  was  fellow  of  the  Royal  So^ 
cietyj  and  continued  to  serve  his  country  with  indefati- 
gable industry,  till  the  two  last  years  of  his  life :  when, 
perceiving  himself  worn  out  with  constant  application  to 
public  affairs,  he  passed  these  in  a  studious  and  learned 
retirement.     His  death  happened  on  May  22,  1725,  at  his 
seat  at  Breedeostown,  in  the  county  of  Dublin.    He  had 

p  2 


a  seat  also  in  England,  at  Edlington,  near  Tickill,  in  York- 
shire. By  his  will  he  devised  50/.  towards  building  a 
church  at  Philipstown.  He  bad  by  his  wife  seven  sons  and 
four  daughters ;  one  of  whom,  Mary,  married  to  Mr.  Monk, 
an  Irish  gentleman,  acquired  some  reputation  as  the  au- 
thoress of  poems  published  after  her  death,  in  1715,  by 
her  father,  under  the  title  of  "  Marinda,  Poems  and  Trans- 
lations upon  several  occasions."     See  Monk  hereafter. 

Besides  bis  "  History  of  Denmark,"  he  wrote  ah  "  Ad- 
dress to  the  House  of  Commons*,"  for  the  encouragement 
of  agriculture ;  "  Considerations  for  promoting  Agricul- 
ture," Dublin,  1723  ;  and  "  A  Letter  relating  to  the  Bill 
of  Peerage,"  1719.  He  translated  "  Frahco-Gallia,"  a  La- 
tin treatise  of  the  civilian  Hottomari,  giving  an  account  of 
'the  free  state  of  France,  and  other  parts  of  Europe,  before 
the  loss  of  their  liberties.  The  second  edition  of  this  work, 
with  additions,  and  a  new  preface  by  the  translator,  came 
out  in  1721,  8vo.  He  is  likewise  reputed  the  author  of 
several  tracts,  written  with  great  force  of  reason  and  mas- 
culine eloquence,  in  defence  of  his  ideas  of  the  constitu- 
tion of  his  country,  and  the  common  rights  of  mankind  : 
and  it  is  certain,  that  few  men  of  his  fortune  and  quality 
were  more  learned,  or  more  highly  esteemed  by  men'  of 
learning.  In  the  printed  correspondence  between  Locke 
•and  Molyneux,  there  are  letters  which  shew  the  high  re- 
gard those  gentlemen  bad  for  him.1 

MO  LI  ERE  (John  Baptist,  Pocquelin  de),  the  cele- 
brated comic  writer  of  France,  whose  original  name  was 
Pocquelin,  was  born  at  Paris  about  1620,  He  was  both 
son  and  grandson  to  valets  de  chambres  on  one  side,  and 
tajrimcrs  on  the  other,  to  Louis  XIII.  and  was  designed  for 
the  latter  business,  that  of  a  domestic  upholsterer,  whose 
duty  was  to  take  care  of  the  furniture  of  the  royal  apart- 
ments. But;  the  grandfather  being  very  fond  of  the  boy, 
and  at  the  same  time  a  great  lover  of  plays,  used  to  take 
him  often  with  him  to  the  h6tel  de  Bourgogne  ;  which  pre- 
sently roused  up  Moliere's  natural  genius  and  taste  for  dra- 
matic representations,  and  crested  in  him  such  a  disgust  to 

•  See   some   remarks  on  tbis    in  the  Drapier's  Letter  V.  to  lord  Moles- 
Swift's  "  Arguments  against  enlarging  worth.     See  vol.  IX.     But  Swift's  opi- 
tbe  power  of  bishops  in  letting  leases."  nion  of  him  was  Out  uniform.    See  vol. 
—Works,  vol.   V.  edit,   by  Mr.  Ni-  XVI;  p.  «S7.    .  J 
chols,  1801,  p.  *87.     Swift  addressed 

*  Biog.  Brit.— Lodge's  Peerage.— Park's  edition  of  the  Royal  and  Noble  An 
thori,  vol.  V.  where  are  notices  of  the  two  succeeding  peerv  of  the  t ame  family. 

M  O  L  I  E  R  E.  213 

his  intended  employment,  that  at  last  his  father  consented 
to  let  htm  study  under  the  Jesuits,  at  the  college  of  Cler- 
Nraont.  Daring  the  five  years  that  he  resided  here,  he  made 
a  rapid  progress  in  the  study  of  philosophy  and  polite  lite- 
rature, and,  if  we  mistake  not,  acquired  even  now  much 
insight  into  the  varieties  of  human  character.  He  had 
here  also  an  opportunity  of  contracting  an  intimate  friend- 
ship with  Chapelle,  Bernier,  and  Cyrano.  Chapelle,  with 
whom  Bernier  was.  an  associate  in  his  studies,  had  the  fa- 
mous Gassendi  for  his  tutor,  who  willingly  admitted  Mo- 
Here  to  his  lectures,  as  he  afterwards  also  admitted  Cyrano. 
When  Louis  XIII.  went  to  Narbonne,  in  1641,  his  studies 
were  interrupted  :  for  his  infirm  father,  not  being  able  to 
attend  the  court,  Moliere  was  obliged  to  go  there  to  sup- 
ply his  place.  This,  however,  he  quitted  on  his  father's 
death  ;.  and  his  passion  for  the  stage,  which  had  induced 
him  first  to  study,  revived  more  strongly  than  ever.  Some 
have  said,  that  he  for  a  time  studied  the  law,  and  was  ad- 
mitted an  advocate.  This  seems  doubtful,  but,  if  true,  he 
soon  .yielded  to  those  more  lively  pursuits  which  made  him  ' 
the  restorer  of  comedy  in  France,  and  the  coadjutor  of 
Corneille,  who  had  rescued  the  tragic  Muse  from  bar- 
barism. The  taste,  indeed,  for  the  drama,  was  much  im- 
proved in  France,  after  cardinal  de  Richelieu  granted  a 
peculiar  protection  to  dramatic  poets.  Many  little  socie- 
ties now  made  it  a  diversion  to  act  plays  in  their  own 
houses ;  in  one  of  which,  known  by  the  name  of  "  The 
illustrious  Theatre,"  Moliere  entered  himself;  and  it  was 
then,  in  conformity  to  the  example  of  the  actors  of  that 
time,  that  he  changed  bis  name  of  Pocquelin  for  that  of 
Moliere,  which  he  retained  ever  after.  What  became  of 
him. from  1648  to  1652  we  know  not,  this  interval  being 
the  time  of  the  civil  wars,  which  caused  disturbances  in 
Paris ;  but  it  is  probable,  that  he  was  employed  in  com- 
posing some  of  those  pieces  which  were  afterwards,  exhi- 
bited to  the  public.  La  Bejart,  an  actress  of  Champagne, 
waiting,  as  well  as  he,  for  a  favourable  time  to  display  her 
talents,.. Moliere  was  particularly  kind  to  her  ;  and  as  their 
interests  became  mutual,  they  formed  a  company  toge- 
ther, and  went  to  Lyons  in  1653,  where  Moliere  produced 
his  first  play,  called  "  L'Etourdi,"  or  the  Blunderer,  and 
appeared  in  the  double  character  of  author  and  actor. 
This  drew  almost  all  the  spectators  from  the  other  com- 
pany of  comedians,  which  was  settled  in  that  town;  some 

214  M  O  L  I  E  R  E. 

of  which  company  joined  with,  Moliere,  and  followed  him 
to  Beziers  in  Languedoc,  where  he  offered  his  service*  to 
the  prince  of  Conti,  who  gladly  accepted  them,  as  he  had 
known  him  at  college,  and  was  among  the  first  to  predict 
his  brilliant  career  on  the  stage.  He  now  received  him  as 
a  friend  ;  and  not  satisfied  with  confjding  to  him  the  ma* 
iiagement  of  the  entertainments  which  he  gave,  be  offered 
to  make  him  his  secretary,  which  the.  latter  declined,  say* 
ing,  "I  am  a  tolerable  author,  but  I  should  make  a  very 
bad  secretary.9'  About  the  latter  end  of  1657,  Moliere 
departed  with  bis  company  for  Grepoble,  and  continued 
there  during  the  carnival  of  1658.  After  this  he  went  and 
settled  at  Rouen,  where  he  staid  all  the  summer;  and  hav- 
ing made  some  journeys  to  Paris  privately,  he  had  the  ygood 
fortune  to  please  the  king's  brother,  who,  granting  him 
his  protection,  and  making  bis  company  his  own,  intro» 
duced  him  in  that  quality  to  the  king  and  queen-mothen 
That  company  began  to  appear  before  their  majesties  and 
the  whole  court,  in  Oct.  1658,  upon  a  stage  erected,  on 
purpose,  in  the  hall  of  the  guards  of  the  Old  Louvre ;  and 
were  so  well  approved,  that  his  majesty  gave  orders  foi 
their  settlement  at  Paris.  The  hall  of  the  Petit  Bourbon 
was  granted  them,  to  act  by  turns,  with  the  Italian  players. 
In  1663,  Moliere  obtained  a  pension  of  a  thousand  livres; 
and,  in  1665,  his  company  was  altogether  in  his  majesty's 
service.  He  continued  all  the  remaining  pajrt  of  his  life 
to  give  new  plays,  which  were  very  much  and  very  justly 
applauded  :  and  if  we  consider  the  number  of  works  which 
he  composed  in  about  the  space  of  twenty  years,  while  he 
waa  himself  all  the  while  an  actor,  and  interrupted,  as  he 
must  be,  by  perpetual  avocations  of  one  kind  or  other, 
we  cannot  fail  to  admire  the  quickness,  as  well  as  fertility 
of  his  genius ;  and  we  shall  rather  be  apt  to  think  with 
Boileauj>  "  that  rhime  came  to  him,"  than  give  credit  to 
some  others,  who  say  be  "  wrote  very  slowly." 

His  last  comedy  was  "  Le  malade  imaginaire,"  or  The 
Hypochondriac ;  and  it  was  acted  for  the  fourth  time,  Feb. 
17,  1673.  Upon  this  very, day  Moliere  died;  and  the 
manner  of  his  death,  as  it  was  first  reported,  must  have 
been  extraordinary,  if  true.  The  chief  person  represented 
in  "  Le  malade  imaginaire,"  is  a  sick  man,  who,  upon  a 
certain  occasion,  pretends  to  be  dead.  Moliere  repre- 
sented that  person,  and  consequently  was  obliged,  in  one 
of  his  scenes,  to  act  the  part  of  a  dead  man.    The  report* 

MOLIEBE.  £13 

therefore,  was  that  he  expired  in  that  part  of  the  play*  and 
the  poets  took  hold  of  this  incident  to  show  their  pit,  in  a 
variety  of  jeux  d'esprit,  as  if  it  had  been  a  legitimate  sub- 
ject for  jesting.  The  only  decent  lines  on  this  occasion 
were  the  following,  evidently  written  by  some  person  of  a , 
graver  character : 

"  Roscius  hie  situs  est  tristi  Moliems  in  uroa, 
Cui  genus  humanum  ludere,  hidus  etat. 
Bum  ludit  mortem,  mors  indigaata  jocantem 
Corripit,  &  mimum  fingere  saeva  negat." 

But,  according  to  the  best  accounts,  Moliere  was  indis- 
posed before  the  performance  of  the  play.  His  wife,  and 
Baron  the  actor,  urged  him  to  take  some  care  of  himself, 
and  oat  to  perform  that  day.  *  And  what  then,"  said  be, 
u  is  to  become  of  my  poor  performers  ?  I  should  reproach 
myself  if  I  neglected  them  a  single  day.9* — The  exertions 
which  he  made  to  go  through  bis  part,  produced  a  convul- 
sion, followed  by  a  vomiting  of  blood,  which  suffocated 
him  some  hours  after,  in  the  fifty-third  year  of  his  age. 
The  king  was  so  extremely  affected  with  the  lass  of  him, 
that,  as  a  new  mark  of  his  favour,  he  prevailed  with  the 
archbishop  of  Paris  not  to  deny  his  being  interred  in  con- 
secrated ground.  As  Moliere  had  gained  himself  many 
enemies,  by  ridiculing  the  folly  and  knavery  of  all  orders 
of  men,  and  particularly  by  exposing  the  hypocrites  of  the 
ecclesiastical  order,  and  the  bigots  among  the  laity,  in 
his  celebrated  comedy,  the  "  Tartuffe*,''  they  therefore 
took  the  advantage  of  this  play,  to  stir  up  Paris  and  the 
eourt  against  its  author ;  and  if  the  king  had  not  inter- 
posed, he  had  then  fallen  a  sacrifice  to  the  indignation  of 
the  clergy.  The  king,  however,  stood  his  friend  now  he 
*ras  dead ;  and  the  archbishop,  through  bis  majesty's  in- 
tercession, permitted  him  to  be  buried  at  St,  Joseph's, 
which  was  a  chapel  of  ease  to  the  parish  church  of  St. 

It  is  related  that  Moliere  read  his  comedies  to  an  elderly 
female  servant,  named  Laforet,  and  when  he  perceived 
that  the  passages  which  he  intended  to  be  humorous  and 
laughable  bad  no  effect  upon  her,  he  altered  diem.     He 

+  This  comedy  was  suppressed  by  prince  of  Conde,  his  waader  at  the  dif- 
the  interest  of  the  ecclesiastics,  after  rent  fates  of  these  two  pieces,  and 
it  had  been  acted  a  few  nights,  although  asked  the  reason  of  it,  the  urince  aa- 
*t  the  same  time,  a  very  profane  farce  swered  ;  "  in  the  farce*  religion  oaly  is 
was  permitted  to  have  a  long  run.  ridiculed ;  but  Moliere,  in  the  *  Tar- 
When  Louis  XIV.  expressed  to  the  toffe,'  has  attacked  even  the  ptiwrts." 

216  MOLIERE. 

required  the  players  also  touring  their  children  to  the  re- 
hearsals, that  he  might  form  his  opinion  of  different  pas- 
sages from  the  natural  expressions  of  their  emotions.  Mo- 
Here,  who  diverted  himself  on  the  theatre  by  laughing  at 
.  the  follies  of  mankind,  could  not  guard  against  the  effects 
of  his  own  weakness.  Seduced  by  a  violent  passion  for  the 
daughter  of  La  Bejart,  the  actress,  he  married  her,  and 
was  soon  exposed  to  all  the  ridicule  with-  which  he  had 
treated  the  husbands  who  were  jealous  of  their  wives.  Hap- 
pier in  the  society  of  his  friends,  he  was  beloved  by  his 
equals,  and  courted  by  the  great.  Marshal  de  Vivonne, 
the  great  Cond£,  and  even  Lewis  XIV.  treated  him  with 
that  familiarity  which  considers  merit  as  on  a  level  with 
birth.  .  These  flattering  distinctions  neither  corrupted  his 
understanding  nor  his  heart.  A  poor  man  having  returned 
him  a  piece  of  gold  which  he  bad  given  him  by  mistake, 
"  In  what  a  humble,  abode,9'  he  exclaimed,  "  does  Virtue 
dwell !  Here,  my  friend,  take  another."  When  Baron  in- 
formed him  of  one  of  his  old  theatrical  companions  whom 
extreme  poverty  prevented  from  appearing,  Moliere  sent 
for  him,  embraced  him,  and  to  words  of  consolation  adcled 
a  present  of  twenty  pistoles  and  a  rich  theatrical  dress. 
When  he  was  in  the  height  of  his  reputation,  Racine,  who 
was  just  then  come  from  Languedoc,  and  was  scarcely 
known  in  Paris,  went  to  see  him,  under  pretence  of  con* 
suiting  him  about  an  ode  which  he  had  just  finished.  Mo- 
liere expressed  such  a  favourable  opinion  of  the  ode,  that 
Racine  ventured  to  shew  him  his  first  tragedy,  founded  on 
the  martyrdom  of  Theagenes  and  Chariclea,  as  he  had 
reaxl  it  in  the  Greek  romance.  Moliere,  who  had  an  ho- 
nest consciousness  of  superiority,  which  exalted  him  above 
envy,  was  not  sparing  either  of  praise  or  of  counsel.  His 
liberality  carried  him  still  farther :  he  knew  that  Racine 
was  pot  in  easy  circumstances,  and  therefore  lent  him  a 
hundred  louis-d'ors;  thinking  it  a  sufficient  recompense 
to  have  the  honour  of  producing  a  genius  to  the  public, 
which,  he  foresaw,  would  one  day  be  the  glory  of  the  stage. 
The  French  have  very  justly  placed  Moliere  at  the  head 
of  all.  their  comic  authors.  .  There  is,  indeed,  no  author,  in 
all  the  fruitful  and  distinguished  age  of  Lewis  XIV.  who 
has  attained  a  higher  reputation,  or  who  has  more  nearly 
reached  the  summit  of  perfection  in  his  own  art,  according 
to  the  judgment  of  all  the  French*  critics.  Voltaire  boldly 
pronounces  him  to  be  the  most  eminent  comic  poet  of  any 

MOLIERE.  217 

age  or  country  ;  nor,  perhaps,  is  this  the  decision  of  mere 
partiality ;  for,  upon  the  whole,  who  deserves  to  be  pre- 
ferred to  him  ?  When  Louis  XIV.  insisted  upon  Boileau's 
telling  »him  who  was  the  most  original  writer  of  his  time, 
he  answered,  Moliere !  Moliere  is  always  the  satirist  only 
of  vice  or  folly.  He  has  selected  a  great  variety  of  ridicu- 
lous characters  peculiar  to  the  times  in  which  he  lived, 
and  he  has  generally  placed  the  ridicule  justly.  He  pos- 
sessed strong  comic  powers ;  he  is  full  of  mirth  and  plea- 
santry ;  and  his  pleasantry  is  always  innocent.  His  come- 
dies in  verse,  such  as  his  "  Misanthrope9'  and  TartufFe," 
are  a  kind  of  dignified  comedy,  in  which  vice  is  exposed, 
in  the  style  of  elegant  and  polished  satire.  His  verses  have 
all  the  flow  and  freedom  of  conversation,  yet  he  is  said  to 
have  passed  whole  days  in  fixing  upon  a  proper  epithet  or 
rhime.  In  his  prose  comedies,  though  there  is  abundance 
of  ridicule,  yet  there  is  never  any  thing  to  offend  a  modest 
ear,  or  to  throw  contempt  on  sobriety  and  virtue.  Toge- 
ther with  those  high  qualities,  Moliere  has  also  some  de- 
fects, which  Voltaire,  though  his  professed  panegyrist, 
candidly  admits.  He  is  acknowledged  not  to  be  happy  in 
the  unravelling  of  his  plots.  Attentive  more  to  the  strong 
exhibition  of  characters,  than  to  the  conduct  of  the  in- 
trigue, his  unravelling  is  frequently  brought  on  with  too 
little  preparation,  and  in  an  improbable  manner.  In  his 
verse  comedies,  he  is  sometimes  not  sufficiently  interest- 
ing, and  too  full  of  long  speeches ;  and  in  bis  risible  pieces 
in  prose,  he  is  censured  for  being  too  farcical.  Few  wri- 
ters, however,  if  any,  ever  possessed  the  spirit,  or  attained 
the  true  end  of  comedy,  so  perfectly,  upon  the  whole,  as 
Moliere.  His  "  Tartu  ffe,"  in  the  style  of  grave  comedy, 
and  his  "  Avare,"  in  the  gay,  are  accounted  his  two  capital 

At  the  time  of  his  death,  Moliere  was  intended  for  a 
vacant  place  in  the  French  academy.  More  than  a  cen- 
tury afterwards  the  academicians  placed  his  bust  in  their 
ball,  the  gift  of  D'Alembert,  and  from  the  many  inscrip- 
tions proposed,  the  following  was  adopted  :     n 

"  Rien  ne  manque  a  sa  gloire,  il  manquoit  a  la  notre." 

And  when  the  place  of  his  interment  Was  lately  pulled 
down,  bis  remains  were  removed  to  the  garden  of  the  Mu- 
seum, and  placed  among  the  honorary  monuments  there,  in 

218  MO  LIERK* 

Of  the  numerous  editions  of  Moliere,  the  French  bib» 
liograpbers  point  out,  as  the  best,  that  by  Bret,  1773,  6 
vols.  8vo,  with  the  engravings  of  the  younger  Moreau,  and 
a  splendid  one  by  Didot,  17^2,  6  vols.  410.1 

MOLIERES  (Joseph  Privat  de),  born  in  1677,  of  a 
noble  and  ancient  family  at  Tarascon,  entered  among  the  fa» 
ibers  of  the  oratory,  and  was  pupil  to  Malebraoche.  Quitting 
the  oratory,  after  that  celebrated  philosopher's  death,  he  de- 
voted himself  wholly  to  physic  and  mathematics,  in  which  he 
acquired  great  skill,  and  was  appointed  professor  of  philo- 
sophy at  the  royal  college  in  1723,  and  afterwards  member 
of  the  academy  of  sciences,  in  1729.  His  principal  work  is 
u  Philosophical  Lectures,"  4  vols.  12mo,  in  which  he  ex*- 
plains  the  laws,  mechanism,  and  motions  of  the  celestial 
vortices,  in  order  to  demonstrate  the  possibility  and  exist* 
ence  of  them  in  the  system  of  the  Plenum  ;  his  system  is 
that  of  Descartes,  but  corrected  by  Newton's  principles. 
He  also  left  "Mathematical  Lectures,"  i2mo,  very  inowrv 
rectly  printed  ;  and  "  La  premiere  partie  des  El£mens  de 
G6ometrie,"  12mo.  In  his  temper  he  shewed  very  littlfe 
of  the  philosopher.  In  the  maintenance  of  ins  principles 
he  could  bear  no  contradiction;  and  when  some  of  hispo* 
aitive  assertions  provoked  the  smiles  of  the  academicians* 
he  fell  into  violent  passions,  and  on  one  occasion  this  imi- 
tation was  so  great,  as  to  bring  on  a  fever,  of  which  be 
died,  May  12*  1742.  in  other  respects  his  character  was 
amiable;  but,  like  some  other  mathematicians,  he  was 
liable  in  bis  studies  to  such  absence  of  mind,  as  to  appear 
almost  wholly  insensible  to  surrounding  objects,  and  this 
infirmity  becoming  known,  he  was  made  the  subject  of 
depredations.  A  shoe-black,  once  finding  him  profoundly 
absorbed  in  a  reverie,  contrived  to  steal  the  silver  buckles 
from  his  shoes,  replacing  them  with  iron  ones.  At  another 
time,  while  at  his  studies,  a  villain  broke  into  the  room  in 
vhich  be  vras  sitting,  and  demanded  his  money ;  Molieres, 
without  rising  from  his  studies,  or  giving  any  alarm,  coolly 
shewed  him  whete  it  waft,  requesting  him,  as  a  great  fa- 
vour, that  he  would  not  derange  his  papers** 

MOLINA  (Lewis),  born  of  a  noble  family  at  Cuenca, 
entered  the  Jesuits'  order,  1553,  at  the  age  of  eighteen, 
and  taught  theology  with  reputation  during  twenty  years  in 
the  university  of  Ebbra.     He  died  October  12,  1660,  at 

*  Moreri. — Diet.  Hist. — Warton's  Essay  on  Pope*— Blair's  Lecture*, 

*  Moreri. — Diet.  Hist. 

MOLI  N  A.  319 


Madrid,  aged  sixty-five.  His  principal  works  are,  Com- 
mentaries on  the  first  part  of  the  Summary  of  St.  Thomas, 
in  Latin,  a  large  treatise  "  De  Justitia  et  Jure,"  a  book  on 
"The  Concordance  of  Grace  and  Free-will,"  printed  at 
Liabon,  1588,  4to,  in  Latin,  which  ought  to  have  at  the  end 
an  appendix,  printed  in  1589.  It  i»  an  apology  from  Mo- 
lina against  those  who  called  some  propositions  in  his  book 
heretical,  and  this  last  work  was  what  divided  the  Domi- 
nicans and  the  Jesuits  into  Thomists,  and  Moliuists,  and 
jaised  the  famous  disputes  about  grace  and  predestination. 
Molina's  object  was  to  shew  that  the  operations  of  divine 
grace  were  entirely  consistent  with  the  freedom  of  human 
will ;  and  be  introduced  a  new  kind  of  hypothesis  to  re* 
move  the  difficulties  attending  the  doctrines  of  predestina- 
tion and  liberty,  and  to  reconcile  the  jarring  opinions  of 
Augustinians,  Thomists,  Semi- Pelagians,  and. other  con- 
tentious divines.  Molina  affirmed,  that  the  decree  of  pre- 
destination to  eternal  glory  was  founded  upon  a  previous 
knowledge  and  consideration  of  the  merits  of  the  elect ; 
that  the  grace  from  whose  .operation  these  merits  are  de* 
rived,  is  not  efficacious  by  its  own  intrinsic  power  only, 
but  also  by  the  consent  of  our  own  will,  and  because  it  is 
administered  in  those  circumstances,  in  which  the  Deity, 
by  that  branch  of  his  knowledge  which  is  called  scientia 
media,  foresees  that  it  will  he  efficacious.  The  kind  of 
prescience*  denominated  in  the  schools  scientia  media,  is 
that  foreknowledge  of  future  contingents,  that  arises  from 
an  acquaintance  with  the  nature  and  faculties-  of  rational 
beings,  of  the  circumstances  in  which  they  shall  be  placed, 
of  the  objects  that  shall  be  presented  .to  them,  and  of  the 
influence  which  these  circumstances  and  objects  must  have 
en  their  actions. 

.  In  order  to  put  an  end  to  these  contentions,  pope  Cle- 
ment VIII.  instituted  the  celebrated  congregation  De 
Angiitis,  in  1597  ;  but  after  several  assemblies  of  coun- 
sellors and  cardinals,  in  which  the  Dominicans  and  Jesuits 
disputed  contradictorily  during  nine  years  before  the  pope 
and  the  court  of  Rome,  the  affair  was  still  undecided* 
Pope  Paul  V.  under  whom  these  disputes  had  been  con- 
tinued, at  length  published  a  decree,  Aug.  31,  1607,  for- 
bidding the  parties  to  defame  or  censure  each  other,  and 
enjoining  the  superiors  of  both  orders  to  punish  those  se* 
verely  who  should  disregard  this  prohibition.* 

1  Dupin.-— Mosheim. 

220  M  O  L  I  N  E  T. 


MOL1NET  {Claude  du),  regular  canon  and  procura- 
tor-general  of  the  congregation  of  St.  Genevieve,  and  one 
of  the  most  learned  antiquaries  of  the  seventeenth  century, 
was  born  in  1620,  at  Chalons  sur  Marne,  of  a  noble  and 
ancient  family.  He  collected  a  large  cabinet  of  curiosi- 
ties, and  placed  the  library  of  St,  Genevieve  at  Paris  in 
the  state  which  has  rendered  it  so  celebrated.  He  died 
September  2,  1687,  aged  sixty ^seven.  His  principal  works 
are,  an  edition  of  the  "  Epistles  of  Stephen,  bishop  of 
Tournay,"  with  learned  notes ;  u  History  of  the  Popes  by 
Medals,"  from  Martin  V.  to  Innocent  XI.  1679,  folio,  La- 
tin ;  "  Reflexions  sur  l'origine  et  l'antiquit6  des  Ghanoines 
s6culiers  et  rlguliers,"  4to  ;  "  Dissertation  sur  la  Mkre  des 
Anciens;"  another  "Dissertation  sur  une  Tfite  d'lsis," 
&c. ;  "  he  Cabinet  de  la  Bibliotheque  de  Ste<  Genevieve/9 
1692,  folio,  a  curious  book.  He  was  the  author  also  of 
some  dissertations  in  the  literary  Journals,  and  left  several 
MSS.  on  subjects  of  history  and  antiquities.  He  was  a 
man  of  vast  research  ;  but,  as  his  countrymen  say,  he  was 
"  plus  rempli  d'erudition  que  de  critique,"  and  certainly 
in  some  cases  took  little  pains  to  discriminate  between  the 
true  and  the  fabulous.1 

MGLINOS  (Michael),  a  Spanish  priest,  and  by  some 
reckoned  the  founder  of  the  sect  of  Quietists,  was  born  in 
the  diocese  of  Saragossa  in  1627,  and  appears  to  have  re- 
sided mostly  at  Rome,  where  his  ardent  piety  and  devotion 
procured  him  a  considerable  number  of  disciples  of  both 
sexes.  In  1675  he  published  his  "  Spiritual  Guide,"  writ- 
ten in  Spanish,  which  was  honoured  with  the  encomiums 
of  many  eminent  personages,  and  was  republished  in  Ita- 
lian in  several  places,  and  at  last  at  Rome  in  1681.  It  was* 
afterwards  translated  into  French,  Dutch,  and  Latin  (the 
last  by  professor  Franke  at  Halle  in  1687),  and  passed 
through  several  editions  in  France,  Holland,  and  Italy. 
It  was  at  Rome,  however,  where  its  publication  in*  1681 
alarmed  the  doctors  of  th£  church.  The  principles  of  Mo- 
linos,  which,  Mosheim  remarks,  have  been  very  differently 
interpreted  by  his  friends  and  enemies,  amount  to  this, 
that  the  whole  of  religion  consists  in  the  perfect  tranquil- 
lity of  a  mind  removed  from  all  external  and  finite  things, 
and  centered  ia  God,  and  in  such  a  pure  love  of  the  Su-' 

*  Biog.  UoiT.  art.  Dumolin«t,*-Moreri.«— Diet.  Hist* 

M  O  L  I  N  O  S.  221 

preme  Being,  as  is  independent  of  all  prospect  of  interest 
or  reward ;  or,  in  other  words,  "  the  soul,  in  the  pursuit 
of  the  supreme  good,  must  retire  from  the  reports  and 
gratifications  of  sense,  and,  in  general,  from  all  corporeal 
objects,  and,  imposing  silence  upon  all  the  motions  of  the 
understanding  and  will,  must  be  absorbed  in  the  Deity.19 
•Hence  the  denomination  of  2uietist$  was  given  to  the  fol- 
lowers' of  Molinos  ;  though  that  of  Mystics,  which  was  their 
vulgar  title,  was  more  applicable,  and  expressed  their 
*ystem  with  more  propriety,  the  doctrine  not  being  new, 
.but  rather  a  digest  of  what  the  ancient  mystics  had  ad- 
vanced in  a  more  confused  manner.  For  this,  however, 
Molinos  wflis  first  imprisoned  in  1685,  and  notwithstanding 
he  read  a  recantation  about  two  years  afterwards,  was  sen- 
tenced to  perpetual  imprisonment,  from  which  he  was  re- 
leased by  death  in  1696.  Madame  Guyon  was  among  the 
most  distinguished  of  his  disciples,  and  herself  no  incon- 
siderable supporter  of  the  sect  of  Quietists.1 
'  MOLLOY  (Charles,  esq.),  descended  from  a  very 
good  family  in  the  kingdom  of  Ireland,  was  born  in  the 
city  of  Dublin,  and  received  part  of  his  education  at  Tri- 
nity college  there,  of  which  he  afterwards  became  a  fellow. 
-At  his  first  coining  to  England  he  entered  himself  of  the 
Middle  Temple,  and  -  was  supposed  to  have  had  a  very 
considerable  hand  in  the  writing  of  a  periodical  paper, 
called  "  Fog's  Journal,"  and  afterwards  to  have  been  the 
principal  writer  of  another  well-known  paper,  entitled 
** Common  Sense/'  'All  these  papers  give  testimony  of 
strong  abilities,:  great  depth  of  understanding,  and  clear- 
ness of  reasoning.  Dr.  King  was  a  considerable  writer  in 
the  latter,  as  were  lords  Chesterfield  and  Lyttelton.  Our 
author  had  large  offers  made  him  to  write  in  defence  of  sir 
Robert  Walpole,  but  these  he  rejected :  notwithstanding 
wbichy  at  the  great  change  in  the  ministry  in  1742,  he 
was  entirely  neglected,  as  well  as  his  fellow-labourer  Am- 
herst, who  conducted  "  The  Craftsman.1'  Mr.  Molloy, 
however,  having  married  a  lady  of  fortune,  was  in  circum- 
stances which  enabled  him  to  treat  the  ingratitude  of  his 
patriotic  friends  with  the  contempt  it  deserved.  He  lived 
m^ny  years  after  this  period,  dying  so  lately  as  July  16, 
1767.  He  was  buried  at  Edmonton,  July  20.  He  also 
wrote  three  dramatic  pieces,  1.  "  Perplexed  Couple,"  1715, 

1  MosheijOi,  where  are  more  particulars  of  the  history  and  system  of  Molinos. 



12mo.  2.  "  The  Coquet,"  17  i  8,  8vo.  3.  "  Halfway  Of* 
ficers,"  1720,  12mo.  None  of  which  met  with. any  very 
extraordinary  success. 

Harris,  in  his  edition  of  Ware's  "  Writers  of  Ireland," 
mentions  another  Charles  Molloy,  a  native  of  the  King's 
County,  and  a  lawyer  of  the  Iriner  Temple,  who  wrote 
"  De  Jure  Maritimo  et  Navali,  or  a  Treatise  of  Affairs 
Maritime,  and  of  Commerce,"  first  published  at  London  ia 
167$,  and  still  known  by  many  republications,  the  last  of 
which  was  ii>  1769,  2  vols.  £vq.  He  died  under  fifty  years 
of  age,  in  1690,  at  bis  bouse  in  Crane-court,  Fleet-street 
Harris  gives  some  account  also  of1  a  Francis  Moiloy,  of 
King's  Qounty,  professor  of  divinity  in  the  college  of  $t 
Isidore  at  Rome,  who  wrote  "  Sacra  Tbeologia*"  Rome* 
1666, Svo ;  "  Gramoaatica  Latino-Hibernica  compendiata," 
ibid.  1677,  12mo.  Edward  Lluyd,  who  has  made  art  ah* 
stract  of  this  in  his  "  Archsologia  Britannica,"  says  that  it 
was  the  most  complete  Irish  grammar  then  extant,  although 
imperfect  as  to  syntax,  &c.  He  says  also,  what  is  less 
credible,  that  Motloy  was  not  the  author  of  it ;  although 
the  latter  put*  his  name  to  it,  and  speaks  of  it  in  the  pre* 
face  as  his  own  work.  Molloy's  other  work  is  entitled 
"  Lucerna  Fidelium,"  Rome,  1676,  8vo,  which  although  the 
title  is  in  Latin,  is  written  in  Irish,  and  contains  an  expla- 
nation of  the  Christian  religion  according  to  the  faith  of 
the  church  of  Rome,1 

MOLYN  (Petbr).     See  TEMPESTA. 

MOLYNEUX  (Wiluam,  esq.)  an  excellent  matbeta*> 
tician  and  astronomer,  was  born  April  17,.  1656,  at  Dub* 
lin,  where  his  father,  a  gentleman  of  good  family  and  for- 
tune, lived*.  Being  of  a  tender  constitution,  he  was  edu- 
cated under  a  private  tutor  at  home,  till  he  was  near  fifteen, 
and  then  placed  in  the  university  of  Dublin,  under  the  care 
of  Dr.  Palliser,  afterwards  archbishop  of  Cashell.  He  dis- 
tinguished himself  here  by  the  probity  of  his  manners  as 

*  His  family  were  all  lovers  of 
learning.  His  father*-  Samuel,  had  an 
office  in  the  court  of  exchequer*  was 
master-gunner  of  Ireland  (an  employ* 
ment  which  he  held  many  years),  and 
published  "Practical  Problems  con- 
cerning the  doctrine  of  Projects  design- 
ed  for  great  Artillery  and  Mortar 
Pieces; "  It  was  printed  on  copper* 
plates,   and  collected  from  a  larger 

treatise  on  gunnery,  written  by  him* 
He  died  about  two  years  before  his  soil, 
jn  1696.  His  grandfather,  Daniel,  was 
Ulster  king  at  arms,  whom  sir  James 
Ware  calls  (l  venerandss  antiquitat'n 
cultor."  Be  finished  "  Meredith  Ham- 
mer's Chronicle  of  Ireland,"  bus  ifcr 
whatever  reason,  the  second  patt  only 
was  published. 

*  Brog.  Dram.— Harris's  Ware .— Lygons's  Environs,  vol.  II. 

M  O  L  Y  N  E  U  X.  823 


W*ll  »  hv  the  strength  of  his  parts ;  and,  haying  made  a 
remarkable  progress  in  academical  learning,  and  parties 
larly  in  the  new  philosophy,  as  it  was  then  called,  he  pro* 
ceeded  at  the  regular  time  to  his  bachelor  of  arts  degree^ 
After  four  years  spent  in  this  university,  he  came  to  Lon+ 
don,  and  was  admitted  into  the  Middle  Temple  in  June 
1675.  He  staid  there  three  years,  and  applied  himself  to 
the  study  of  the  laws  of  his  country,  as  much  as  was  neces- 
sary, for  one  who  was  not  designed  for  the  profession  of  the 
law;,  but  the  bent  of  his  genius,  as  well  as  inclination, 
lying  strongly  to  philosophy  and  mathematics,  he  spent 
the  greatest  part  of  his  time  in  these  inquiries,  which,  from 
the  extraordinary  advances  newly  made  by  the  Royal  So* 
oiety,  were  then  chiefly  in  vogue. 

Thus  accomplished,  he  returned  to  Ireland  in  June  167S, 
and  shortly  after  married   Lucy,  daughter  of  sir  William 
Domvile,  the  king's  attorney- general.     Being  master  of  an 
tasy  fortune,  he  continued  to  indulge  himself  in  prosecuting 
such  branches  of  moral  and  experimental  philosophy  as 
were  most  agreeable  to  his  fancy  ;  and  astronomy  having 
the  greatest  share,  he  began,  about  1681,  a  literary  cor- 
respondence with  Flamsteed,  the  king's  astronomer,  which 
h&hept  np  for  several  years.    In.  1683,  he  formed  a  design 
of  erecting-  a  philosophical  society  at  Dublin,  in  imitation 
of  the  royal  society  at  London ;  and,  by  the  countenance 
and  encouragement  of  sir  William  Petty,  who  accepted 
the  office  of  president,  they  began  a  weekly  meeting  that 
year,  when. oar  author  was  appointed  their  first  secretary. 
The  reputation  of  his  parts  and  learning,  which,  by  mean* 
of  this  society  became  more  known,  recommended  him,  in 
1684*  to  the  notice  and  favour  of  the  duke  of  Ormond, 
then  lord  lieutenant  of  Ireland ;  by  whose  influence  he 
was  appointed  that  year,  jointly  with  sir  William  Robinson* 
surveyors-general  of  bis  majesty's  building*  and  works,  and 
chief  engineer.     la  16&5,   he  was.  chosen  fellow  of  the 
royal  society  at  London ;  and  that  year,  for  the  sake  of 
improving  himself  in  the  art  of  engineering,  be  procured  an 
appointment  from  the  Irish  government,  to  view  the  most 
considerable  fortresses- in  Flanders.  Accordingly  be  travelled 
through  that  country  and  Holland,  and  some  part  of  Ger- 
many and  France;  and  carrying  with  him  letters  of  recom- 
mendation from  Flamsteed  to  Cassini,  he  was  introduced  to 
him,  and  other  eminent  astronomers,  in  the  several  places 
through  which  he  passed.    , 

&U  M  O  L  Y  N  E  U  X. 

.  Soon  after  his  return  from  abroad,  he  printed  at  Dublin, 
in  1686,  his  "  Sciothericum  telescopium,"  containing  a  de- 
scription of  the  structure  and  use  of  a  telescopic  dial  in- 
vented by  him  :  another  edition  of  which  was  published  at 
London  in  1700,  4to.  On  the  publication  of  sir  Isaac 
Newton's  "  Principia"  the  following  year,  1687,  our  au-  j 

thor  was  struck  with  the  same  astonishment  as  the  rest  of 
the  world  ;  but  declared  also,  that  he  was  not  qualified  to 
examine  the  particulars.  Halley,  with  whom  he  constantly 
corresponded,  had  sent  him  the  several  parts  of  this  ines- 
timable treasure,  as  they  came  from  the  press,  'before 
the  whole  was  finished,  assuring  him,  that  be  looked  upon 
it  as  the  utmost  effort  of  human  genius. 

In  1688,  the  philosophic  society  at  Dublin  was  broken 
up  and   dispersed  by   the  confusion  of  the  times.     Mr. 
Molyneux  had  distinguished  himself,  as  a  member  of  it, 
from  the  beginning,    by  several  discourses  upon  curious 
subjects ;    some  of  which  were  transmitted  to  the  royal 
society  at  London,  and  afterwards  printed  in  the  "  Philo- 
sophical Transactions."     Jp  1689,  among  great  numbers  of 
other  Protestants,  he  withdrew  from  the  disturbances  in 
Ireland,  occasioned  by  the  severities  of  Tyrconnel's  go- 
vernment ;  and,  after  a  short  stay  in  London,  fixed  himself 
with  his  family  at  Chester.   In  this  retirement  he  employed 
himself  in  putting  together  the  materials  he  had  some  time 
before  prepared  for  his  "  Dioptrics,"  in  which  he  was  much 
assisted  by  Flamsteed ;  and,  in  August  1690,  went  to  Lon- 
don to  put  it  to  the  press,  where  the  sheets  were  revised 
by  Halley,  who,  at  our  author's  request,  gave  leave  for 
printing,  in  the  appendix,  his  celebrated  theorem  for  find- ' 
ing  the  foci  of  optic  glasses.  <  Accordingly  the  book  came 
out,  1692,  in  4to,  under  the  title  of  "  Diqptrica  nova :  a 
Treatise  of  Dioptrics,  in  two  parts;  wherein  the  various 
Effects  and  Appearances  of  Spherical  Glasses,  both .  Con- 
vex and  Concave,  single  and  combined,  in  Telescopes  and 
Microscopes,  together  with  their  usefulness  in  many  con- 
cerns of  Human  Life,  are  explained."     He  gave  it  the 
title  of  "  Dioptrica  nova,"  not  only  because  it  was  almost 
wholly  new,  very  little  being  borrowed  from  other  writers, 
but  because  it  was  the  first  book  that  appeared  in.  English 
upon  the  subject.     This  work  contains  several  of  the  most 
generally  useful  propositions  for  practice  demonstrated  in  a 
clear  and  easy  manner,  for  which  reason  it  was  many. years 
much  used  by  the  artificers  ;  and.  the  second  part  is  very 


entertaining,  especially  in  bis  history  which  he  gives  of  the 
several  optical  instruments,  and  of  the  discoveries  made 
by  them*  The  dedication  of  the  "  Dioptrics"  being  ad*» 
dressed  to  the  royal  society,  he  takes  notice,  among  other 
improvements  in  philosophy,  by  building  it  upon  expe- 
rience, of  the  advances  that  had  been  lately  made  in  logic 
by  the  Celebrated  John  Locke. 

Before  he  left  Chester,  he  lost  his  lady,  who  died  soon 
after  she  had  brought  him  a  son.  Illness  had  deprived  bet 
of  he.r  eye-sight  twelve  years  before,  that  is,  soon  after 
she  was  married;  from  which  time  she  had  been  very 
sickly,  and  afflicted  with  extreme  pains  of  the  head.  As 
soon  as  the.  public  tranquillity  was  settled  in  his  native 
country,  he  returned  home;  and;  upon  the  convening  of 
a  new  parliament  in  1692,  was  chosen  one  of  the  repre* 
sentatives  for  the  city  of  Dublin.  In  the  next  parliament, 
in  1695,  he  was  chosen  to  represent  the  university  there, 
and  continued  to  do  so  to  the  end  of  his  life;  that  learned 
body  having,  before  the  end  of  the  first  session  of  the  for- 
mer, conferred  on  him  the  degree  of  doctor  of  laws.  He 
was  likewise  nominated,  by  the  lord-lieutenant,  one  of  the 
commissioners  for  the  forfeited  estates,  to  which  employ- 
ment was  ^nnexed  a  salary  of  five  hundred  pounds  a-year ; 
but  looking  upon  it  as  an  invidious  office,  and  not  being 
a  lover  of  money,  he  declined  it.  In  1698,  he  published 
"  The  Case  of  Ireland  stated,  in  relation  to  its  being  bound 
by  Acts  of  Parliament  made  in  England :"  in  which  he  is 
supposed  to  have  delivered  all,  or  most,  that  can  be  said 
upon  this  subject,  with  great  clearness  and  strength  of 
reasoning.  This  piece  (a  second  edition  of  which,  with 
additions  and  emendations,  was  printed  in  1720,  8vo,)  was 
answered  by  John  Cary,  merchant  of  Bristol,  in  3  book 
called,  "  A  Vindication  of  the  Parliament  of  England,  &c." 
dedicated  to  the  lord-chancellor  Somers,  and  by  Atwood, 
a  lawyer.  Of  these  Nicolson  remarks  that  "  the  merchant 
argues  like  a  counsellor  at  law,  and  the  barrister  strings  his 
small  wares  together  like  a  shop-keeper."  What  occa- 
sioned Molyneux  to  write  the.  above  tract,  was  his.  con- 
ceiving the  Irish  woollen  manufactory  to  be  oppressed  by 
the  English  government ;  on  which  account  he  could  not 
forbear  asserting  his  country's  independency,  He  had 
given  Mr.  Locke  a  hint  of  his  thoughts  upon  this  subject, 
before  it  was  quite  ready  for  the  press,  and  desired  his  sen- 
timents upon  the  fundamental  principle  on  which  hisargu- 



ment  was  grounded ;  in  answer  to  which  that  gentleman* 
intimating  that  the  business  was  of  too  large  an  extent  for 
the  subject  of  a  letter,  proposed  to  talk  the  matter  over 
with  him  in  England.  This,  together  with  a  purpose  which 
Molyneux  had  long  formed,  of  paying  that  great  man  *, 
whom  he  had  never  yet  seen,  a  visit,  prevailed  with  him  to 
cross  the  water  once  more,  although  he  was  in  a  very  in- 
firm state  of  health,  in  July  this  year,  1698;  and  he  re- 
mained in. England  till  the  middle  of  September.  But  the 
pleasure  of  this  long-wished-for  interview,  which  he  in- 
tended to  have  repeated  the  following  spring,  seems  to  have 
been  purchased  at  the  expence of  his  life;  for,  shortly  af- 
ter, he  was  seized  with  a  severe  fir  of  his  constitutional 
distemper,  the  stone,  which  occasioned  such  retchiugs  as 
broke  a  blood-vessel,  and  two  days  after  put  a  period  to  his 
life.  He  died  October  11,  1698,  and  was  buried  at  St. 
Andoen's  church,  Dublin,  where  there  is  a  monument  and 
Latin  inscription  to  his  memory.  Besides  the  "  Sciotbe- 
ricuni  telescopicum,"  and  the  "  Dioptrica  nova,9'  already- 
mentioned,  he  published  the  following  pieces  in  the 
"Philosophical  Transaction s."  l.  "Why  four  convex- 
glasses    in    a    telescope    shew    objects    erect/9   No.  53. 

2.  "  Description  of  Lough  Neagb,  in  Ireland,'9  No.  158. 

3.  "  On  the  Connaught  worm,99  No.  168.  4.  "  Descrip- 
tion of  a  new  hygrometer/9  No.  172.  5.  "  On  the  cause 
of  winds  and  the  change*of  weather,  &c.99  No.  177.  S. 
"Why  bodies  dissolved  swim  in  menstrua  specifically 
lighter  than  themselves,99  No.  181.  7.  "On  the  Tides/' 
No.  184.  8.  "  Observations  of  Eclipses.99  No.  164—185. 
9.  "  Why  celestial  objects  appear  greatest  near  the  ho- 
rizon.9* No.  187.  10.  "On  the  errors  of  Surveyors, 
arising  from  the  variation  of  the  Magnetic-needle,9* 
No.  230. - 

MOLYNEUX  (Samuel)  son  of  the  above,  was  born  at 
Chester  in  July  1689,  and  educated  with,  great  care  by 
his  father,  according  to  the  plan  laid  down  by  Locke  upon' 
that  subject.     When  his  father  died,  be  was  committed  to 
the  care  of  his  uncle  Dr.  Thomas  Molyneux,  an  excellent 

*  We  have  an  instance  of  a  singular  Locs;e,  "  have  been  mere  ballad-ma- 

coincidence  of  opinion  between  Locke  kers   in   comparison  of  him."     An<t 

and  Molyneux*    Molyneux  had  a  high  Locke,  in  bis  answer,  says,  "  I  find, 

opinion  of   sir  Richard   Blackmore's  with    pleasure,     a    strange    harmony 

poetic  vein :  "  All  our  English  poets,  throughout,    between  your    thoughts) 

except  Milton,"  says  he  in  a  letter  to  and  mine."* 

»  Bio*  Brit.— Harris's  Ware,— Martin's  Biog.  Pluto* 


scholar  and  physician  at  Dublin,  and  also  an  intimate  frien4 
pf  'Mr.  Locke ;  who  executed  his  trust  so  well,  that  Mr* 
JVioijneux  became  afterwards  a  most  polite  and  accom- 
plished gentleman,  and  was  made  secretary  t&  bis  late  ma- 
jesty George  II.  wben  he  was  prince  of  Wales.  Astronomy 
and  optics  being  his  favourite  study,  as  they  bad  been  his 
father'?,  he  projected  many  schemes  for  the  advancement 
of  them,  and  was  particularly  employed,  in  the  years  1723, 
1724,  and  1725,  in  perfecting  the  method  of  making  tele- 
acopes ;  one  of  which,  of  his  own  making,  hs  had  presented 
to  John  V.  king  of  Portugal.  In  the  midst  of  these  thoughts, 
being  appointed  a  commissioner  of  the  admiralty,  he  be- 
came so  engaged  in  public  affairs,  that  he  had  not  leisure 
to  pursue  these  inquiries  any  farther ;  and  gave  his  papers 
to  Dr.  Robert  Smith,  professor  of  astronomy  at  Cambridge, 
.whom  he  invited  to  make  use  of  his  house  and  apparatus  of 
instriupents,  in  order  to  finish  what  he  had  left  imper- 
fect. Mr.  Molynepx  dying  soon  after,  in  the  flower  of  his 
age,  Dr»  Smith  lost  the  opportunity ;  yet,  supplying 
what  wa#  wanting  from  Mr.  Huygens  and  others,  he  pub- 
lished the  whole  in  bis  "  Complete  Treatise  of  Optics." 

The  preceding  WiUisqi  Molyneux  had  also  a  brother, 
Thomas,  who  was  born  in  Dublin,  and  educated  partly 
in  the  university  there,  and  partly  at  Leyden  and  Paris* 
Returning  home,  he  became  professor  of  physic  in  the 
university  of  Dublin,  fellow  of  the  college  of  physicians, 
physician  to  the  state,  and  physician-general  to  the  army* 
fie  had  also  great  practice,  apd  in  173Q  was  created  a  ba- 
ronet He  died  Oct.  1 9,  1733.  Hf  had  been  a  felfow  of 
the  rpyal  society  of  London,  and  several  of  his  pieces  are 
published  ip  the  Transactions*  He  published,  separately, 
"  Some  Letters  to  Mr.  Locke,*1  Lond.  1708,  8vo.* 

MOLZA  (Francis-Maria),  an  eminent  Italian  and  La- 
tin poet,  was  .tarn  of  a  noble  family  at  Medena,  in  1489  ^ 
and,  after  being  educated  at  Rome,  where  he  made  extra- 
ordinary proficiency  in  the  Greek  and  Latin  languages,, 
juid  even  in  the  Hebrew,  be  was  recalled  to  Modeoa,  where, 
in  1512,  he  married,  and  intended  to  settle.  The  fame, 
bpwev^r,  of  L#q  X>  coprt,  lejd  him  about  four  years  after, 
Jback  to  Roto?,  where  be  formed  an  acquaintance  with  many 
eminent  sqhol^rs ;  but  appears  to  have.paicl  pto?e  attention 
to  the  cultivation  of  his  taste  than  his  morals,  as  he  formed 

i  Biog.  Brit—Ware^*  Ireland. 

*2*  M  O  L  Z  A, 

a  licentious  connexion  with  a  Roman  lady,  in  consequence 
of  which  he  received  a  wound  from  the  hand  of  an  un- 
known assassin,  which  had  nearly  cost  him  his  life.  Even 
when,  on  the  death  of  Leo  X.  he  left  Rome,  he  did  not 
return  to  his  family,  but  went  to  Bologna,  where  he  be- 
came enamoured  of  Camilla  Gonzaga,  a  lady  of  rank  and 
beauty,  and  a  warm  admirer  of  Italian  poetry.  His  life 
after  this  appears  to  have  been  wholly  divided  between 
poetry  and  dissipation ;  and  he  died  of  the  consequences  of 
the  latter,  in  1544.  His  Italian  and  Latin  poems  were  for 
many  years  published  in  detached  forms  until  1749,  when 
Serassi  produced  an  entire  edition  at  Bergamo. l 

MOLZA  (Tarquinia),  grand-daughter  to  the  precede 
ing>  by  Camillo,  his  eldest  son,  was  born  at  Modena  in 
1542.     She  was  instructed  in  the  classsics,  in  Hebrew,  and 
in  the  belles  lettres,  became  an  adept  in  some  of  the  ab- 
struser  branches  of  science,  and  was  a  proficient  in  music  ; 
and  with  all  these,  was  distinguished  by  the  graces  and 
amiable  qualities  of  her  sex.     She  was  married,  ih  1560,  to 
Paul  Porrino,  but  never  had  any  children ;  and  after  hia 
death,  in  1578,  she  passed  her  life  in  literary  retirement 
at  Modena,  where  she  died  in  1617.     Her  writings,  v  con- 
sisting of  Latin  and  Italian  poems,  translations  from  Plato, 
and  other  classics,  were  printed  in  the  Bergamo  editi6it 
of  Iter  grandfather's  works.     This  lady  was  the  subject  of 
numerous  eulogies  from  contemporary  writers ;  but  the 
most  extraordinary  honour  that  she  received,  was  that  of 
being  presented  with  the  citizenship   of  Rome,  by  the 
senate  and  people  of  that  city,  in  a  patent  reciting  her 
singular  merits,  and  conferring  upon  her  the  title  of  Unica. 
The  honour  is  extended  to  the  whole  noble  family  of 
Molza,  *       " 

MOMBRITIUS,  or  MOMBRIZIO  (Boninus),  a  na- 
tive of  Milan,  who  flourished  in  the  fifteenth  century,  oh- 
tained  considerable  reputation  for  some  Latin  poems,  par- 
ticularly one  on  "  The  Passion,"  but  his  most  celebrated 
work  was  a  collection  of  the  "  Lives  of  the  Saints/9  not  a 
confused  and  credulous  compilation,  but  which  exceeded 
all  preceding  works  of  the  kind,  by  the  pains  he  took  to 
distinguish  truth  from  fable.  This  he  was  enabled  to  do 
by  a  judicious  examination  of  all  the  existing  authorities, 

*  Tiraboschi.— Roscoe>s  LeoX.— Gen.  Diet, 

*  Geo.  DicL-rMwrtri.— Tirfttotchi* 



and  by  availing  himself  of  many  MSS.  which  he  discovered 
in  public  libraries,  and  carefully  collated.  In  some  in* 
sxances  he*  has  admitted  supposed  for  real  facts,  but  in 
such  a  vast  collection,  a  few  mistakes  of  this  kind  are  par- 
donable, especially  as  he  brought  to  light  much  informa- 
tion not  before  made  public.  This  work,  which  is  of  un- 
common rarity  and  great  price,  is  entitled  "  Sanctuarium, 
sive  vitse  Sanctorum,9'  2  vols.  fol.  without  date  or  place, 
but  supposed  to  have  been  printed  at  Milan  about  1479. 
Some  copies  want  the  last  leaf  of  signature  Nnnn,  but  even 
with  that  defect  bear  a  very  high  price. ' 

MONANTHEUIL  (Henry  de),  an  able  mathematical 
^nd  medical  writer,  was  born  at  Rheims  about  1536,  of  a 
family  which  possessed  the^estate  of  Monantheuil  in  the 
Vermandois,  in  Picardy.  He  was  educated  at  Paris  in  the, 
college  de  Presles,  under  Ramus,  to  whose  philosophical 
opinions  he  constantly  adhered.  Having  an  equal  inclina- 
tion and  made  equal  progress  in  mathematics  and  medicine, 
he  was  first  chosen  professor  of  medicine,  and  dean  of  that 
faculty,  and  afterwards  royal  professor  of  mathematics. 
While  holding  the  latter  office  he  had  the  celebrated  De 
Thou  and  Peter  Lamoignon  among  the  number  of  his 
scholars.  During  the  troubles  of  the  League,  he  remained 
faithful  to  his  king,  and  even  endangered  his  personal 
safety  by  holding  meetings  in  his  house,  under  pretence 
of  scientific  conversations,  but  really  to  concert  measures 
for  restoring  Paris  to  Henry  IV.  He  died  in  1606,  in  the 
seventieth  year  of  his  age.  His  works  are,  1.  "  Oratio  pro 
mathematicis  artibus,"  Paris,  1574,  4to.  2.  "  Admonitio 
ad  Jacobum  Peletarium  de  angulo  contactus,"  ibid.  1581, 
4to.  3.  "  Oratio  pro  suo  in  Regiam  cathedram  ritu,"  ibid. 
1585,  8vo.  4.  "  Panegyricus  dictus  Henrico  IV.  statim  a 
felicissima  et  auspicatissima  urbis  restitutione,"  &c.  ibid* 
1594,  translated  into  French  in  1596.  5.  "  Oratio  qua 
ostenditur  quale  esse  debeat  collegium  professorum  regio- 
rum,"  &c.  ibid.  1596,  8vo.  6.  "  Commentarius  in  librum 
Aristotelis  ntp  tmv  /mixowimw,"  Gr.  and  Lat.  ibid.  1599,  4to». 
7.  "  Ludus  latromathematicus,"  &c.  ibid  1597,  8vo,  and 
1700.  8.  "  De  puncto  primo  Geometric  principio  liber,'* 
Leyden,  1600,  4to.  This  was  at  one  time  improperly  attri- 
buted to  his  son,  Thierry.  9.  "  Problematis  omnium  quae 
a  1200  annis  invents  sunt  nobilissimi  demonstration  Paris, 

1  Tiraboschi.— Moreri.— Brunei'*  Manuel  du  Llbraire. 

ti6  M-O  N  A  R  t>  E  S. 


1 600.  He  left  some  other  works,  both  MS.  and  printed, 
of  less  consequence. ! 

MONARDES  (Nicholas),  a  Spanish  physician,  waa 
born  at  Seville  in  the  early  part  of  the  sixteenth  centtny.. 
He  received  his  education  at  the  university  ofAlcalade 
Henarez,  and  settled  in  practice  at  Seville,  where  he  died 
in  1578.  The  first  of  his  writings  related  to  a  controverted 
question,  and  was  entitled  "  De  secanda  vena  in  Pleuritide 
inter  -Graecos  et  Arabes  concordia,"  Hispal.  l$39.  This 
was  followed  by  a  tract,  "  De  Rosa  et  partibus  ejus ;  de 
succi  Rosarum  temperatura,"  &c.  But  his  reputation  was 
chiefly  extended  by  his  work,  in  the  Spanish  language, 
concerning  the  medicinal  substances  imported  from  the 
flew  world,  entitled  "  Dos  Libros  de  las  cosas  qiie  se  traen 
de  las  Indias  Occiden tales,  que  sirven  al  uso  de  Medicina,'* 
Sevilla,  1565.  It  was  reprinted  in  1569  and  1580,  and  to 
the  latter  edition  a  third  book  was  added.  Charles TEcluse* 
or  Clusius,  translated  this  work  into  Latin,  with  the  title 
of  "  Simplicium  Medicamentorum  ex  novo  orbe  delatorum, 
quorum  in  Medicina  usus  est,  Hiitoria,"  Antw.  1574,  and 
improved  it  by  his  annotations,  and  by  the  addition  of 
figures.  This  work  was  also  translated  into  Italian,  French, 
and  English,  the  latter  by  Frampton;  1580,  4to,  Although 
the  descriptions  are  inaccurate,  the  work  had  at  least  the 
merit  of  exciting  the  public  attention  to  medicines  hereto- 
fore little  known.  Monardes  also  published  three  works 
in  Spanish,  which  were  translated  into  Latin  by  1' Eel  use, 
with  the  title  of  "  Nicolai  Monardi  Libri  tres,  magna  Me- 
dicines secreta  et  varia  Experimenta  continentes,"  Lugd« 

1601.  The  first  of  these  relates  to  the  lsfpis  bezoardicus  ; 
the  second,  to  the  use  and  properties  of  steel,  which  he 
was  the  first  after  Rhazes  to  recommend  as  a  deobstruent, 
acoording  to  Dr.  Freind  ;  and  the  third,  to  the  efficacy  of 
snow.  His  name  is  pert/etuated  by  the  botanical  genua 
Monarda,  in  the  class  dimdria  of  Linnaeus.  * 

MONBODDO.     See  BURNET,  James. 


MONCKTON  (Sir  Philip,  knt.),  was  the  son  of  sir 
Francis  Monckton,  knt.  of  Cavil  Hall,  and  of  Newbold,  both 
in  the  East-riding  of  Yorkshire,  and  descended  from  an 

*  Niccron,  vol.  XV.— Moreri.— Eloy,  Diet.  Hist,  de  Medicine.— Gen.  Diet.-** 
Saxii  Onomast. 

*  Antonio  BibI,  Hisp.— Moreii.— Elojr,  Diet,  Hist,  dt  Medktue.-rReet 's  Cy -. 


apcieot  family  in  that  county,  who  possessed  the  tordsbfp 
of  Monckton  before  the  place  was  made  *  nunnery,  which 
Was  ia  the  20th  Edward  II.  (1326).  Sir  Philip  was  born  at 
Heck,  near  Howden,  in  Yorkshire,  and  was  high  sheriff 
for  that  county  in  the  21st  Charles  II.  (1669).  He  served 
for  some  time  in  parliament  for  Scarborough,  and  had  been 
knighted  in  1643.  His  loyalty  to  Charles  I.  brought  him 
under  the  cognizance  of  the  usurpers,  and  for  his  loyal 
services  be  underwent  two  banishments,  and  several  impri- 
sonments during  the  course  of , the  civil  war;  his  grand- 
father, father,  and  himself,  being  a,U  at  one  time  seques* 
tered  by  Cromwell.  In  consideration  of  these  services 
and  sufferings,  king  Charles  II.  in  1653,  wrote  a  letter  to 
him  in  his  own  band  (which  was  delivered  by  major  Waters) 
promising  that  if  it  pleased  God  to  restore  him,  be  should 
share  with  him  in  his  prosperity,  as  he  had  been  conteut 
to  do  in.  his  adversity ;  but  he  afterwards  experienced  the- 
same  ingratitude  as  many  of  his  father's  friends,  for  when 
he  waited  on  the  lord  chancellor  Clarendon  with  a  recom- 
mendation from  the  earl  of  Albemarle  for  some  compen- 
sation for  his  services,  he  was  treated  with  the  utmost  inso- 
lence, and  dismissed  with  marked  contempt.  Sir  Philip 
had  been  a  prisoner  in  Belvoir  castle,  and  was  released  on 
col.  Rossiter's  letter  to  the  lord  general  Fairfax  in  his  fa- 
vour. He  fought  at  the  several  battles  of  Hessey  Moor, 
Marston  Moor,  Aderton  Moor,  and  at  Rowton  Heath,  near 
Chester,  where  he  was  wounded  in  his  right  arm,  and  was 
forced  to  manage  his  horse  with  bis  teeth  whilst  he  fought 
with  his  left,  when  he  was  again  wounded  and  taken  pri- 
soner. He  was  likewise  at  the  siege  of  Pontefract  castle, 
and  at  York.  He  married  miss  Eyre,  of  an  ancient  family, 
of  Hassop,  in  Derbyshire.  His  manuscripts  are  now  in 
the  possession  of  his  descendant,  the  lord  viscount  Gal  way,1 
MONCKTON  (Hon.  Robert),  great  grandson  of  the 
preceding,  and  a  major-gefteral  in  the  army,  was  born 
about  1728,  and  was  the  son  of  John  Monckton,  the  first 
viscount  Galway,  and  baron  of  Killard,  by  his  wife  the  lady 
Elizabeth  Manners,  daughter  to  John  second  duke  of  Rut- 
land. He  was  sent  with  a  detachment  to  Nova  Scotia  in 
1755,  and  served  under  general  Wolfe  against  Quebec* 
He  dislodged  a -body  of  the  enemy  from  the  point  of  Levi, 
and  formed  a  plan  for  tending  the  troops,  near  the  heights 

%  i  Lodge's  Pepjntge.— •Print*  raformaiiot. 


of  Abraham,  and  assisted  in  the  execution  for  conducting 
the  right  wing  at  the  battle  of  Quebec,  where  be  was  danger- 
ously wounded.  He  received  the  thanks  of  the  House  of 
Commons,  and  afterwards  went  to  New  York,  where  be  reco- 
vered of  his  wounds.  He  was  also  at  the  taking  of  Mar- 
tinico,  and  was  sometime  governor  of  Portsmouth,  where 
Fort  Monckton  was  so  called  in  honour  of  him.  He  died  in 
1782,  leaving  the  character  of  a  brave,  judicious,  and  bu- 
tane officer.  In  bis  account  of  the  taking  of  Martinico 
in  1762,  be  mentions  an  attack  made  by  the  French  troops 
from  Morne  Gamier  on  some  of  our  posts,  in  which  they 
were  repulsed,  and  such  was  the  ardour  of  our  troops, 
that  they  passed  the  ravine  with  the  enemy,  seized  their 
batteries,  and  took  post  there.  It  is  also  said  that  on  this 
occasion  the  English  party  had  no  colours  with  them  when 
they  took  possession  of  the  batteries,  and  supplied  the  want 
of  them  by  a  shirt  and  a  red  waistcoat.  From  the  many 
instances  which  have  been  given  of  General  Monckton's 
liberality,  the  following  may  be  selected  as  deserving  to 
be  remembered.  When  the  troops  were  sent  to  Martinico, 
general  Amherst  took  away  the  usual  allowance  of  bangh 
and  forage-money.  General  Monckton,  knowing  the  dif- 
ficulties which  subaltern  officers  have  to  struggle  with  in 
the  best  situation,  felt  for  their  distress,  and  in  some  de- 
gree to  make  it  up  to  them,  ordered  the  negroes  which 
were  taken,  to  be  sold,  and  the  money  divided  among  the 
subalterns.  On  finding  that  it  would  not  produce  them 
five  pounds  a-piece,  he  said  he  could  not  offer  a  gentleman 
a  less  sum,  and  made  up  the  deficiency,  which  was  about 
SOOl.  out  of  his  own  pocket.  He  kept  a  constant  table  of 
forty  covers  for  the  army,  and  ordered  that  the  subalterns 
chiefly  should  be  invited,  saying,  he  had  been  one  himself; 
and  if  there  was  a  place  vacant,  he  used  to  reprimand  his 
aid-de-camp. ' 

MONCONYS  (Balthasar),  a  celebrated  traveller,  was 
the  son  of  the  lieutenant-criminel  of  Lyons.  After  having 
studied  philosophy  and  mathematics  in  bis  native  city  and 
in  Spain,  he  visited  the  East  in  order  to  seek  for  the  books 
of  Mercurius  Trismegistus  and  Zoroaster ;  but  finding  no- 
thing to  detain  him,  returned  to  France,  and  was  esteemed 
by  the  learned,  particularly  the  amateurs  of  chemistry 
and  astrology.     He  died  April  28, 1665.     His  travels  have 

l  Geat  Mag.    See  Index*— Private  infbrmatioa. 

MONCONY8.  233 

Wen  printed  under  the  title  of  "  Journal  de  *es  voyages 
eti  Portugal,  Provence,  Italie,  Egypt,  &c.  &c.  redigg  par 
le  sieur  de  Liergues,  son  fils,"  Lyons,  1665 — 6,  3  vols.  4to. 
They  are  ill-written,  bis  style  being  loose  and  diffuse, 
but  they  contain  many  curious  particulars.  It  appears 
that  he  was  in  England  in  1663,  as  he  gives  several  in- 
teresting anecdotes  of  the  court  of  Charles  II.  and  of  tbe 
manners  of  the  times.  He  travelled  through  various  coun« 
tries  as  tutor  to  the  sons  of  noblemen,  one  of  whom,  the 
duke  de  Chevereuse,  was  with  him  in  England.  Brunet 
gives  the  title  of  what  appears  to  be  another  work  of  travels 
by  Monconys,  "  Voyage  en  divers  endroits  de  l'Europe,  en 
Afrique  et  au  Levant,9'  Paris  (Holland)  1695,  5  vols.  12 mo.* 

MONCRIF  (Francis  Augustin  Paradis  de),  a  member 
of  the  French  academy,  was  born  at  Paris  in  1687.  He 
was  a  very  elegant  writer,  and  his  works  have  gone  through 
various  editions.  His  principal  performances  are,  "  An 
Essay  on  the  necessity  and  means  of  Pleasing,"  which  is 
an  ingenious  book  of  maxims.  He  wrote  "  Les  Ames 
Rivales,"  an  agreeable  romance,  containing  lively  and 
just  descriptions  of  French  manners.  He  was  also1  author 
of  various  pieces  of  poetry,  small  theatrical  pieces,  com- 
plimentary verses,  madrigals,  &c.  Moncrif  died  at  Paris 
in  1770,  at  the  age  of  eighty- three,  and  left  behind  him  a 
great  character  for  liberality,  and  amiable  manners.  * 


MONGAULT  (Nicolas  Hubert),  an  ingenious  and 
learned  Frenchman,  and  one  of  the  best  writers  of  bis  time, 
was  born  at  Paris  in  1674.  At  sixteen  he  entered  into  the 
congregation  of  the  fathers  of  the  oratory,  and  was  after- 
wards sent  to  Mans  to  learn  philosophy.  That  of  Aristotle 
then  obtained  in  the  schools,  and  was  the  only  one  which 
was  permitted  to  be  taught ;  nevertheless  Mongault,  with 
some  of  that  original  spirit  which  usually  distinguishes  men 
of  uncommon  abilities  from  the  vulgar,  ventured,  in  a 
public  thesis,  which  he  read  at  the  end  of  the  course  of 
lectures,  to  oppose  the  opinions  of  Aristotle,  and  to  main- 
tain those  of  Des  Cartes.  Having  studied  theology  with 
the  same  success,  he  quitted  the  oratory  in  1699  ;  and 
soon  after  went  to  Thoulouse,  and  lived  with  Colbert, 
archbishop  of  that  place,  who  had  procured  him  a  priory 

*  Moreri.— -Maty's  Review,  toI.  V.  p.  39. 

*  Neurologic  des  Homines  Celebres,  for  1771.-- D'Alembert's  Hist,  des  Meia- 
fcres  de  P Academic.— Diet  Hist. 

6U  MONGAniT/ 

in  1698;  In  i710  the  duke  of  Orleans,  regent  of  theking*? 
doto,  committed  to  him  the  education  of  bis  son,  the  diike 
of  Ghartres ;  which  important  office  he  discharged  bo  well 
that  he  acquired  universal  esteem.  In  1714,  he  had  the 
abbey  Chartreuve  given  him,  and  that  of  Villeneuve  in 
1719.  The  duke  of  Chartres,  becoming  colonel-general 
of  the  French  infantry,  chose  the  abW  Mongault  to  fill  the 
place  of  secretary-general ;  made  him  also  secretary  of  the 
province  of  Dauphiny ;  and,  after  the  death  of  the  regent, 
his  father,  raised  him  to  other  considerable  employments* 
All  this  while  he  was  as  assiduous  as  his  engagements  WouIc| 

1>ermit  in  cultivating  polite  literature ;  and,  in  1 7 14,  pub-* 
ished  at  Paris,  in  6  vols.  12mo,  an  edition  of  "  Tolly's 
Letters  to  Atticus,"  with  an  excellent  French  translation, 
and  judicious  comment  upon  them.  This  work  has  been 
often  reprinted,  and  is  justly  reckoned  admirable  ;  for,  as 
Middleton  has  observed,  in  the  preface  to  his  "  Life  of 
Cicero,"  the  abb6  Mongault  "  did  not  content  himself  with 
the  retailing  the  remarks  of  other  commentators,  or  out  of 
the  rubbish  of  their  volumes  with  selecting  the  best,  but 
entered  upon  his  task  with  the  spirit  of  a  true  critic,  and,  by 
the  force  of  his  own  genius,  has  happily  illustrated  many 
passages  which  all  the  interpreters  before  him  had  given 
up  as  inexplicable."  He  published  also  a  very  good  trans- 
lation of  "  Herodian,"  from  the  Greek,  the  best  edition) 
of  which  is  that  of  1745,  in  12mo.  He  died  at  Paris, 
Aug.  15,  1746,  aged  almost  seventy-two. 

He  was  a  member  of  the  French  academy,  and  of  the 
academy  of  inscriptions  and  belles  lettres ;  and  was  fitted 
to  do  honour  to  any  society.  In  the  first  volume  of  the 
*'  Memoirs  of  the  Academy  of  Inscriptions"  there  are  two 
fine  dissertations  of  his  :  one  "  upon  the  divine  honours 
paid  to  the  governors  of  the  Roman  provinces,  during  the 
continuance  of  the  republic ;"  the  other,  "  upon  the  tem- 
ple, which  Cicero  conceived  a  design  of  consecrating  to 
the  memory  of  his  beloved  daughter  Tullia,  under  the  title 

MONK  (George),  duke  of  Albemarle,  memorable  for 
having  been  the  principal  instrument  in  the  restoration  of 
Charles  II.  to  his  crown  and  kingdoms,  was  descended  from 
a  very  ancient  family,  and  born  at  Pothe ridge,  in  Devon- 
shire, Dec.  6,  1608.     He  was  a  younger  son;  and,  ns 

1  Moreri.— Diet  Hipt. 

M  0  N  tf.  235 

provision  being  expected  from  bis  father,  sir  Thomas  Monk, 
whose  fortune  was  reduced,  he  dedicated'  himself  to  arm* 
from  his  youth.     He  entered  in  1625,  when  not  quite  se- 
venteen, as  a  volunteer  tinder  sir  Richard  Grenville,  then 
at  Plymouth,  and  just  setting  out  under  lord  Wimbledon 
cm  the  expedition  against  Spain.     The  year  after  he  ob- 
tained a  pair  of  colours,  in  the  expedition  to  the  isle  of 
Rhee;  whence  returning  in  1628,  he  served  the  following 
year  as  ensign  in  the  Low  Countries,  where  he  was  pro- 
moted to  the  rank  of  captain.     In  this  station  he  was  pre- 
sent in  several  sieges  arid  battles ;  and  having,  in  ten  years 
service,  made  himself  absolute  master  of  the  military  art, 
be  returned  to  his  native  country  on  the  breaking  out  of 
the  war  between  Charles  I.  and  his  Scotish  subjects.     His 
rteptftation,  supported  by  proper  recommendations,  pro- 
Cured  him  the  rank  of  lieutenant-colonel,  in  which  post  be 
served  in  both  the  king's  northern  expeditions;  and  was' 
afterwards  a.  colonel,  when  the  Irish  rebellion  took  place. 
In  the  suppression  of  this  he  did  such  considerable  service, 
that  the  lords  justices  appointed  him  governor  of  Dublin  : 
but  the  parliament  intervening,  that  authority  was  vested 
in  another:4   Soon  after,  on  his  signing  a  truce  with  the 
rebels,  by  the  king's  order,  September  1643,  he  returned 
with  his  regiment  to  England ;  but,  on  his  arrival  at  Bris- 
tol, was  met  by  orders  both  from  Ireland  and  Oxford,  di- 
recting the  governor  of  that  place  to  secure  him.     The 
governor,    however,    believing  the   suspicions  conceived 
against  him  groundless,  sutfered  him  to  proceed  to  Oxford 
on  his  bare  parole ;  and  there  he  so  fully  justified  himself 
to  lord  Digby,  then  secretary  of  state,  that  he  was  by  that 
nobleman  introduced  to  the  king;  but  his  regiment  was 
given  to  colonel  Warren,  who  had  been  his  major.     As 
some  amends  for  this,  the  king  made  him  major-general  in 
the  Irish  brigade,  then  employed  in  the  siege  of  Nantwich, 
in  Cheshire;  at  which  place  he  arrived  just  soon  enough 
to  share  in  the  unfortunate  surprisal  of  that  whole  brigade 
by  sir  Thothas  Fairfax.     He  was  sent  to  Hull,  and  thence 
conveyed  in  a  short  time  to  the  Tower  of  London,  where 
he  remained  in  close  confinement  till  Nov.  13,  1646;  and 
then,  as  the  only  means  to  be  set  at  liberty,  he  took  the 
Covenant,  -engaged  with  the   parliament,   and   agreed  to 
accept  a  command  under  them  in  the  Irish  service.     Some 
have  charged  him  with  ingratitude  for  thus  deserting  the 
king,  who  had  beea  very  kind  to  him  during  his  con- 

236  MONK. 


finement,  and  in  particular  had  sent  him  from  Oxford 
100/.  which  was  a  great  sum  for  his  majesty,  then  much 
distressed.  It  has,  however,  been  pleaded  in  his  favour, 
that  he  never  listened  to  any  terms  made  him  by  the  parlia- 
mentarians while  the  king  had  an  army  on  foot.  Whatever 
strength  may  be  in  this  apology,  it  is  certain  that  when 
bis  majesty  was  in  the  hands  of  his  enemies,  he  readily 
accepted  of  a  colonel's  commission ;  and,  as  he  had  been 
engaged  against  the  Irish  rebels  before,  he  thought  it  con- 
sistent with  the  duty  he  owed,  and  which  be  had  hitherto 
inviolably  maintained  to  the  king,  to  oppose  them  again. 
H5  set  out  for  Ireland,  Jan.  28, 1646-7,  but,  returned  in 
April  on  account  of  some  impediments.  Soon  after,  he 
had  the  command  in  chief  of  all  the  parliament's  forces  ii* 
the  north  of  Ireland  conferred  upon  him  ;  upon  which  he 
went  again,  and  for  the  following  two  years  performed 
several  exploits  worthy  of  an  able  and  experienced  soldier. 
Then  he  was  called  to  account  for  having  treated  with  the 
Irish  rebels ;  and  summoned  to  appear  before  the  parlia- 
ment, who,  after  hearing  him .  at  the  bar  of  the  house, 
passed  this  vote,  Aug.  10,  1649,  "That  tbey  did  disap- 
prove of  what  major-general  Monk  had  done,  in  conclud- 
ing a  peace  with  the  grand  and  bloody  Irish  rebel,  Owen 
Roe  O'Neal,  and  did  abhor  the  having  any  thing  to  do 
with  him  therein  ;  yet  are  easily  persuaded,  that  the  mak- 
ing the  same  by  the  said  major-general  was,  in  his  judg- 
ment, most  for  the  advantage  of  the  English  interest  in 
that  nation ;  and,  that  he  shall  not  be  farther  questioned 
for  the  same  in  time  to  come."  This  vote  highly  offended 
the  major-general,  though  not  so  much  as  some  passages 
in  the  House,  reflecting  on  his  honour  and  fidelity.  He 
was,  perhaps,  the  more  offended  at  this  treatment,  as  he 
was  not  employed  in  the  reduction  of  Ireland  under  Oliver 
Cromwell ;  who,  all  accounts  agree,  received  considerable 
advantage  from  this  very  treaty  with  O'Neal.  Monk's 
friends  endeavoured  to  clear  his  reputation ;  his  reasons 
for  agreeing  with  O'Neal  were  also  printed ;  yet  nothing, 
could  wipe  off  the  stain  of  treating  with  Irish  rebels,  till  it. 
was  forgotten  in  bis  future  fortune. 

About  this  time  his  elder  brother  died  without  issue  male; 
and  the  family  estate  by  entail  devolving  upon  bim,  he. 
repaired  it  from  the  ruinous  condition  in  which  his  father 
and  brother  had  left  it.  He  had  scarce  settled  bis 
private  affairs,  when  he  was  called  to  serve  against  the 


Scots  (who  had  proclaimed  Charles  II.)  under  Oliver  Crom- 
well ;  by  whom  he  was  made  lieutenant-general  of  the  »r- 
tillery,  and  had  a  regiment  given  him.  His  services  were 
now  so  important,  that  Cromwell  left  him  commander  in 
chief  in  Scotland,  when  he  returned  to  England  to  pursue 
Charles  II.  In  1652,  be  wa$  seized  with  a  violent  fit  of 
illness,  which  obliged  him  to  go  to  Bath  for  the  recovery 
of  his  health :  after  which,  he  set  out  again  for  Scotland, 
was  one  of  the  commissioners  for  uniting  that  kingdom  with 
the  new-erected  commonwealth,  and,  having  successfully 
concluded  it,  returned  to  London.  The  Dutch  war  having 
now  been  carried  on  for  some  months,  lieutenant-general 
Monk  was  joined  with  the  admirals  Blake  and  Dean  in  the 
command  at  sea;  in  which  service,  June  2,  1653,  he  conr 
tributed  greatly  by  his  courage  and  conduct  to  the  defeat 
of  the  Dutch  fleet.  Monk  and  Dean  were  on  board  the 
same  ship ;  and,  Dean  being  killed  the  first  broadside, 
Monk  threw  his  cloak  over  the  body,  and  gave  orders  for 
continuing  the  fight,  without  suffering  the  enemy  to  know 
that  we  had  lost  one  of  our  admirals.  Cromwell,  in  the 
mean  time,  was  paving  bis  way  to  the  supreme  command, 
which,  Dec.  16,  1653,  he  obtained,  under  the  title  of  pro- 
tector ;  and,  in  this  capacity,  soon  concluded  a  peace' with 
the  Dutch.  Monk  remonstrated  warmly  against  the  terms 
of  this  peace ;  and  bis  remonstrances  were  well  received 
by  Oliver's  own  parliament.  Monk  also,  on  his  return 
home,  was  treated  so  respectfully  by  them,  that  Oliver  is 
said  to  have  grown  jealous  of  him,  as  if  he  had  been  in- 
clined to  another  interest,  but,  receiving  satisfaction  from 
the  general  on  that  head,  he  not  only  took  him  into  favour, 
but,  on  the  breaking  out  of  fresh  troubles  in  Scotland,  sent 
him  there  as  commander  in  chief.  He  set  out  in  April 
1654,  and  finished  the  war  by  August;  when  he  returned 
from  the  Highlands,  and  fixed  his  abode  at  Dalkeith,  a 
seat  belonging  to  the  countess  of  Buccleugh,  within  five 
miles  of  Edinburgh :  and  here  he  resided  during  the  re- 
maining time  that  he  stayed  in  Scotland,  which  was  five 
years,  amusing  himself  with  rural  pleasures,  and  beloved 
by  the  people,  though  his  government  was  more  arbitrary 
than  any  they  had  experienced.  He  exercised  this  go- 
vernment as  one  of  the  protector's  council  of  state  in  Scot- 
land, whose  commission  bore  date  in  June  1655.  Crom- 
well, however,  could  not  help  distrusting  him  at  times,  on 
account  of  his  popularity ;  nor  was  this  distrust  entirely 

$3#  MONK, 

without  the  appearance  of  foundation.  It  is  certain  the 
Jtipg  entertained  good  hopes  of  him,  and  to  that  purpose 
sent  to  him  the  followiug  letter  from  Colen,  Aug.  12,  165% 

"  One,  who  believes  be  knows  your  nature  and  incliiiar 
•tions  very  well,  assures  me,  that,  notwithstanding  all  iU 
accidents  and  misfortunes,,  jou  retain  still  your  old  affec* 
tion  to  me,  and  resolve  to  express  it  upon  the  first  season? 
able  opportunity ;  which  is  as  much  as  I  look  for  from 
We  must  all  patiently  wait  for  that  opportunity,  which  may 
be  offered  sooner  than  we  expect :  when  it  is,  let  it  find 
you  ready ;  and,  in  the  mean  time,  have  a  care  to  keep 
yourself  out  of  their  hands,  who  know  the  hurt  ybu  can  da 
them  in  a  good  conjuncture,  and  can  never  but  suspect 
your  affection  to  be,  as  I  am  confident  4t  is,  towards 

Yours,  &c.  Charles  Rjbx." 

However,  Monk  made  no  scruple  of  discovering  every 
step  taken  by  the  cavaliers  which  came  to  his  knowledge, 
even  to  the  sending  the  protector  this  letter;  and  joined 
in  promoting  addresses  to  him  from  the  army,  one  of  which 
was  received  by  the  protector  March  19,  1657,  in  which 
year  Monk  received  a  summons  to  Oliver's  house  of  lords. 
Upon  the  death  of  Oliver,  Monk  joined  in  an  address  to 
the  new  protector  Richard,  whose  power,  nevertheless,  he 
foresaw  would  be  but  short-lived ;  it.  having  been  bis  epi* 
nion,  that  Oliver,  had  he  lived  much  longer,  would  scarce 
have  been  able  to  preserve  .himself  in  his  station.    And 
indeed  Cromwell  himself  began  to,  he  apprehensive  pf  that 
.great  alteration  which  happened  after  his  death,  and  fear- 
ful that  the  general  was  deeply  engaged  in  those  measures 
which  procured  it ;  if  we  may  judge  from  a  letter  written 
by  him  to  general  Monk  a  little  before,  to  which  was  added 
the  following  remarkable  postscript :  "  There  be  that  tell 
.me,  that  there  is.a  certain. cunning. fellow  in  Scotland,. called 
George  Monk,  who  is  said  to  lie  in  wait  there  to  introduce 
Charles  Stuart ;  I  pray  you,  use  your  diligence  to  appre- 
-hend  him,  and.  send  him  up  to  me."     It  belongs  to  history 
to  relate  all  the  steps  which  led  to  .the  restoration  of  Charles 
II.  and  which  were  ably  conducted  by  Monk*    Immedi- 
ately after  that  event,  he  was  loaded  with  pensions,  and 
honours ;  was  made  knight  of  the  garter,  one  of  the  privy*- 
council,  master  of  the  horse,  a  gentleman  of  the  bed- 
chamber, first  lordncommissioner  of  the  treasury ; .  and  soon 
after  created  a  peer,  being  made  baron  Monk  of  Potheridge, 
Beauchamp,  and  Tees,  earl  of  Torjriqgtoo,  4aod  duke  of 

'        MONK.  23* 

Albemarle,  with  a  grant  of  70007.  per  annum,  estate  of 
inheritance,  besides  other  pensions.     He  received  a  very 
peculiar  acknowledgment  of  regard  on  being  thus  called 
to  the  peerage;  almost  the  whole  house  of  commons  at- 
tending him  to  the  very  door  of  the  house  of  lords,  while 
be  behaved  with  great  moderation,  silence,  and  humility. 
This  behaviour  was  really  to  be  admired  in  a  man,  who, 
by  his  personal  merit,  had  raised  himself  within  the  reach 
of  a  crown,  which  he  had  the  prudence,  or  the  virtue,  to 
wave :  yet  he  preserved  it  to  the  end  of  his  life  :  insomuch, 
that  the  king,  who  used  to  call  him  bis  political  father,  said9 
very  highly  to  his  honour,  "  the  dtfke  of  Albemarle  de- 
meaned himself  in  such  a  manner  to  the  prince  he  had 
obliged,  as  never  to  seem. to  overvalue  the  services  of  ge- 
neral Monk."     During  the  remainder  of  his  life  he  was 
consulted  and  employed  upoq  all  great  occasions  by  the 
king,  and  at  the  same  time  appears  to  have  been  esteemed 
.and  beloved  by  his  fellow-subjects.  In  1664,  on  the  break- 
ing out  of  the  first  Dutch  war,  he  was,  by  the  duke  of  York, 
who  commanded  the  fleet,  intrusted  with  the  care  of  the 
admiralty  :  and,  the  plague  breaking  out  the  same  year  in 
London,  he  was  intrusted  likewise  with  the  care  of  the  city 
by  the  king,  who  retired  to  Oxford.    He  was,  at  the  latter 
end  of  the  year,  appointed  joint-admiral  of  the  fleet  with 
prince  Bupert,  and, distinguished  himself  with  great  bra- 
very against  the  Dutch.    In  September  1666,  the  fire  of 
London  occasioned  the  Duke  of  Albemarle  to  be  recalled 
from  the  fleet,  to  assist  in  quieting  the  ixiinds  of  the  people ; 
who  expressed  their  affection  and  esteem  for  him,  by  crying 
out  publicly,  as  he  passed  through  the  ruined  streets,  that, 
"  if  his  grace  bad  been  there,  the  city  had  not  bejen  burned.'* 
The  many  hardships  and  fatigues  he  had  undergone  in  a 
military  life  began  to  shake  his  constitution  somewhat  early; 
so  that  about  his  60th  year  he  was  attacked  with  a  dropsy;; 
.which,  being  too  much  neglected,  perhaps  on  account  of 
his  having  been,  hitherto  remarkably  healthy,   advanced 
very  rapidly,  and  put  a  period  to  his  life,  Jan.  3,  1669-70, 
when  he  was  entering  his  62dyear.  He  died  in  the  esteem 
jof  his  sovereign,  and  his  brother  -the  duke  of  York,  as  ap- 
pears  not  only  from  the  high  posts  he  enjoyed,  and  the 
-great  trust  reposed  in  him  by  both,  but  also  from  the  tender 
•concern  shewn  by  them,  in  a  constant  inquiry  after  his 
state  during  his  last  illness,  and  the  public  and  princely 
regajrd  paid  to  his  memory  after  his  decease  4  for,  hisfu~ 

*40  M  ONfc 

neral  was  honoured  with  all  imaginable  pomp  and  solentf-* 
nity,  and  his  ashes  admitted  to  mingle  with  those  of  the 
royal  blood;  he  being  interred,  April  4,  1670,  in  Henry 
the  Vllth's  chapel  at  Westminster,  after  his  corpse  bad 
lain  in  state  many  weeks  at  Somerset-house. 

The  duke  of  Albemarle's  character  has  been  variously 
represented,  and  some  parts  of  it  cannot,  perhaps,  be  de- 
fended without  an  appeal  to  those  principles  of  policy 
which  are  frequently  at  variance  with  morality.  Hume, 
however,  thinks  it  a  singular  proof  of  the  strange  power 
of  faction,  that  any  malignity  (alluding  to' such  writers  as 
Burnet,  Harris,  &c.)  should  pursue  the  memory  of  a  no- 
bleman, the  tenour  of  whose  life  was  so  unexceptionable, 
and  who,  by  restoring  the  ancient  and  legal  and  free  gcn- 
vernment  to  three  kingdoms  plunged  in  the  most  destruc- 
tive anarchy,  may  safely  be  said  to  be  the  subject  in  these 
islands,  who,  since  the  beginning  of  time,  rendered  the 
most  durable  and  most  essential  services  to  his  native  coun- 
try. The  means  also,  by  which  he  atchieved  his  great- 
undertakings,  were  almost  entirely  unexceptionable.  "  His 
temporary  dissimulation,"  continues  Hume,  "  being  abso- 
lutely necessary,  ctiuld  scarcely  be  blameable.  He  had 
received  no  trust  from  that  mongrel,  pretended,  usurping 
parliament  whom  he  dethroned;  therefore  could  betray 
none :  he  even  refused  to  carry  his  dissimulation  so  far  as 
to  take  the  oath  of  abjuration  against  the  king."  Yet  Hume 
allows  .that  in  his  Letter  to  Sir  Arthur  Hazelrrg  (in  the 
Clarendon  papers)  he  is  to  be  blamed  for  his  false  protes- 
tations of  zeal  for  a  commonwealth. 

This  extraordinary  man  was  an  author :  a  light  in  which 
he  is  by  no.means  generally  known,  and  yet  in  which  he  did 
not  want  merit.  After  his  death,  was  published,  by  au- 
thority, a  treatise  which  he  composed  while  a  prisoner  iri 
the  Tower:  it  is  called,  "Observations  upon  military  and 
political  Affairs,  written  by  the  honourable  George  Duke 
of  Albemarle,"  &c.  London,  1671,  small  folio.  Besides 
a  dedication  to  Charles  II.  signed  John  Heath,  the  editor^ 
it  contains  thirty  chapters  of  martial  rules;  interspersed 
with  political  observations,  and  is  in  reality  a  kind  of  tailt** 
tary  grammar.  We  have,  besides,  "  The  Speech  of  ge- 
neral Monk  in  the  House  of  Commons,  concerning  the 
settling  the  conduct  of  the  Armies  of  Three  Nations/  for 
the  Safety  thereof;"  another  delivered  at  Whitehall,  Feb. 
21,  1659,  to  the  members  of  parliament,  at  their  meeting 

MONK.  241 

4>efQ*e4he  jrd-fldmission  of  their  formerly-secluded  mem* 
hers ;  and  "  Letters  relating  to  the  Restoration,"  London, 
.17 14-15. 1 

MONK  (Hon.  Mary),  daughter  of  Lord  Molesworth, 
#njd  mfe  to  George  Monk,  esq.  was  celebrated  for  her 
fttfcetical  talents.  She  acquired  by  her  own  application  a 
perfect  knowledge  of  the  Latin,  Italian,  and  Spanish  lan- 
guages ;  and,  from  a  study  of  the  best  authors,  a  decided 
jtaate  for  poetical  composition.  She  appears  to  have  written 
for  her  own  .amusement,  rather  than  with  any  view  to  pub-  t 
lication.  Her  poems  were  not  printed  till  after  her  death, 
when  tbey  .were  published  under  the  title  of  "  Marinda ; 
Poems jand  Translations  upon  several  Occasions,"  London, 
1716,  Svo.  A  dedication  to  Caroline,  princess  of  Wales, 
was  prefixed  to  them  by  lord  Molesworth,  th$  father  of 
Mrs.  Monk,  who  speaks  of  the  poems  as  the  production 
"  of  the  leisure  hours  of  a  young  woman,  who,  in  a  re- 
mote country  retirement,  without  other  assistance  than  that 
of  a  good  library,  and  without  omitting  the  daily  care  due 
to  a  large  family,  not  only  acquired  the  several  languages 
here  made  use  of,  but  the  good  morals  and  principles  con* 
tained  in  those  books,  so  as  to  put  them  in  practice,  as  well 
during  her  life  and  languishing  sickness,  as  at  the  hour  of 
ber  death ;  ;dying  not  only  like  a  Christian,  but  a  Roman 
lady,  and  becoming  at  once  the  grief  and  the  comfort  of 
hex  relations."  She  died  in  1715,  at  Bath.  On  her  death* 
bed  she  wrote  some  very  affecting  verses  to  her  husband, 
which  are  not  printed  in  her  works,  but  may  be  found  in 
vol.  II.  of  the  "  Poems  of  Eminent  Ladies/'  and  in  "  Cib« 

DAr  S  I  "IVPMl 

MONMOUTH  (Geoffroy).    See  JEFFREY. 

MONNIER  (Peter  Charles  le),  an  eminent  French 
astronomer,  and  mathematician,,  was  born  at  Paris,  Nov.  23, 
1715.  His  education  was  chiefly  directed  to  the  sciences, 
to  which  be  manifested  an  efeiiy  attachment ;  and  his  pro* 
gr^ss  was  such  that  at  the  age  of  twenty -one,  he.wa* 
chq&en  as  the  co-operator  of  \Maupertuis,  in  the  measure 
of  a  degree  of  the  meridian  at  the  polar  circle.  At  the 
period  when  the  errors  in  Flatnsteed's  catalogue  of  the  stars 
began  to  be  manifest,  he  undertook  to  determine  anew  the  . 
positions  of  the  zodiacal  stars  as  being  the  most  useful  to 

342  MONN1ER, 

astronomers.  In  1743  he  traced  at  St  Sulpice  a  grand 
meridian  line^  in  order  to  ascertain  certain  solar  motions, 
and  also  the  small  variations  in  the  obliquity  of  the  ecliptic. 
. .'  In  1746,  he  determined,  after  numerous  observations, 
thfe  great  inequalities  of  Saturn,  produced  by  the  action 
;o£  Jupiter;  and  his  work  served  as  a  foundation  for  the 
-paper  of  Euler  on  this  subject,  which*  gained  the  prize  at 
the  academy  of  sciences  in  1743.  Soon  after  this,  Le 
Monnier  published  his  "  Astronomical  Institutions/'  a  work 
-which  was  so  much  the  more  useful,  as  it  was  then  the  only 
.one  in  France, that  contained  the  first  principles  of  astro* 
iiomy.  Having  undertaken  to  determine  the  errors  of  the 
lunar  tables,  he  directed  his  labours  peculiarly  to  that  sa- 
tellite, which  he  observed  with  assiduity  during  the  entire 
period  of  eighteen  years,  at  the  end  of  which  the  same 
errors  should  recommence.  His  principal  works,  besides 
the  foregoing,  are  "  Lunar  Nautical  Astronomy,"  "  Tablesv 
of, the  Sun,"  and  "  Corrections  of  those  of  the  Moon."  He 
took  great  pleasure  in.  astronomical  observations,  and  to 
him  has  been  ascribed  the  great  improvement  that  has  taken 
place  in  France  in  practical  astronomy. 

During  his  long,  career  he  was  considered  among,  big 
friends  as  the  soul  of  astronomy,  and  made  numerous  pro- 
selytes to  this  study  by  bis  advice,  example,  and  insiruc* 
ttons.  It  is  to  him  we  chiefly  owe  the  early  progress  of 
two  celebrated  astronomers,  Lalande  and  Pingr£.  Le  Mon- 
nier  died  in  179:9,  in  the  84th  year  of  his  age.  •  He  had  a 
brother,  Lewis  William,  a  very  able  experimental  pbilo~ 
ftopber,  but  who  is  not  to  be  confounded  with  an  abbe  of 
that  name  who  translated  Terence  and  Persius  into  French,-, 
and  who  was .  the  author  .of  fables,  tales,  and  epistles* 
The  latter  died  in  1796.1 

MONNOYE  (Bernard  de-la),  a  learned  French  poet; 
was  boro  in  Dijon,  the  capital  of  Burgundy,  June  1 5, 164-1.- 
He  was  a  map  of  parts  and  learning,  had  a  decided  taste' 
for  poetry;  and,  in  J  671,  had  a  fair,  opportunity  of  dis- 
playing his  talents.  ;  The  subject  of  the  prize  of  poetry, 
founded  by  the  members  of  the  French  academy  at  this 
time,  was,  "  The  Suppressing  of  Duelling  by  Lewis  XIV." 
At  this  was  the  first  contest  of  the  kind,  the  candidate* 
were  numerous  and  eager;  but  la  Monnoye  succeeded* 
and  had  the  honour  of  being  the  first  who  won  the  prise 
founded  by  the  French  academy ;  by  which  he  gained  a 

i  Hist,  de  VAstronomie  depuii  1781  juiqu'a  18U,  par;  M.  Voiron, 

M.ONNOYE.  243 

reputation  that  increased  ever  after.  In  1 673,  he  was  a 
candidate  for  the  new  prize,  the  subject  of  which  was, 
"The  protection  with  which  his  Gallic  majesty  honoured 
the  French  academy ;"  but  his  poem  came  too  late.  He 
won  the  prize  in  1675,  on  "  The  glory  of  arms  an<J  learn- 
ing under  Lewis  XIV;"  and  that  also  of  1677,  on  "  The 
Education  of  the  Dauphin."  On  this  occasion,  the  highest 
compliment  was  made  him  by  the  abt)6  Regnier;  who  said, 
that  "  it  would  be  proper  for  the  French  academy  to  elect 
Mr-  de  la  Monnoye  upon  the  first  vacancy,  because,  as  he 
would  thereby  be  disqualified  from  writing  any  more,  such 
as  should  then  be  candidates  would  be  encouraged  to 
write.9'  It  was  indeed  said,  that  he  discontinued  to  write 
for  these  prizes  at  the  solicitation  of  the  academy  ;  a  cir- 
cumstance which,  if  true,  reflects  higher  honour  on  him 
than  a  thousand  prizes.  He  wrote  many  other  successful 
pieces,  and  was  no  less  applauded  in  Latin  poetry  than  in 
the  French.  Menage  and  Bayle  have  both  bestowed  the 
highest  encomiums  on  bis  Latin  poetry.  His  Greek  and 
Italian  poems  are  likewise  much  commended  by  the  French 

But  poetry  was  not  la  Monnoye's  only  province:  to  .a 
perfect  skill  jn  poetry,  he  joined  a  very  accurate  and  ex- 
tensive knowledge  of  the  languages.  He  was  also  an  acute 
(critic :  and  no  man  applied  himself  with  greater  assiduity 
to  tbe  study  of  history,  ancient  and  modern.  He  was  per- 
fectly acquainted  with  all  tbe  scarce  books,  that  had  any- 
thing curious  in  them,  and  was  well  versed  in  literary  his- 
tory. He  wrote  "Remarks  on  the  Menagiana :"  in  the 
Jast  edition  of  which,  printed  in  1 7 1 5,  in  4  vols*  1 2mo,  ire 
included  several  pieces  of  his  poetry,  and  a  curious  dis- 
sertation on  the  famous  book  "  De  tribus  Impostoribus." 
His  "  Dissertation  on  Pomponius  Laetus,"  at  least  an 
.extract  of  it,  is  inserted  in  the  new  edition  of  Baillet's 
u  Jugemens  des  S^ayans/'  published  in  4722,  with  a  great 
jmmber  of  remarks  and  corrections  by  la  Monnoye.  lie 
also  embellished  the  "  Anti»Baillet  of  Menage,"  with  cor* 
xections  and  notes.  He  was  a  great  benefactor  to  litera- 
ture, by  his  own  productions,  and  the  assistance  which 
he  communicatd  very  freely,  upon  all  occasions,  to  other 
futthors.  Among  others,  he  favoured  Bayle  with  a  great 
number  of  curious  particulars  for  his  "Dictionary/'  which 
was  liberally  acknowledged.  He  died  at  Paris,  Oct.  1 5, 
1728,  in  his  88th  year. 

R  2 

244  MONNOYE, 

Mr.  de  Sallingre  published  at  the  Hague  €€  A  Collection 
of  Poems  by  hi  Monnoye,"  with  bis  eulogium,  to  which  we 
owe  many  of  the  particulars  given  above.     He  also  left 
behind  him   UA  Collection  of  Letters,"  mostly  critical; 
several  curious  "  Dissertations  ;*'  three  'hundred  "  Select 
Epigrams  from  Martial,  and  other  £oets,  ancient  and  mo- 
dern, in  Frenph  verse ;"  and  several  other  works  in  prose 
and  verse,  in  French,  Latin,  and  Greek,  ready  for  the  press. 
A  collection  of  his  works  in  3  vols.  8vo,  was  published   m 
1769.     He  deserved  that  the  French  academy  should  admit 
into  their  list  a  person  on  whom  they  had  so  often  be- 
stowed their  laurels,  and  he  might,  doubtless,  have  ob- 
tained that  honour  sooner,  had  he  sued  for  it:  but,  as  lie 
declined  such  solicitation,  he  was  not  elected  till  1713,  ttot 
the  death  of  abb£  Regner  des  Marias.     He  married  CJatfde 
tlenriot,  whom  he  survived,  after  living  many  years  witk 
her  in  the  strictest  amity ;  as  appears  from  a  copy  of  iAs 
verses,  and  also  from  the  epitaph  he  wrote  for  himself  anti 
his  wife.     He  had  accumulated  a  very  curious  and  valua- 
ble library,  but  was  obliged,  by  the  failure  of  the  Missisipfri. 
scheme,    to  propose  selling  it,  in   order  to  support  bis 
family.     This  the  duke   de   Villeroi  hearing,  settled  an 
annual  pension  of  6000  livres  upon  him ;  for  which  he  Ex- 
pressed his  gratitude,  in  a  poem  addressed  to  that  noble- 
man.    It  is  said,  however,  that  the  duke  did  it  only  tipda 
condition,  that  himself  should  inherit  the  library  after  tfete 
death  of  la  Monnoye,  who  accepted  the'  terms.1 
MONNOYER.     See  BAPTIST,  John. 
MONRO  (Alexander,  M.  D.),  an  eminent  anatomist, 
atfd  'the  father  of  the  medical  school  of;  Edinburgh,  was 
descended  both  by  bis  paternal  -ajid  maternal  parents  from 
distinguished  fannies  in  the  north  of  Scotland,     He  was 
born  in  l  London,  in   Septfetttber  1697,  where  his  father, 
then  a  sur£eon;iin  tBearmy  of  king' William  in  Flanders, 
resided  updn -leave  of  Absence  in  the^wihter.     0n  quitting 
the  artoy,  Mr.n  Monro  ^fettled  in"  Edinburgh  ;  and  perceiv- 
ing early  iridica'tiensubf  talent' in  -Alefcarider,  he  gave  him 
the  best  instruction  tfhibh 'Edinburgh  then  affbrded,  and 
iafterwaras  sfehthi'm  to 'London, 'where !:be  dttentffed  the 
anaforiiical  courses  of  Oftrese1d4o,  and1  while  here, *■  laid  the 
^foundation  of  hislmost4mportant  work  6n  the'bones.     He 
then'  pursued  bis  studies  «at  Patis  and  Leyden,  *wh«te  4rts 

MQNR'ft  *45 

industry  tod  promising  talents  recommended  him  to  the 
particular  notice  of  Boerhaave.  On  his  return  to  Edin- 
burgh, in  the  autumn  of  1719*  he  was  appointed  professor 
and  demonstrator  of.  anatomy  to  the  company  of  surgeons, 
the  joint  demonstrators  having  spontaneously  resigned  in 
his;  favour,  and  soon  after  began  alsptp  give  public  lectures 
on  anatomy,  aided  by  the  preparations  which  he  had  made 
when  abroad ;  and  at  the  same  time  Dr.  Alston,  then  a 
young  man,  united  with  him  in.  the  plaji,  and  began  a 
course  of  lectures  on,  the  matem&  medica  and  bdtany. 
These  courses  may  be  regarded  as  the  opening  of  that  me- 
dical school,  which  has  since  extended  its  fame,  not  only 
throughout  Europe,  but  over  the  new  world*  Mr.  Monro 
suggested  this  plan ;  and*  by  the  following  circumstance, 
probably,  contributed  to  lead  bis  son  into  a  mode  of  lec- 
turing, which,  subsequently  carried  him  to  excellence. 
Without  the*  young  teacher's  knowledge,  he  invited  the 
president  and  fpUaw*  o£  the  College,  oi  Physicians,  and 
%he  whole  company  of  surgeons,  to  honpur  the  first  day's 
lecture  with  their  presence.  This  unexpected  company 
threw  the  doctor  into  avbch  confusion,  that  he  forgot  the 
words  of  the  dfaceiirse,  which  he  had  written  and  coco- 
Bfthted  to  memory.  Having  left  his  papers  at  home,  he 
was  at  a  loss  for  a  Hjbtle  time  what  to  do :  but,  with  much 
presence  of  mind,  he  immediately  began  to  shew  some  of 
die  anatomical  preparations,  in  order  to  gain  time  for  re-* 
collection ;  and  ve»y  soon  resolved  not  to  attempt  to  re* 
peat  the  cbaeontse  which  he  had  prepaid,  hut  to  express 
biwaelf  in  such  language  as  should  occur  to  him  from  the 
aubject,  wfefcl*  he  wa»  cooBdent  that  he  understood.  The 
experiment  succeeded:  he  delivered'  l?im*elf  well>  and 
gained  great  applause  as  a  good  and  re?dy  speaker.  Thus 
discovering  hia  own  strength,  he  resolved  henceforth  never 
fee.  recite  any  written  discourse  in  teaching,  and  acquired  a 
free  and  elegant  style  of  delivering  lectures. 

In  the  same  year,  1720,  a  regular  series  of  medical  in- 
struction was  instituted  at  Edinburgh,  through  the  interest 
of  Dr.  Monro's  father:  these  two  lectureships  were  put 
upon  the  university  establishment,  to  which  were  span 
after  added  those  of  Drs.  Sinclair,  Rutherford,  Innes,  and 
Plummer.  This  system  of  medical  education  was.,  how- 
ever, incomplete,  without  affording  some  opportunity  to 
the  students  of  witnessing  the  progress  and  treatment  of 
diseases,  as  well  as  of  hearing  lectures.    A  proposal  wat* 

246  MONRO. 

therefore,  made  to  erect  and  endow  an  hospital  by  sub- 
scription ;  and  Dr.  Monro  published  a  pamphlet,  explain- 
ing the  advantages  of  such  an  institution.  The  royal  in- 
firmary was  -  speedily  raised,  endowed,  and  established  by 
charter ;  and  the  institution  of  clinical  lectures,  which  were 
commenced  by  Dr.  Monro  on  the  surgical  cases,  and  after- 
wards by  Dr.  Rutherford,  in  1748,  on  the  medical  cases, 
Completed  that  admirable  system  of  instruction,  upon  which 
the  reputation  and  usefulness  of -the  medical  school  of 
Edinburgh  have  been  subsequently  founded. 

Dr.  Monro,  who  was  indefatigable  in  the  labours  of  his 
office,  soon  made  himself  known  to  the  professional  world 
by  a  variety  of  ingenious  and  valuable  publications.  His 
first -and  principal  publication  was  bis  "Osteology,  or 
Treatise  on  the  Anatomy  of  the  Bones,"  which  appeared 
in  1726,  and  passed  through  eight  editions  during  his  life, 
and  was  translated  into  most  of  the  languages  of  Europe. 
To  the  later  editions  of  this  work  he  subjoined  a  concise 
neurology,  or  description  of  the  nerves,  and  a  very  accurate 
account  of  the  lacteal  system  and  thoracic  duct. 

Dr.  Monro  was  also  the  father  and  active  supporter  of  a 
society,  which  was  established  by  the  professors  and  other 
practitioners  of  the  town,  for  the  purpose  of  collecting  and 
publishing  papers  on '  professional  subjects,  and  to  which 
the  public  is  indebted  for  six  volumes  of  "  Medicai  Essays 
and  Observations  by  a  Society  at  Edinburgh,9'  the  first  of 
which  appeared  in  1752.  Dr.  Monro  was  the  secretary  of 
this  society  ;  and  after  the  publication  of  the  first  volume, 
when  the  members  of  the  society  became  remiss  in  their 
attendance,  the  whole  labour  of  collection  and  publication 
was  carried  on  by  himself;  "  insomuch  that  after  this," 
says  his  biographer,  *'  scarce  any  other  member  ever  saw 
a  paper  of  the  five  last  volumes,  except  those  they  were 
the  authors  of,  till  printed  copies  were  sent  them  by  the 
bookseller."  Of  this  collection,  many  of  the  most  valuable 
papers  were  written  by  Dr.  Monro,  on  anatomical,  phy- 
siological, and  practical  subjects:  the  most  elaborate  of 
these  is  an  "Essay  on  the  Nutrition  of  the  Foetus,"  in 
three  dissertations.  Haller,  speaking  of  these  volumes  as 
highly  valuable  to  the  profession,  adds,  a  Monrous  ibi 

After  the  conclusion  of  this  publication,  the  society  was 
revived,  at  the  suggestion  of  the  celebrated  mathematical 
professor,  Colin  Maclaurin,  aud  was  extended  to  the  ad- 

MONRO.  347 

mission  of  literary  and  philosophical  topics.     Dr.  Monro 
again  took  an  active  part  in  its  proceedings,  as  one  of  its., 
vice-presidents,  especially  after  the  death  of  Maclaurin, 
when  two  volumes  of  its  memoirs,  entitled  "  Essays  Phy- 
sical and  Literary,"  were  published,  and  some  materials  four . 
a  third  collected,  to  which  Dr.  Monro  contributed  several 
useful,  papers.     The  third  was  not  published  during  his 
life.*     His  last  publication  was  an  "  Account  of  the  Success . 
of  Inoculation  in  Scotland,"  written  originally  as  an  answer; 
to  some  inquiries  addressed  to  him  from  the  committee  of  * 
the  faculty  of  physicians  at  Paris,  appointed  to  investigate, 
the  merits  of  the  practice.     It  was  afterwards  published. at 
the  request,  of  some  of  his  friends,  and  contributed  to  ex- 
tend the  practice  in .  Scotland.     Besides  the  works  which  : 
he  published,  he  left  several   MSS.  written  at  different 
times,  of  which  the  following  are  the  principal:  viz..  A*' 
History  of  Anatomical  Writers;  An  Encheiresis  Anaio- 
mica ;  Heads  of  many  of  his  Lectures ;  A  •  Treatise  on 
Comparative  Anatomy ;  A  Treatise  on  Wouncjs  and  Tu- 
mours ;  and,  An  Oration  de  Cuticula.     This  last,  as  well . 
as  the  short  tract  on  comparative  anatomy,  has  been  printed 
in  aii'  edition  of  his  whole  works,  in  one  volume  quarto, : 
published  by  his  son,  Dr.  Alexander  Monro,  at  Edinburgh, 
in  1781.     This  tract  bad  been  published  surreptitiously  iq 
1744,,. from  notes. taken  at  his  lectures;  but  is  here  given 
in  -a  more  correct  form. 

In  1759,  Dr.  Monro  resigned  bis  anatomical  chair,  which 
he  had  so  long  occupied  with  the  highest  reputation,  to 
his  son,  just  mentioned ;  but  he  still  continued  to  lecture  * 
as  one  of  the  clinical  professors,  on  the  cases  in  the  in- 
firmary. His  life  was  also  a  scene  of  continued  activity  in 
other  affairs,  as  long  as.  his  health  permitted.  For  be  was 
not  only  a  member,  but  a  most  assiduous  attendant,  of 
many,  societies  and  institutions  for  promoting  literature, 
arts,  sciences,  and  manufactures  in  Scotland ;  he  was  also 
a  director  of  the  bank  of  Scotland,  a  justice  of  the  peace, 
a  commissioner  of  high  roads,  &c.  and  was  punctual  in 
the  discharge  of  all  his  duties.  His  character  in  private 
life  was  as  amiable  and  exemplary  as  it  was  useful  in  pub- 
lic. •  To  the  literary  honours,  which  he  attained  at  home, 
were  added  those  of  a  fellow  of  the  royal  society  of  Lou-, 
don,  and  an  honorary  member  of.  the  royal  academy  of 
surgery,  at  Paris. 

2**  MO  N  r  a 

Dr.  Monro  was  a  man  of  middle  stature,  muscular,  at*4p 
possessed  of  great  strength  and  activity;  but  was  subject 
for  many  years  to  a  spitting  of  blood  on  catching  tbe  least 
cold,  and  through  his  life  to  frequent  inflammatory  fevers. 
After  an  attack  of  the  influenza,  in  1762,  he  was  afflicted* 
with  symptoms  of  a  disease  of  a  painful  and  tedious  nature, 
whichZcontinued  ever  after,  until  it  terminated  bis  exist- 
ence. This  was  a  fungous  ulcer  of  the  bladder  and  rectum, 
the  distress  of  which  he  bore  with,  great  fortitude  and  re- 
signation, and  died' with  perfect  calmness,  on  the  I Oth  of 
July,  1767,  at  the  age  of  seventy. 

Two  of  his  sons  became  distinguished  physicians :  Dr. 
Alexander,  his  successor,  and  who  has  filled  his  chair 
since  his  death,  is  well  known  throughout  Europe  by  his 
valuable  publications.  It  was  not  until  1801-  that  t#  re- 
lieve himself  from  tbe  fatigues  of  the  professorship,  he 
associated  with  himself,  his  son,  the  third  Alexander  Monro, 
who  bids  fair  to  perpetuate  the  literary  honours  of  his 
family.  Dr.  Donald  Monro,  the  other  son  of  the  fh*t 
Alexander,  settled  as  a  physician  in  London,  became  a 
fellow  of  the  royal  college  of  physicians,  and  senior  phy* 
sician  to  the  army.  He  wrote,  •  besides  several  smaller  me- 
dical treatises,  "  Observations  on  the  Means  of  preserving 
the  Health  of  Soldiers,"  1780,  2  vols*  8vo;  a  treatise  on 
niedtcal  and  pharmaceutical  chemistry,  and  the  Materia* 
Medica,  1788,  4  vols.  8vo;  and  the  life  of  his  father,  pre- 
fitted  to  the  edition  of  his  works-  published  Ay  his  son> 
Alexander,  1781,  4to.  He  died  in  July  1802,  aged  seventy 
one.  It  is  from  this  life  of  thfe  first  Dr.  Monro,  that  tbe 
preceding  account  is  taken.1 

MONRO  (John),  an  eminent  physician,  was  descended! 
from  the  ancient  fafrftily  of  that  name,  in  Hie  totality  e#' 
Ross,  in  North  Britain ;  and  was  born  at  Greenwich,  in  tlfe 
county  of  Kent,  on  the  16th  of  November,  1715,  O.  S. 
His  grandfather^  Dr.  Alexander  Monro',  was  principal  of 
tbe  university  of  Edinburgh,  and,  just  before  tbe  rtreota** 
tton  iri  1688^  had  been  nominated  by  king  James  ffatr  lid,- 
to  fill  the  vacant  see  of  the  Orkneys;  but  the  alteration 
which  took  plate  in  the  chtirch-establisfctaerit  o*f  Scotland 
at  that  period,'  prevented  his'obtaining  possession  of  this 
bishopric;  and  the  friendship  which  prevailed  betweeti 
him  tod  the  celebrated  lord  Dundee,  the  dvdwed  opponent 

\  J.ife  ap  above,— Reel's  Cyclopedia* 

MONRO.  24& 

of  Jang  William,  added  to  hia  being,  thought  aver$e  to  the 
new  order  of  things,  exposed  him  to  much  persecution, 
from  the  supporters  of  the  revolution*  and  occasioned- him> 
to  satire  from  Edinburgh  to  London,,  whitiher  he  brought 
with,  him  his  only  son,  then  a  child.  James  Monro,  the 
son*  of  Dr.  Alexander,  after  taking  his  academical  degrees* 
in  the  university  of  Oxford,  practised  with'  much  success 
as<  a  physician  in  London-;  apd,  dedicating  bis;  studies 
principally  to  the  investigation  of  that  branch  of  medicine 
which  professes  to  relieve  the  miseries  arising  from  insanity,* 
war  elected  physician  to  the  hospital  of  Bridewell  and- 

Dr.  John  Monro  was  the .  eldest  son  of  Dr.  James,  an  A 
was  educated  at  Merchant-Taylors  school  in  London,  whenee 
he  was  removed  in  1723  to  St.  John's  college,  Oxford,  of 
which  he  became  a  fellow.  In  1743,  by  the  favour  of  sir 
Robert  Walpole,  with  whom  his  father  lived  on  terms  of 
friendship,  be  was  elected  to  one  of  the  travelling  fellow- 
ships founded  by  Dr.  Radcliffe,  and  soon  after  went  abroad. 
He  studied  physic,  first  at  Edinburgh,  and  afterwards  at 
Leyden,  under  the  celebrated  Boerhaave ;  after  which  he- 
visited  various  parts  of  Europe.  He  resided  some  time  at 
Paris,  in  1745,  whence  he  returned  to  Holland ;  and,  after 
a  short  stay  in  that  country,  he  passed  through  part  of 
Germany  into  England*  carefully  observing  whatever  merit- 
ed the  notice  of  a  mam  of  learning  and  taste.  After  quit- 
ting Italy  he  paid  a  second  visit  to  France,  and,  having 
continued. some  time  in  that  country,  returned  to  England 
in  1751. 

Dtfritfg  fcfif  absence  on  the*  continent,  the  university  of 
Oxford  «onferred  open  ham  tbe  degree  of  doctor  of  physic, 
by  diploma*;  and  bis  father's  health  beginning  to  decline 
soon  after  bis  arrival  in  England,  be  was,  in  July  1751, 
elected  joint  physician  with  hint  to  Bridewell  and  Betblem 
hospitals,  and  on  his  death,  which  happened  in  the  latter 
end  of  1750,  he  became  sole  physician  thereof. 

Fioto  this  time  he  confined  bis  practice  entirely  to  cases 
of  insanity,  in  which  branch  of  the  medical  art  he  attained 
to  a  higher  degree  of  eminence  than  was  possessed  by  any 
of  his  predecessors  or  contemporaries.  In  1753,  Dr,  Bat- 
tie  having  published  "  A  Treatise  on  Madness,"  wherein 
he  spoke,  as  Dr.  Monro  conceived,  disrespectfully  of  the 
former  physicians  of  Betblem  hospital,  he  thought  it  in- 
cumbent upon  him  to  take  some  notice  of  the  publication  $ 

250  M  O  N  R  O: 

and,  in  the  same  year,  published  a  smalL  pamphlet,  en- 
titled, "  Remarks  on  Dr.  Battle's  Treatise  on  Madness.'* 
His  ideas  of  this  dreadful  malady,  as  well  as  the  motives 
which  induced  him  to  compose  these  remarks,  are  very* 
concisely  and  elegantly   expressed   in    the   advertisement 
which  is  prefixed  to  the  work.     "  Madness  is  a  distemper 
of  such  a  nature,  that  very  little  of  real  use  can  be  said 
concerning  it ;  the  immediate  causes  will  for  ever  disap- 
point our  search,  and  the  cure  of  that  disorder  depends  on 
management  as  much  as  medicine.     My  own  inclination 
would!  never  have  led  me  to  appear  in  print;  but  it  was 
thought  necessary  for  me,  in  my  situation,  to  say  some- 
thing in  answer  to  the  undeserved  censures*  which   Dn 
Battie  has  thrown  upon  my  predecessors." 

Dr.  Monro  defines  madness  to  be  a  ".  vitiated  judgment  ;*' 
though  he  declares,  at  the  same  time,  he  "cannot  take 
upon  him  to  say,  that  even  this  definition  is  absolute  and 
perfect.9'     His  little  work  contains  the  most  judicious  and' 
accurate  remarks  on  this  unhappy  disorder ;  and  the  cha- 
racter which,  in  the  course  of  it,  he  draws  of  his  father, 
is  so  spirited,  and  so  full  of  the  warmth  of  filial  affection, 
as  to  merit  being  selected.  .  "  To  say  be  understood  this, 
distemper  beyond  any  of  bis  contemporaries  is  very  little 
praise;  the  person  who  is  most  conversant  in  such  cases, 
provided  he  has  but  common  sense  enough  to  avoid  meta- 
physical subtilties,  will  be  enabled,  by  bis  extensive  know- . 
ledge  and  experience,  to  excel  all  those  who  have  not  the. 
same  opportunities  of  receiving  information.     He  was  a 
man  of  admirable  discernment,  and  treated  this  disease 
with  an  address  that  will  not  soon  be  equalled.;  he  knew 
very  well,  that  the  management  requisite  for  it  was  never 
to  be  learned  but  from  observation;  he  was  honest  and: 
sincere,  and  though  no  man  was  more  communicative; upon 
points  of  real  use,  he  never  thought  of  reading  lectures  on 
a  subject  that  can  be  understood  no  otherwise  than  by  per- 
sonal observation  :  physic  he  honoured  as  a  prqfesswn,  but,, 
he  despised  it  as  a  trade;  however  partial  I  may  be  to  bis 
memory^  his  friends  acknowledge  this  to  be  true,  and  bis 
enemies  will  not  venture  to  deny  it." 

In  1753,  Dr.  Monro  married  Miss  Elizabeth  Smith,  se- 
cond daughter  of  Mr.  Thomas  Smith}  merchant,  of  London, 
by  whom  he  had  six  children.  .  The  eldest  of  these,  John, 
was  designed  for  the  profession  of  physic,  and  had  made  a 
considerable  progress  in  his  studies;  but  died,  after  a  short 

MONRO.  2*1 

illness,  at  St  John's  college,  Oxford,  in  1779,  in  the  25th 
year  of  bis  age.  The  loss  of  bis  eldest  son  was  severely 
fek  by  Dr.  Monro,  to  whom  be  was  endeared  by  his  many 
amiable  qualities  and  promising  abilities ;  and  this  loss  was 
aggravated  by. that  of  his  only  daughter,  Charlotte,  who 
was  carried  off  in  the  22d  year  of  her  age,  by  a  rapid  con- 
sumption, within  four  years  afterwards.  She  was  a  young 
lady,  who,  to  a  native  elegance  of  manners,  added  excel- 
lent sense,  and  an  uncommon  sweetness  of  disposition. 
It  is  not  wonderful,  therefore,  that  her  loss  should  prove  a 
severe  blow  to  a  father  who  loved  her  with  the  most  lively 
affection.  He  was  now  in  his  68th  year,  and  had  hitherto 
enjoyed  an  uncommon  share  of  good  health ;  but  the  con* 
stant  anxiety  he  was  under  during  his  daughter's  illtiess, 
preyed  upon  his  mind,  and  brought  on  a  paralytic  stroke 
in  January  1783.  The  strength  of  his  constitution,  bow- 
ever,  enabled  him  to  overcome  the  first  effects  of  this  dis- 
order, and  to  resume  the  exercise  of  his  profession ;  but 
his  vigour,  both  of  mind  and  body,  began  from  this  time 
to  decline.  In  1787,  his  youngest  son,  Dr.  Thomas  Monro 
(who,  on  the  death  of  his  eldest  brother,  had  applied  him- 
self to  the  study  of  physic,)  was  appointed  his  assistant  at 
Bethlem  hospital;  and  he .  thenceforward  gradually  with- 
drew himself  from  business,  till  the  beginning  of  1791, 
when  he  retired  altogether  to  the  village  of  Hadley,  near 
Barnet ;  and  in  this  retirement  he  continued  till  his 
death,  which  happened,  after  a  few  days  illness,  on  the 
27th  of  December,  in  the  same  year,  and  in  the  77th  year 
of  his  age. 

Dr.  Monro  was  tall  and  handsome  in  his  person,  and  of 
a  robust  constitution  of  body.  Though  naturally  of  a  grave 
cast  of  mind,  no  man  enjoyed  the  pleasures  of  society 
with  a  greater  relish.  :  To  great  warmth  of  temper  he  added 
a  nice  sense  of  honour ;  and,  though  avowedly  at  the  head 
of  that  branch  of  his  profession  to  which  he  confined  his 
practice,  yet  his  behaviour  was  gentle  and  modest,  and 
Lis  manners  refined  and  elegant  in  an  eminent  degree. 
He  possessed  an  excellent  understanding,  and  great  hu- 
manity of  disposition  ;  but  the  leading  features  of  his  cha- 
racter were  disinterestedness  and  generosity;  as  he  has 
s.aid  of  his  father  i  so  may  it,  with  equal  truth,  be  said  of 
himself— "  physic  he  honoured  as  a  profession^  but  he 
despised  it  as  a  trade"  Never  did  he  aggravate  the  misery 
of  those  who  were  in  want,  by  accepting  what  could  ill  be 

*52  MONRO. 

spared ;  whilst  he  frequently  contributed  as,  much  by  his 
bounty  as  his  professional  skill  to  alleviate,  the  distress  be 
was  forced  to  witness.  It  was  the  remark  of  a  man  of  acute 
phservation,  who  knew  him  intimately,  "  that. he  had  met 
with  many  persons  who  affected  to  bold  money  in  contempt, 
but- Dr.  Monro  was  the  only  man  he  had  found  wbo  really 
did  despise  it." 

He  possessed  a  very  elegant  taste  for  the  fine  arts  in  ge~ 
peral,  and  his  collection,  both  of  books  and  prints,  was 
very  extensive.  He  was  uncommonly  well  versed  in  the 
early  history  of  engraving;  and  the  specimens  he  had  col- 
lected of  the  works  of  the  first  engravers  were  very  select 
and- curious.  -  From  these,  as  well  as  from  the  communi- 
cations of  Dr.  Monro,  the  late  ingenious  Mr.  Strutt  derived 
great  assistance  in  the  composition  of  bis  history  of  en-* 
gravers.  Though  he  never  appeared  as  an  autdwn,  except 
it*  the  single  instance  mentioned  above,  he  possessed  a 
mtod  stored:  with,  the  beauties  of  ancient  aa.wetl  as.  modern 
ktoflatufe.  Horace  and  Shak&peaoe  were  \l\%  favourite 
authors ;  and  bis  notes  and  remarks  on.  the  latter  .were  con* 
siderable :  these;  he  communicated  to  Mr.  Steevens,,  pre* 
WQ143  to  his  publication*  of  the  works,  of  our  imMortal  poet; 
aawieus  to>  contribute  his  mite  to  the  elucidation  of  those 
passages  which  time  has  rendered  obscure.  His  fondness 
far  reading,  was  great*  and  proved,  a  considerable  resource 
to,  him.  in  the  evening  of  life;  and  fortunately  he  was  able 
to  ergoy  his  books  till  within  a  very  few  days  of  his,  death,. 

Dr.  Mpauo  was  buried  in  the  church-yard  of  Hadley ; 
and,  of  his  children,  three  only  survived  him  : '  James,  who 
commanded  the  ship  Houghton,  in  the  service  of  the  Bast 
Ipdia  cosnpaay ;  Chatrles ;  and  Thomas,  who  succeeded 
him,,  and  still  is  physician  to  Bethlem  and  Bridewell  bos* 
piAals,  Besides,  these,  and  his  son  and  daughter,  whose 
deaths  are  .mentioned  above,  he  had.  a  younger  soa,  Gul- 
ling^  who*  died  an  infant.1 

MONSON  (Si a  William),,  a  brave  English  admiral, 
was  the  third  son  of  sir  John  Monson,  of  South  Carlton,  in 
Lincolnshire,  and  bora  in  1569.  For  about  two  years  be 
studied  at  Baliol  college,  Oxford  :  but,  being  of  an  active 
and  martial  disposition,  be  soon  grew  weary  of  a  contem- 
plative life,  and  applied  himself  to  the  sea-service,  in  which 

i  Written  by  one  of  the  editors  of  the  last  edition  of  this  Dictionary  from 
private  and  authentic  information. 

M  DNS  ON.  »&» 

he  became  very  expert.    In  the  beginning  of  queen  fili* 
zabeth?s  war  with  Spain,  he  entered  on  board  of  ship  with- 
out (he  knowledge  of  his  parents;  but  in  1587  we  find  he 
went  out  commander  of  a  vessel,  and  in  1588,  he  served 
in.  one  of  the  queen's  ships,  but  had  not  the  command  jof 
it.     In  1589,  he  was  vice-admiral  to  the  earl  of  Ctunbes-? 
land,  in  his  expedition  to  the  Azores  islands,  ami  at  the 
taking  of  Fayal ;  but,  in  their  return,  suffered  such  iurrtU 
ships,  and  contracted  such  a  violent  illness  from  them,  a$ 
kept  him  at  home  the  whole  year  1590.     "  The  extremity 
we  endured,9'  says  be,  "  was  more  terrible  than  befel  ray 
ship  during  the  eighteen  years'  war :  for,  laying  aside  the 
continual  expectation  of  death  by  shipwreck,  and  the  daily 
mortality  of  our  men,  I  will  speak  of  our  famine,  that  ex- 
ceeded all  men  and  ships  I  have  known  in  the  course  of  my 
life.     For  sixteen  days  together  we  never  tasted  a  drop  of 
drink,  either  beer,' wine,  or  water;    and  though  we  bad 
plenty  of  beef  and  pork  of  a  year's  salting,  yet  did  we  for* 
bear  eating  of  it  for  making  us  the  drier.    Marly  drank  salt 
water,  and  those  that  did,  died  suddenly,  and  the  last  words 
they  usually  spake,  was,  '  drink,  drink,  drink !'  And  I  dare 
boldly  say,  that,  of  five  hundred  men  that  were  in  that 
ship  seven  years  before,  at  this  day  there  is  not  a  man 
alive  but  myself  and  one  more." 

In  1591,  'he  served  a  second  time  under  five  earl  of 
Cumberland ;  and  the  commission  was,  as  all  the  former 
were,  to  act  against  the  "Spaniards.  They  took  several  of 
their  *  hips ;  and  captain  Monson,  being  sent  to  convoy1  one 
of  them  to  England,  was  surrounded  and  taken  by  six 
Spanish  gallies,  after  a  long  arid  bloody  fight.  On  this 
occasion  they  detained  him  as  an  hostage  for  the  perform* 
ance  of  certain  covenants,  and  carried  him  to  Portugal, 
where  he  was  kept  prisoner  two  years  at  Cascais  and  Lis* 
bon.  Not  discouraged  by  this  ill-luck,  he  entered  a  third 
titfte'into  the  earl's  service,  in  1593  ;  and  he  behaved  him*- 
acftfuntbis,  <as  in  all  other  expeditions,  dike  a  brave  and 
ebie  seaman.  In  IS 94,  he  was  created  master  of  arts  at 
Oxford  ;  in  1595,  -he  was  married;  in  1596,  he  served  in 
the  expedition .  to  Cadiz,  under  Walter  Devereu^,  earl  of 
Essex,  ta  whttai  he  did  great  service  by  his  wise  and  mo- 
derate counsel,  and  was :  deservedly  knighted.  He  was 
employed  irt  seveml  other  expeditions,  and  was  highly  ho- 
noured and^esteeaaed  during  Elizabeth's  reign.  Military 
smiiwsst^  aotpkiog^  James's  favourites ;  therefore,  after  the 

S54  ■      MONSON. 

death  of  the  queen,  he  never  received  either  recompence 
or  preferment,  more  than  bis  ordinary  entertainment  or 
pay,  according  to  the  services  he  was  employed  in.  How- 
ever, in  1604,  he  was  appointed  admiral  of  the  Narrow 
Seas,  in  which  station  he  continued  till  1616  ;  during  which 
time  be  supported  the  honour  of  the  English  flag,  against 
the  insolence  of  the  infant  commonwealth  of  Holland,  of 
which  he  frequently  complains  in  his  "  Naval  Tracts  ;"  and 
protected  our  trade  against  the  encroachments  of  France. 

Notwithstanding  bis  long  and  faithful  services,  he  had 
the  misfortune  to  fall  into  disgrace  ;  and,  through  the  re-* 
sentment  of  some  powerful  courtiers,  was  imprisoned  in 
the  Tower  in  1616:  but,  after  having  been  examined  by 
the  chief  justice  Coke  and  secretary  Winwood*  he  was  dis- 
charged. He  wrote  a  vindication  of  his  conduct,  entitled 
"  Concerning  the  insolences  of  the  Dutch,  and  a  Justifica- 
tion of  sir  William  Mori  son ;"  and  directed  it  to  the  lord 
chancellor  Ellesmere,  and  sir  Francis  Bacon,  attorney- 
general  and  counsellor.  His  zeal  against  the  Dutch,  and 
his  promoting  an  inquiry  into  the  state  of  the  navy,  con* 
trary  to  the  inclination  of  the  earl  of  Nottingham,  then  lord 
high  admiral,  seems  to  have  been  the  occasion  of  his  trou-* 
bles*  He  had  also  the  misfortune  to  bring  upon  himself  a 
general  and  popular  odium,  in  retaking  lady  Arabella 
Steuart,  after  her  escape  out  of  England  in  June  1611, 
though  it  was  acting  agreeably  to  his  orders  and  duty.  This 
lady  was  confined  to  the  Tower  for  her  marriage  with  Wil- 
liam Seymour,  esq.  as  was  pretended ;  but  the  true  cause 
of  her  confinement  was,  her  being  too  high  allied,  and 
having  a  title  or  claim  to  the  crown  of  England.  Sir  Wil- 
liam, however,  soon  recovered  his  credit  at  court :  for,  in 
1617,  he  was  called  before  the  privy  council,  to  give  his 
opinion,  how  the  pirates  of  Algiers  might  be  suppressed; 
and  the  town  attacked.  He  shewed  the  impossibility  of 
taking  Algiers,  and.  was  against  the  expedition ;  notwith? 
standing  which,  it  was  rashly  undertaken  by  Villiers  duke 
of  Buckingham.  He  was  also  against  two  other  under* 
takings,  as  ill-managed,  in  1625  and  1628,  namely,  the  ex- 
peditions to  Cadiz  and  the  isle  of  Rhee.  He  was  not  em* 
ployed  in  these  actions,  because  he  objected  to  the  minis- 
ter's measures ;  but,  in  1635,  it  being  found  necessary  to 
equip  a  large  fleet,  in  order  to  break  a  confederacy  that 
was  forming  between  the  French  and  the  Dutch,  be  was 
appointed  vice-admiral  ia  that  armament,  and  performed 

MONSON.  255 

bis  duty  with  great  honour  and  bravery.  After  that  he 
was  employed  no  more,  but  spent  the  remainder  of  his 
day*  in  peace  and  privacy,  at  his  seat  at  Kinnersley  in 
Surrey,  where  he  digested  and  finished  his  "  Naval  Tracts," 
published  in  Churchill's  "  Collection  of  Voyages."  He 
died  there,  Feb.  1642*3,  in  his  seventy-third  year,  and 
left  a  numerous  posterity,  the  ancestors  of  the  present 
noble  family  of  Monson,  baron  Monson  of  Burton,  in  the 
county  of  Lincoln.1 

MONSTRELET  (Enguerrand  de),  an  eminent  French 
historian,  was  descended  of  a  noble  family,  but  the  name* 
of  his  parents,  and  the  period  of  his  birth  have  not  been 
•discovered.  The  place  of  his  birth  was  probably  Picardy, 
and  the  time,  prior  to  the  close  of  the  fourteenth  century* 
No  particulars  of  his  early  years  are  known,  except  that 
he  evinced,  when  young,  a  love  for  application,  and  a 
dislike  to  indolence.  The  quotations  also  from  Sallust, 
Livy,  Vegetius,  and  other  ancient  authors,  that  occur  in 
his  Chronicles,  shew  that  he  must  have  made  some  progress 
in  Latin  literature.  He  appears  to  have  been  resident  in 
Cambray  when  he  composed  his  history,  and  passed  there 
the  remainder  of  his  life.  In  1436  he  was  nominated  to 
the  office  of  .lieutenant  du  Gavenier  of  the  Cambresis ;  the 
gavenier  was  the  collector  or  receiver  of  the  annual  dues 
payable  to  the  duke  of  Burgundy,  by  the  subjects  of  the 
church  in  the  Cambresis,  for  the  protection  of  them  as 
earl  of  Flanders.  Mohstrelet  also  held  the  office  of  bailiff 
to  the  chapter  of  Cambray  from  1436  to  1440,  when  ano- 
ther was,app6intdd.  The  respect  and  consideration  which 
he  had  now  acquired,  gained  him  the  dignity  of  governor 
of  Cambray  in  1444,  and  in  the  following  year  he  was < no- 
minated bailiff  of  Wallaincourt.  He  retained  both  of  those 
places  until  his  death,  which  happened  about  the  middle 
of  July,  in  1453.  His  character  in  the  register  of  the  Cor- 
deliers, and' by  the  abbot  of  St.  Aubert,  was  that  of  "a 
very  honourable  and  peaceable  man  ;"  expressions,  says  his 
biographer,  that  appear  simple  at  first  sight,  but  which 
epntatn  a  real  eulogium,  if  we  consider  the  troublesome 
tifnea  ki  which  Monstrelet  lived,  the  places  he  held,  the 
interest  he  must  have  had  sometimes  to  betray  the  truth  in 
favour  of  one  of  the  factions  which  then  divided  France, 


1  Biog.  Brit,— Campbell's  JLires  of  the  British  Admirals.— Collins's  Peerage, 
new  edit. 

?«6        MOWSTREIET. 

and  caused  the  revoKftttons<  the*  history  of  which  be  ha*  pub- 
lished during  the  lite  of  the  principal  actors. 

Monstrelet's  wodt,  of  which  there  are  folio  editions,  the 
first  withoutdate,  the  others  1518,  3  vols.  1*572*  &c«  is  called 
4<iCht(HMeles9"  bjut  deserves  rather  to  bo  classed  as  history, 
alLthe  characteristics  of  historical  writing  being  jfownd  in 
it  notwithstanding  its  imperfections  and  oa&issions.  Hie 
traces  erects  to  tbeirsoOTce^developes  the  causes, illustrates 
them  with  the  minutest  details ;  and  bestows  the  utmost 
^ttenUoninpcoduckigihisaatharities  fixim  edicts,  declara- 
tions, &ci  His  narrative  begins  on  Easter  Day  in  140Q, 
where  that/of  FuoiasarteiKls,  .a«d  extends  to  the  death  of 
the  duke  xif  Burgundy  tin  1467,  but  the  last  thirteen  years 
were  written  by  ian  unknown- author,  jand  it  has  since  been 
^ootsmied  by  other  bands'  to  1516.  After  the  example  df 
Jfroissart,  he  dees  ,notcon&ue  himself  to  events  that  passed 
in  France;  he  «mbraoesy  with  almost  equal  detail,  the  moat 
remarkable  circumstances  which  happened  during  his  time 
in  Flanders,  England,  Scotland,  and  Ireland.  But  it  be- 
comes unnecessary  here  to  expatiate  on  the  particular 
merits  of  this  wort,  as  they  are  now  known  to  the  English 
public  by  the  excellent  translation  lately  published  by 
Thomas  Johnes,  esq.  at  the  Hafod  press,  in  1810,  and 
which,  with  his  preceding  English  edition  of  Froissart,  h 
justly  entitled  to  form  a  part  in  every  useful  library.  From 
the  biographical  preface  to  Mr.  Johnes* s  Monstrelet,  we 
have  gleaned  the  above  particulars.1 

MONTAGUE  (Charles,  Earl  of  Halifax),  an  Engi- 
lish  statesman  and  poet,  was  born  April  16,  1661,  at  Hor- 
ton  in  Northamptonshire.  He  was  the  son  of  Mr.  George 
Montague,  a  younger  son  of  the  earl  of  Manchester.  He 
was  educated  first  in  the  country,  and  then  removed  to 
Westminster,  where,  in  1677,  he  was  chosen  a  king's 
acholar,  and  recommended  himself  to  the  celebrated  mas- 
ter of  the  school,  Busby,  by  his  felicity  in  extemporary 
epigrams.  He  contracted  a  very  intimate  friendship  with 
Mr.  Stepney;  and,  in  1682,  when  Stepney  was  elected  to 
Cambridge,  the  election  of  Montague  not  being  to  .pro* 
ceed  till  the  year  following,  he.  was  afraid  lest  by  being 
placed  at  Oxford,  be  might  be  separated  from  his  compa* 
jMon,  and  therefore  solicited  to  be  removed  to  Cambridge, 

*  Prtface  as  abeve,  from  the  Memoir*  de  tfAac&fua  4*  Betlss  LeUta, 
Tel.  XJLIII.  by  M.  Dacier.  s      t 

MO-XT  A,G:U  E;  2*7 

without  waiting  for  die  advantages  of  another  year;    He  • 
was  now  in  bis  twenty-first  year,  and  his  relation,  Dr.  Mon~  : 
tague,  wasthen  master  of  Trinity  college  in  which  he  wns 
placed  a  fellow-commoner,,  and  took  him  under  bis  parti*  * 
cular  care.     Here  lie  commenced  an  acquaintance  with 
tbe  great  Newton/  which  continued  through  his  life,  and 
was  at  last  attested  by  a  legacy, 

•  In  1685,  he  wrote  some  verses  on  the  death  of  king 
Charley  which  made  such  an  impression  on  tbe  earl  of  Dor- 
set, that  he  was  invited  to  town,  and  introduced  by  that  uni- 
versal patron  to  tbe  other  wits*    In  1687,  he  joined  withr. 
Prior  in  "  The  City  Mouse  and  the  .Country  Mouse/9  one 
oif  his  best  compositions,  which  was  intended  as.  3  bur* 
Jesque  of  Dry  den's  "  Hind  and  Panther.9'    Commencing 
bis  political  career,  he  signed  tbe  invitation  to  the  prince  -. 
of  Orange,  and  sat  in  the  convention*    He  about  tbe  same 
time  married  tbe  countess  dowager  of  Manchester, 'and  in- 
tended to  have  taken  orders;  but  afterwards  altering  his- 
purpose,  he  purchased  for  1500/.  the  place  of  one  of  the 
clerk*  of  the  council. 

•  After  he  bad  written  his  epistle  on  tbe  victory  of  die 
Boyne,  bis  patron  Dorset  introduced  him  ,to  king  William,  - 
with  tbifr  expression :  "  Sir,  I  have  brought  a  mouse  to 
wait  on  your  majesty,"  To  which  the  king  i?  said  to  have 
replied,  "  You  do  well  to  put  me  in  the  way  of  making  a 
man  of  him ;"  and  ordered  him  a  pension  of  five  hundred, 
pounds*  This  story,  however  current,  says  Dr.  Johnson, 
seems  to  have  been  made  after  the  event.  The  king's 
answer  implies  a  greater  acquaintance  with  our  proverbial 
and  familiar  diction  than  king  William  could  possibly  have 
attained.  .   .        . 

In  March  1691,  Mr.  Montague  first  displayed  his  abilU 
ties  in  the  debates  upon  tbe  bill  for  regulating  trials  in  cases 
of  high  treason  ;  the  design  of  this  bill,  among  other  things, 
was  to  allow  counsel  to  prisoners  charged  with  that  offence, 
while  the  trial  was  depending*,  Montague  rose  up  to  speak 
for  it,  but  after  uttering  a  few  sentences,  was  struck  so 
suddenly  with  surprise,  that,  for  a  while,  be  was  not  able 
to  go  on.  Recovering  himself,  he  took  occasion,  from 
thi$  circumstance,  "  to  enforce  the  necessity  of  allowing 
counsel  to  prisoners,  who  were  to  appear  before  their 
judges ;  since  he,  who  was  not  only  innocent,  and  unac- 
cused,  but  one  of  their  own  members,  was  so  dashed 

Vol.  XXII.  S- 


when  be  wa&  to  speak  before  that  wise  and*  illustrious  as- 
sembly*." ' 

In  this  year,  f691,  he  was  made  one  of  the  commis- 
sioners of  the  treasury,  and  called  to  the  privy  council ; 
and  in  1694  was  appointed  second  commissioner  and  chan- 
cellor of  the  exchequer,  and  under-treasurer.  In  1695, 
he  entered  into  the  design  of  re-coining  all  the  current 
money  of  the  nation  ;  which,  though  great  difficulties  at-  > 
tended  it,  he  completed  in  the  space  of  two  years.  In* 
1-698,  he  projected  the  scheme  for  a  general  fund,  which, 
gave  rise  to  the  sinking  fund,  afterwards  established  by 
sir  Robert  Walpole.  The  same  year,  he*  found  out  a  me- 
thod to  raise  the  sinking*  credit  of  the  Bank  of  England; 
and,  in  1697,  he  provided  against  the  mischiefs  from  the 
scarcity  of  money,  by  raising,  for  the  sepvice  of  the  go- 
vernment, above  two  millions  in  exchequers-notes ;  ba 
which7  occasion  he  was  sometimes  called  the  British  Ma**  - 
ohiavel.  Before  the  end  of  this*  session  of  parliament,  it 
was  resolved  by  the  House  of  Commons,  that  "  Charles 
Montague,  esq.  chancellor  of  the  exchequer,  for  his  good 
services  to  the  government,  did  deserve  his  majesty's  fa- 
vour." This  vote,  when  we  consider  that  the  public  affairs 
called  for  the  skill  of  the  ablest  statesmen,  and  that  he  was 
at  this  time  not  more  than  thirty-six  years  of  age,  may  be 
admitted  as  a  proof  of  the  high  esteem  entertained  of  his 

In  1 098*,  being  advanced  to  the  first  commission  of  titer 
treasury,  he  wa&  appointed  one  of  the  regency  in  the  king's 
absence :  the  next  year  he  was  made  auditor  of  the  exche- 
quer, and  the  year  after  created  baron  Halifax.  He  was, 
however,  impeached  by  the  Commons ;  but  the  articles-, 
were  dismissed  by  the  Lords, 

At  the  accession  of  queen  Anne  he  was  dismissed  from 
the  council1 :  and  in  the  first  parliament  of  her  reign  was* 
again  attacked  by  the  Commons,  and  again  escaped  by  the 
protection  of  the  Lords.     In  1704,  he  wrote  an  answer  to 

*  Mr.  Reed  observes  that  this  atiec-  ing  thrown  out  hy  the  House  of  Lords, 

dote  is  related  by  Mr.  Walpoie,  in  bis  ft  became  a  law  in  the  7th  William^ 

Catalogue  of  rTojfral  stadWoble  Authors-,  when    Halifax  and   Shaftesbury   both 

of  ike  earl  of  Shaftesbury,  author  of  bad  seats.    The  editors  of  the  "  BU*» 

the  M  Characteristic*}."  but  it  appears  srraphia   Britannica"  adopt  Mr. Wat- 

to  he  a  mi»tafk«,  if  we  are  to  under-  pole's  story,  but  they  are  not  speaking 

stand  that  the  words  were  spoken  by  of  this  period.  The  story  first  appeared 

Shaftesbury  at  this  time,  when  be  had  in  the  Life  of  lord  Halifax,  publiahesl 

no  seal  in  the  House  6f  Commons  ;  iff  1715. 
nar  did  the  bill  pass  at  tow  time,  be*  •  * 

MON  T  A  G  U  E; 


B&fltley's  Speech  •  against  -  occasional  conformity.  <  Kfe 
headed  the  inquiry  into  the  danger  of  the  church.  In  1706* 
he  proposed  and  negotiated  the  union  .with  Scotland  ;  and 
when  the  elector  of  Hanover  had  received  the  garter,  after 
the,  act  had  pasaed  for  securing  the  protestant.  succession, 
he  was  appointed  to  carry  the  ensigns  of  the  order  to  the 
electoral  court.  .  He  sat  as  one  of  the  judges  of  Sache- 
yereU ;  but  voted  for  a  mild  sentence.  Being  now  no 
longer  in  favour,  he  contrived  to  obtain  a  writ  for  sum- 
moning the  electors!  prince  to  parliament  as  duke  of  Cam- 
bridge. At  the  queen's  death  he  was  appointed  one  of  the 
regency,  during  her  successor's  absence  from  his  kingdoms ; 
and,,  as  soon  as  George  I.  bad  taken  possession  of  the 
throne,  he  was  created  earl  of  Halifax,  installed  knight  of 
the  garter,  and  expected  to  have  been  appointed  lord  high 
treasurer;  but  as  he  was  only. created  first  commissioner, 
be  was  highly  chagrined,  nor  was  he  pacified  by  the  above 
honours,  or  by  the  transfer  of  the.  place  of  auditor  of  the 
^chequer  to  his  nephew.  Inflamed,  says  Mr.  Coxe,  by 
disappointed  ambition,  be  entered  into  cabals  with  the  tory 
foaders,  for  the  removal  of  those  with  whom  he  had  so  long 
cordially  acted ;  but  his  death  put  an  end  to  bis  intrigues. 
While  he  appeared  to  be  in  a  very  vigorous  state  of  health, 
he  was  suddenly  taken  ill,  May  15,  and  died  on  the  19th, 

As  he  was  a  patron  of  poets,  his  own  works  did  not  miss 
of  celebration*  Addison  began  to  praise  him  early,  and 
was  followed  or  accompanied  by  other  poets;,  perhaps, by 
almost  all,  except  Swift  and  Pope,  who  forbore  to  flatter 
him  in  his  life,  because  he  had  disappointed  their  hopes; 
and  after  his  death  spoke  of  him,  Swift  with  slight  censure, 
and  Pope  in  the  character  of  Bufo  with  acrimonious  con- 

He  was,  :  as  Pope  says,  "  fed  with  dedications ;"  and 
Tickell  affirms  that  no  dedication  was  unrewarded.  Dr. 
Johnson's  remarks  on  this  are  too  valuable  to  be  omitted. 

**  *  Pope's  contemptuous  character  of 
lord  Halifax  as  Bnfo  oocuri  in  the 
"  Prologue  to  thj?  Satire*,"  and  yet  in 
the  "  Epilogue"  to  the  same,  he  says 
in  a  note  that  Halifax  was  "  a  peer  no 
less  distinguished  by  his  love  of  letters 
than  bis  abilities  in.  parliament."  In 
the  preface  to  the  lUad,  he  also  speaks 
highly  of  him,  but  they  had  not  at  that 
time  fallen  out.    The  cause  of  their 

quarrel  is  stated  in  Johnson's  life  of 
Pope,  with  a  ludicrous  anecdote  re- 
specting Halifax's  talents  as  a  critic. 
Swift's  dislike  was  founded  on  the  same 
cause  as  Pope's,  disappointment  of 
certain  expectations  from  lord  Halifex, 
of  whom  be  said  that  "  his  encourage- 
ments were  only  good  words  and  good 

S  2 

ft60  MONTAGUE. 

"  To  charge  all  unmerited  praise  with  the  guilt  of  flattery, 
and  to  suppose  that  the  encomiast  always  knows  and  feels 
the  falsehoods  of  bis  assertions,  is  surely  to  discover  greet 
ignorance  of  human  nature  and  human  life.  In  determi* 
nations*  depending  not  on  rales,  but  on  experience  and 
comparison,  judgment  is  always  in  some  degree  subject  to 
affection.  Very  near  to  admiration  is  the  wish  to  admire. 
Every  man  willingly  gives  value  to  the  praise  which  he 
receives,  and  considers  the  sentence  passed  in  bis  favour 
as  the  sentence  of  discernment.  We  admire  in  a  friend 
that  understanding  which  selected  us  for  confidenoe ;  we 
admire  more,  in  a  patron,  that  judgment  which,  instead  of 
scattering  bounty  indiscriminately,  directed  it  to  us ;  and,  if 
the  patron  be  an  author,  those  performances  which  grati- 
tude forbids  us  to  blame,  affection  will  easily  dispose  as  to 
exalt.  To  these  prejudices,  hardly  culpable,  interest  adds 
a  power  always  operating,  though  not  always,  because  act 
willingly,  perceived.  The  modesty  of  praise  wears  gra- 
dually away ;  and  perhaps  the  pride  of  patronage  may  be 
in  time  so  increased,  that  modest  praise  will  no  longer 
please."  The  opinion  of  the  same  critic,  on  the  poetry  of 
Montague,  may  safely  be  quoted,  as  it 1  seems  to  be  the 
general  one.  "  It  would  now  be  esteemed  no  honour,,  by 
a  contributor  to  the  monthly  bundle  of  verses,  to  be  told, 
that,  in  strains  either  familiar  or  solemn,'  he  sings  like 
Montague.'*  His  poems  and  speeches,  with  memoirs  of 
his  life,  were  published  in  17 15.  The  former  were  inserted 
in  Dr.  Johnson's  edition  of  the  English  Poets,  but  although 
they  have  served  to  make  his  name  more  familiar  with  the 
public,  it,  is  in  political  history  that  his  character  appear* 
to  greatest  advantage.1 

MONTAGUE  (Edward),  earl  of  Sandwich,  an  Eng- 
lish general,  admiral,  and  statesman,  was  the  only  surviving 
sen  of  sir  Sidney  Montague,  the  youngest  son  of  Edward 
lord  Montague  of  Bough  ton.  He  was  born  July  27,  1625, 
and  after  a  liberal  education  was  very  early  introduced 
into  public  life.  His  career  may  be  said  to  have  com* 
menced  at  the  age  of  eighteen  ;  for  in  August  1643  he  was 
commissioned  to  raise  a  regiment  in  the  service  of  the 
parliament,  and  to  act  against  Charles  I.  He  then' joined 
the  army,  and  acquitted  himself  with  great  courage  at  the 

>  i  Bk>g»  Brit— Life  prefixed  to  hi*  Wort*.— Jottnfon's  Life  hi  English  Foetf. 
— Cibber's  Lives.—Swift's  and  Pope's  Works ;  let  Indexes.— Park's  edition  •# 
the  Royal  and  Noble  Authors. 


storming  of  Lincoln,  the  battles  of  Morston-moor  and 
Naseby,  and  on  other  occasions,  before  be  had  arrived  at 
•his  twentieth  year.  He  sat  also  in  the  House  of  Commons 
a*  representative  for  Huntingdonshire  before  he  was  of  age, 
ajwl  had  afterwards  a  seat  at  the  board  of  treasury  under: 
Cromwell.  After  the  Dutch  war  be  went  from  the  army 
t*  the  navy,  had  a  command  in  the  fleet,  and  Cromwell 
Jmd  so  good  an  opinion  of  him,  as  to  associate  him  with  the  ■ 
celebrated  admiral  Blake  in  bis  expedition  to  the  Medi- 
terranean. In  1656  he  returned  to  England  with  some  rich- 
prizes,  and  received  the  thanks  of  the  parliament,  as  well 
as  renewed  instances  of  Cromwell's  favour.  In  the  follow- 
ing year  he  was  appointed  to  command  the  fleet  in  the 
Downs,  the  object  of  which  was  to  wsrtch  the  Dutch,  to 
carry  on  the  war  with  8pain,  and  to  facilitate  the  enter* 
prize  ef  Dunkirk.  After  the  death  of  Cromwell,  he  ac- 
cepted, under  Richard,  the  command  of  a  large  fleet  which 
was  sent  to  the  North,-  on  board  of  which  he  embarked  in 
the  spring  of  1659.  I A  April  he  wrote  to  the  kings  of  Swe- 
den and  Denmark,  and  to  the  Dutch  admiral  Opdam,  in- 
forming them  that  his  instructions  were,  not  to  respect  the 
private  advantage  of  England  by  making  war,  but  the  ge- 
neral tranquillity  of  Europe,  by  engaging  the  Powers  of 
the  North  to  enter  into  an  equitable  peace ;  and  in  the  ne- 
gotiations which  he  carried  on  with  other  ministers  to  effect 
fhfc  purpose,  he  is  said  to  have  displayed  the  talents  of  a 
aommmtirate  statesman. 

-He  appears,  however,  about  this  time,  to  have  conceived 
a  dislike  against  his  employers ;  for  which  tWo  reasons  are 
assigned ;  the  one,  that  previous  to  his  sailing,  the  paftia* 
ment  had  tied  him  down  to  act  only  in  conjunction  with 
their  commissioners,  one  of  whom  was  Algernon  Sidney ; 
tnd  the  other,  that  they  had  given  away  his  regiment  of 
horse*  -While  thus  employed,  and  with  these  feelings* 
Charles  II,  sent  him  two  letters,  one  from  himself,  and  the 
©tfeerfrom  chancellor  Hyde,  the  purpose  of  which  was  to 
induce  him  to  withdraw  from  the  service  of  parliament* 
tad,  as  a  necessary  step,,  to  return  with  the  fleet  to  Eng+ 
land,  wbere  it  ikiight  be  ready  to  act  in  conjunction  with 
air  George  Booth  and  others,  who  were  already  disposed  to 
promote  the  restoration.  He  accordingly  set  sail  for  Etjg+ 
land,  but  had  the  mortification  to  find  that  sir  George 
Booth  wai  in  the  Tbwer,  the  parliament  in  full  authority, 
and  a  charge  agaiiist  himself  brought  by  Algernon  Sidney. 

2«2  MONT  A  G  U"E.' 

He  set  out,  however,  for  London,  and  defended  his  con- 
duct to  parliament  with  so  much  plausibility,  that  the  only 
consequence  was  his  being  dismissed  from -his  command. 
*.  His  retirement  was  not  of  long  duration  ;  and  upon  the 
nearer  approach  of  the  restoration,  general  Monk  having- 
procured  him  to  be  replaced  in  bis  former  rank  in  the  navyt 
he  convoyed  the  king  to  England,  who  made  him  a  knight 
of  the  garter,  and  soon  afterwards  created  him  baron  Mon- 
tague of  St.  Neots  in  Huntingdonshire,  viscount  Hinchin- 
broke  in  the  same  county,  and  eari  of  Sandwich  in  Kent. 
He  was  likewise  sworn  a  member  of  the  privy  council,  made 
master  of  the  king's  wardrobe,  admiral  of  the  narrow  seas, 
and  lieutenant  admiral  to  the  duke  of  York,  as  lord  high 
admiral  of  England.  When  the  Dutch  war  began  in  1664, 
the  duke  of  York  took  upon  him  the  command  of  the  fleet 
as  high  admiral,  and  the  earl  of  Sandwich  commanded  the 
blue  squadron  ;  and  by  his  well-timed  efforts,  a  great  num- 
ber .of  the  enemy's  ships  were  taken.  In  the  great  battle, 
June  3,  1665,  when  the  Dutch  lost  their  admiral  Opdauv 
and  had  eighteen  men  of  war  .taken,  and  fourteen  de- 
stroyed,, a  large  share  of  the  honour  of  the  victory  was 
justly  assigned  to  the  earl  of  Sandwich,  who  also  on  Sept.  4, 
of  the  same  year,  took  eight  Dutch  men  of  war,  two  of 
their  best  East  India  ships,  and  twenty  sail  of  their  mer- 

Soon  after  his  return  to  England,  he  was  sent  to  the 
court  of  Madrid,  to  negociate  a  peace  between  Spain  and 
Portugal,  which  he  not  only  effected  in  the  most  satisfac- 
tory manner,  but  also  concluded  with  the  court  of  Spain* 
one  of  the  most  beneficial  treaties  of  commerce  that  ever 
was  made  for  this  nation.  On  /the  renewal  of  the  Dutob 
war  in  1672,  his  lordship  embarked  again  with  the  duke  of 
York,  and  commanded  the  blue  squadron.  The  fleet  came 
in  sight  of  the  Dutch  about  break  of  day,  May  28,  and  in 
the  subsequent  engagement  he  performed  such  exploits  as 
could  not  fail  to  have  rendered  the  victory  complete,  had 
he  been  properly  seconded  by  his  squadron,  but  a  Dutch 
fire-ship,  covered  by  the  smoke  of  the  enemy,  having 
grappled  the  Royal  James  (that  on  which  the  earl  of  Sand«* 
wich  foughj:),  set  her  in  aflame,  and,  the  brave  earl  perish- 
ed with  several  gallant  officers.  His  body  being  found 
about  a  fortnight  afterwards,  was,  by  his  majesty's  orders 
brought  to  London,  and  interred  with  great  solemnity  in 
Henry   Vll.'s  chapel,    Weslp&inster-^bbey.     It  was  su£* 

;M  0:N  TA«  U  E.  CJ263 

.posed  by  many,  though  unjustly,  that  the  duke  of  York 
did  not  support  him  as  he  might  have  done  towards  the 
ibeginning  of  the  action  ;  but  it  was  agreed  by  all,  that  sir 
Joseph  Jordan,  the  earl's  vice-admiral,  might  have  disen~ 
gaged  bim.  His  loss  occasioned  great  reflections  on  the 
duke  ;  and  in. the  parliament  which  met  at  Westminster  in 
.Oct..  1680,  when  the  exclusion  bill  was  in  debate,  some 
members  openly  charged  him  in  the  House,  of  Commons 
with  the  death  of  the  earl  of  Sandwich. 

Toe  character  of  this  nobleman,  may  be  inferred  from 
the. above  particulars.  Of  his  bravery  and  skill  both  as  a 
commander  and  statesman,  there  cannot  beany  difference 
of  opinion ;  but  there  are  the  strongest  inconsistencies  in 
his  political  career,  and  perhaps  greater  inconsistencies  in 
.the  dispensation  pf  court-favours  after  the  restoration.  He 
iad  contributed  to  dethrone  the  father,  and  bad  offered 
•  the  son's. crown  to  the  usurper;  yet  for  his  slow  services  at 
£he  very  eve  of  the  restoration,  Charles  II.  heaped  rewards 
and  honours  upon  bim,  while  he  neglepted  thousands  who 
had,  .at  the  risk. of  life  and  property,  adhered  to  the  royal 
^ause  through. aUats -vicissitudes. 

Lord  Orford,  who  has  given  this  nobleman  a  place  in 
his  "  Catalogue  of  Royal  and  Noble. Authors,"  mentions  of 
his  writing,  •?  A  Letter,  to  Secretary  Thurloe,"  in  the  first 
volume  of  "  Thurloe's  State-papers. ;"  "  Several  .Letters 
during  his  Embassy  to  Spain,"  published  with  ".  Arling- 
ton's LQtiera.;"  and  "  Original  Letters  and  Negotiations,  of 
Sir  R,icbard  Faashaw,  .the  Earl  of  Sandwich,  the  Carl  of 
Sunderland,  and  Sir  WiUiam  Gqdolphiu,  wherein  divers 
matters  between  the  three  Crowns  of  England,  Spain,  and 
Portugal,  from  1603  to  1678,  are  set  in  a  clear  light,"  in 
2  vols.  Svo.  He  was  also  the.  author  of  a  singular  transla- 
tion, called  "  The  Art  of  Metals,  in  which  is  declared,  the 
planner  of  their  Generation,  and  the  Concbmitants  of  them, 
in  Uvo  books,  written  in  Spanish  by  Albaro  Alonzo  Rarba, 
JVt.  A-  <? urate  of  St.  Bernard's  parish,  in  the  imperial  city 
of  Potosi,  in  the  kingdom  of  Peru,  in  the  West  Indies,  in 
J 640;  translated  in  1669,  by  the  right  honourable  Edward 
earl  of  Sandwich/'  1674,  a  small  Svo.  A  short  preface  of 
the  editor  says  :  "  The  original  was  regarded  in  Spain  and 
ibe  West  Indies  as  an  inestimable  jewel ;  but  that,  falling 
into  the  earl's  hands,  he  enriched  our  language  with  it, 
being  content  that  .all  our  lord  the  king's  people  should  Jba 

ft64  MONTAGU  E. 

?phiIosopheYs."  Therfc  are  also  some  astronomical  observa- 
tions of  his  in  No.  21  of  the  Philosophical  Transactions.1  ' 
MONTAGUE  (John),  fourth  earl  of  Sandwich,  son 
of  Edward  Richard  Montague,  lord  viscount  Hinchinbroke* 
and  Elizabeth  only  daughter  of  Alexander  Popbam,  esq.  of 
Littlecote  in  the  couuty  of  Wilts,  was-  born  in  the  parish 
of  St.  Martin  in  the  Fields,  Westminster,  Nov.  3,- 17 id. 
He  was  sent  at  an  early  age  to  Eton  school,  where,  tinder 
the  tuition  of  Dr.  George,  he  made  a  considerable  prtf- 
*ficieucy  in  the  classics.  In  1735,  hfe  was  admitted  of  Tri- 
nity college,  Cambridge,  and  during  his  residence  thert, 
he  and  the  late  lord  Halifax  were  particularly  distinguished 
for  their  college  exercises ;  and  were  the  first  noblemen 
who  declaimed  publicly  in  the  college  chapel.  After 
spending  about  two  years  at  Cambridge,  he  set  out  on  fc 
voyage  round  the  Mediterranean,  bis  account  of  which  has 
Recently  been  published.  Mr.  Ponsonby,  late  earl  of  BesJ- 
fcorough*  Mr.  Nelthorpe,  and  Mr.  Mackye,  accompanied 
bis  lordship  (for  he  was  now  earl  of  Sandwich)  on  this 
agreeable  tour,  with  Liotard  the  painter,  as  we  have  no* 
ticed  in  his  article  (vol.  XX.)  On  his  lordship's  return  tft- 
England,  he  brought  with  him,  aft  appears  by  a  letter  writ- 
ten by  him  to  the  rev.  I>r.  Dampier,  "  two  mummies  and 
eight  embalmed  ibis's  from  the  catacombs  of  Memphis ;  4 
large  quantity  of  the  famous  Egyptian  papyrus ;  fifteen 
intaglios ;  five  hundred  tfieiials,  most  of  them  easier  to  be 
read  than  that  which  Jias  the  inscriptidn  FAMIAN ;  a  mad- 
Me  vase  from  A'thetis,  and  a  very  long  inscription  vas  yet 
wideeyphered',  on  both  sides  of  a  piece  of  marble  of  about 
two  feet  in  height.9'  This  marble  was  afterwards  presented 
to  Trinity  college,  and  the  inscription  was  explained  by 
the  late. learned  Dr.  Taylor,  in  174$,  by  the  title  of  i/*r- 
mor  Sandvicense. 

*  Being  now  of  age,  he  took  his  teat  in  the  House  of  Lords> 
and  began  his  political  career  by  joining  the  party  then  irt 
opposition  to  sir  Robert  Walpole.  On  the  formation  df 
the  ministry  distinguished  by  the  appellation  of  broad* 
bdttovi,  he  was  appointed  second  lord  of  the  admiralty^ 
Dec.  15,  1744^  In  consequence  of  the  active  part  which 
he  took  in  raising  men  to  quell  the  rebellion  in  1745,  hi 
obtained  rank  in  the  army.     His  political  talents  must  at 

« *  * 

I  Campbtll'a  Lives  of  the  Admirals. ^-ColliQg'g  ^  sir  E,  Bry^ges*^f 
J>ark'8  edition  of  the  Royal  and  Noble  Authors. 


tfcis  time  have.'  been  acknowledged,  as  in  1746  be,  was 
appointed  plenipotentiary  to  the  congress  to  be  holden  at 
.Breda**  and  next  year  his  powers  were  renewed,  and  con* 
tinned  till  the  definitive  treaty  of  peace  was  signed  at  Aix* 
la-Cbajtelie  in  Oct  1748.  On  his  return  he  was  sworn  of 
the  privy- council,  and  appointed  first  lord  of  the  admiralty; 
.and  on  the,  king's  embarking  for  Hanover,  he  wad  declared 
one  of  .the  lords  justices  during  his  majesty's  absence.-  In 
June  1751,  be  was  displaced  from  the  admiralty,  and  did 
not  again  hold  any  public  office  till  1755,  when  he  became 
one  of  the  joiut  vice*- treasurers  of  Ireland.  In  April  1763; 
lie  was  again  appointed  first  lord  of  theadoriraJty ;  and  the 
death  of  lord  Hardwicke  causing  a  vacancy  in  the  office  of 
high  steward  of  the  university  of  Cambridge,  lord  S&ncU 
wich  became  a  candidate  to  succeed  him,  but  failed,  aitet 
a  very  close  contest.  In  1765  he  was  again  out  of  office* 
b.q*  in  1768  was  made  joint- postmaster  with  lord  Le  De«* 
spencer.  In  Jan.  1771,  under  lord  North's  administca* 
tioo,  he  was  a  third  time  appointed  first  lord  of  the  adnu\i 
ralty,  frhich  he  held  during. the  whole  stormy  period  of  the 
American  war^  and  resigned  only  on  the  dissolution  of  the 
ministry  which  bad  carried  it  on:  His  conduct  in  the  ad-* 
miralty  was  allowed  to  redound  greatly  to  his  credit.  He 
neforraed  many  abuses  in  the  dock-yards;  increased  the 
establishment  of  the  marines ;  set  the  example-  of  annual 
visitations  to  the  dock-yards  ;  was  the  promoter  and  patroi* 
of  several  voyages  of  discovery;  and  upon  the. whole,  bis 
attention  to  and  knowledge  of  the  duties  of  the  naval  de* 
parttnent,  although  sometimes  the  objects  of  jealous  in* 
quiryj  bad  probably  never  been  exceeded* 

In  1763,  under  the  coalition  cabinet  he  accepted  thg 
tangership  of  the  parks,  which  he  held  only  until  the  fcl-* 
lowing  year,  and  then  returned  to  the  calm  satisfaction  of 
a  private  station.  In  1791,  a  complaint  in  the  bowels,  to 
which  he  had  been  subject,  obliged  him  to  try  the  waters 
of  Bath;  but,  receiving  no  benefit,  he  returned  to  his 
house  in  town  in  the  latter  end  of  February  1792,  where 
after  languishing  for  some  weeks,  he  died  April  30. 

"The  earl  of  Sandwich,"  says  his  biographer,  "was 
father  to  be  considered  as  an  able  and  intelligent  speaker* 
then  a  brilliant  and  eloquent  orator*  In  his  early  parlia* 
mentary  career,  he  displayed  uncommon  knowledge  of  the 
sort  of  composition  adapted  to  make  an  impression  on  a. 
popular  assembly ;  arid  from  a  happy  choice  of  words,  and 



a  judicious  arrangement  of  his  argument,  be  seldom  spoke 
without  producing  a  sensible  effect  on  the  mind  of  every 
impartial  auditor.     In  the  latter  part  of  bis  political  life, 
and  especially  during  the  American  war,  bis  harangues 
were  less  remarkable  for  their  grace  and  ornament,  than 
for  sound  sense,  and  the  valuable  and  appropriate  informa- 
tion which  they  communicated.     His  speeches,  therefore, 
were  regarded  as  ihe  lessons  of  experience  and  wisdom* 
He  was  never  ambitious  of  obtruding  himself  upon  the 
house.     Heibad  a  peculiar  delicacy  of  forbearanoe,  arising 
from  a  Sense  of  propriety  ;  which,  if  more  generally  prac- 
tised, would  tend  very  much  to  expedite  the  public  busi- 
ness by  compressing  the  debates,  now  usually  drawn  out 
to  an  immeasurable  and  tiresome  length,  within  more  rea- 
sonable bounds.     If,  after  having  prepared  himself  on  any 
important  question,  when  he  rose  iti  the  bouse  any  other , 
lord  first  caught  the  chancellor's  eye,  he  sat  down  with  Abe 
most  accommodating  patience  ;  and,  if  the  lord,  who  spoke 
before  him,  anticipated  tbe  sentiments  which  be  meant  to 
offer,  he  either  did  not  speak,  at  all,  or  only  spoke 'to  such 
points  as  had  not  been   adverted  to  by  the  preceding 
speaker.     Whenever,  therefore,  be  rose,  the  House  was 
assured  that  he  had  something  material  to  communicate: 
lie  was  accordingly  listened  to  with  attention,  and  seldom 
sat  down  without  furnishing  their  lordships  with  facts  at 
ence  important  and  interesting ;  of  which  no  other  peer 
was  so  perfectly  master  as  himself.     During  the  period  of 
the  American   war  be  -was   frequently  attacked  in  both 
houses  for  bis  official   conduct  or  imputed  malversation. 
When  any  such  attempts  were  made  in  the  House  of  Peees, 
be  heard  his  accusers  with  patience,  and.  with  equal  tem- 
per as  .firmness  refuted  their  allegations,  exposing  their 
fallacy  or  their  falsehood.     On  all  such  occasions,  he  met 
his  opponents  fairly  and  openly,  in  some  instances  con* 
curring  in  their  motions  for  papers,  which  his  adversaries 
imagined  would  prove  him  a  negligent  minister ;  in. others 
resisting  their  object,  by  shewing  the  inexpediency  or  the 
impolicy  of  complying  with  their  requests.     In  the  .parlia** 
mentary  contest,  to  which  the  unfortunate  events  .of  the 
American  war  gave  rise,  he  is  to  be  found  more  than  onoe 
rising  in  reply  to  the  late  earl  of  Chatham ;  whose  exti*- 
ordinary  powers  of  eloquence  inspired  sufficient  awe  to 
silence  and  intimidate  even  lords  of  acknowledged  ability. 
Lord  Sandwich  never  in  such  cases  suffered  himself  to  be 


dfcSEfod'by  the  splendor  of  oratorical  talents ;  or  ever  spoke 
without  affording  proof  that  his  reply  was  necessary  and 
adequate.  In  fact,  his  lordship  never  rose  without  first 
satisfying  himself,  that  the  speaker  he  meant  to  reply  to 
was  in  error ;  and  that  a  plain  statement  of  the  facts  in 
question  would  dissipate  the  delusion,  and  afford  convic- 
tion to  the  house.  By  this  judicious  conduct  his  lordship 
secured  the  respect  of  those  whom  he  addressed,  and  cotn- 
iftanded  at  all  times  an  attentive  hearing." 

In  his  private  character,  his  biographer  bears  testimony 
to  the  easy  pojiteness^and  affability  of  his  manners;  his 
cheatfulness  and  hospitality ;  the  activity  of  his  disposition; 
ajdd  his  readiness  to  perform  acts  of  kindness.  Of  his 
morals  less  can  be  said.  He  was  indeed  a  man  of  pleasure, 
in  all  the  extent  of  that  character ;  his  most  harmless  en- 
joyment was  music,  in  whiifo  he  was  at  once  a  man  of 
taste,  a  warm  enthusiast,  and  a  liberal  patron.  He  is  said 
to  have  been  the  author  of  a  pamphlet,  entitled  "  A  State 
of  Facts  relative  to  Greenwich  hospital,*  1779,  in  reply 
to  captain  Balllie's  "  Case  of  the  Royal  Hospital  at  Green- 
wich," published  in  1778.  Since  his  death  has  been  pub- 
lished, "  A  Voyage  performed  by  the  Earl  of  Sandwich 
round  the  Mediterranean,  in  the  years  1738  and  1739, 
Written  by  himself."  This  was  edited  by  his  chaplain  the 
rev.  John  Cooke  in  1799,  with  a  memoir  of  the  noble  au- 
thor, from  which  we  have  extracted  the  above  particulars. 
This  noble  lord's  narrative  is  less  interesting  now  than  it 
would  have  been  about  the  period  when  it  was  written, 
and  is  indeed  very  imperfect  and  unsatisfactory,  but  the 
plan  and  execution  of  such  a  voyage  are  creditable  to  his 
lordship's  taste  and  youthful  ambition.1 

MONTAGU  (Lady  Mary  Wortley),  an  English  lady 
of  distinguished  talent,  by  marriage  related  to  the  Sand- 
wich family,  was  the  eldest  daughter  of  Evelyn  Pierrepoint, 
duke  of  Kingston,  and  the  lady  Mary  Fielding,  daughter 
of  William  earl  of  Denbigh.  She  was  born  about  1690, 
and  lost  her  mother  in  1694.  Her  capacity  for  literary 
attainments  was  such  as  induced  her  father  to  provide  her 
with  the  same  preceptors  as  viscount  Newark,  her  brother; 
'and  under  their  tuition,  she  made  great  proficiency  in  the 
Greek,  Latin,  and  French  languages.     Her  studies  were 

1  Memoir  as  above. — Collins't  Peerage,  by  Sir  E,  Brydges.— Mouth.  Rer. 
vol  XXXllt.  N.  S. 

*••  MONTAGU. 

afterwards  superintended  by  bishop  Burnet,  and  that  part 
bf  life  Which  by  females  of  her  rank  is  usually  devoted  to 
trifling  amusements,  or  more  trifling  "  accomplishments,'* 
w&s  spent  by  her  in  studious  retirement,  principally  at 
Thoresby  and  at  Acton,  near  London.  Her  society  Wtoi 
eonfined  to  a  few  friends,  among  whom  the  most  confidfctW 
tial  appears  to  have  been  Mrs.  Anne  Wortley,  wife  of  thef 
bott.  Sidney  Montagu,  second  son  of  the  heroic  earl  of 
Sandwich.  In  this  intimacy  originated  her  cOnnectiori 
with  Edward  Wortley  Montagu,  esq.  the  eldest  son  of  this 
lady ;  and  after  a  correspondence  of  about  two  years,  they 
were  privately  married  by  special  licence,  whifch  bear* 
date  August  12,  1712.  Mr.  Wortley  Was  a  man  possessed 
of  solid  rather  than  of  brilliant  parts,  but  in  parliament^ 
where  at  different  periods  of  bjs  life  he  had  represented  thO 
'cities  of  Westminster  and  Peterborough,  and  the  bbroughj, 
of  Huntingdon  and  Bossirtey,  he  acquired  considerable 
distinction  &4  a  politician  and  a  speaker.  In  1714  fee  was 
appointed  one  of  the  lords -commissioners  of  the  treasury; 
and  on  this  occasion  bis  lady  was  introduced  to  the  eoirrt 
of  George  I.  where  her  beauty,  wit,  and  spirit  wfcre  nut* 
versally  admired.  She  lived  also  in  habits  of  familiar  ac- 
quaintance with  tivo  of  the  greatest  geniuses  of  the  age£ 
'Addison  and  Pope ;  but  it  did  not  require  their  discern^ 
ment  to  discover  that,  even  at  this  time,  she  was  a  womaft 
of  very  superior  talents.  •  * 

In  1716,  Mr.  Wortley  resigned  his  situation  trs  a  lord  erf 
the  treasury,  on  being  appointed  ambassador  to  the  P<M*te, 
in  order  to  negociate  peace  between  the  Turks  and  Ida* 
perialists.  Lady  Mary  determined  to  accompany  hiixi  hi 
this  difficult  and?  during  war,  dangerous  journey,  and 
While  travellirior,  and  after  her  arrival  in  the  Levant,  amused 
Jierself  and  delighted  her  friends  by  a  regular  correspond* 
ence,  chiefly  directed  to  her  sister  the  countess  of  Maf, 
lady  Rich,  and  Mrs.  Thistlethwaite,  both  ladies  of  the  court; 
£nd  to  Mr.  Pope.  Previously  to  her  arrival  at  the  capital 
fcf  the  Ottoman  empire,  the  embassy  rested  about  twfr 
Inonths  at  Adrianople,  to  which  city  the  Sultan,  Acbmed 
the  third,  bad  removed  his  court.  It  was  here  that  she 
first  was  enabled  to  become  acquainted  with  the  customs  of 
the  Turks,  and  to  give  so  lively  and  so-  jtist  a  pictwfe  of 
their  domestic  manners  and  usages  of  ceremony.  Her  ad- 
mission into  the  interior  of  the  seraglio  was  one  of  her  most 
remarkable  adventures,  and  most  singular  privileges,  and 

MONTAGU.  169 

gwe  rise  to  many  strange  conjectures,  which  it  i#  not  now 
necessary  to  revive.    It  is  more  important  to  record  that, 
daring  hep  residence  at  Constantinople,  she  was  enabled 
to  confer  oo  Europe  a  benefit  of  the  greatest  consequence;, 
'tamely,  inoculation  for  the  small-pox.  which  was  at  that 
time  universal  in  the  Turkish  dominions.     This  practice 
she  examined  with  such  attention  as  to  become  perfectly 
satisfied  with  its  efficacy,  and  gave  the  most  intrepid  and 
convincing  proof  of  her  belief,  in  1717,  by  inoculating  hef 
son,  whd  was  then  about  three  years  old. '  Mr.  Mattland, 
who  had  attended  the  embassy  in  a  medical  character,  first 
endeavoured  to  establish  the  practice  in  London,  and  was- 
encouraged  by  lady  Mary's  patronage.    In  1721  the  ex- 
periment was  successfully  tried  on  some  criminals.     With 
50  much  ardour  did  lady  Mary,  on  her  return,  enforce  this 
salutary  innovation  among  mothers  of  her  own  Tank,  that, 
aa  we  find  in  her  letters,  much  of  her  time  was  necessarily 
dedicated  to  various  consultations;  and  to  the  superintend- 
ence of  the  success  of  her  plan.    In  1722,  she  had  a 
daughter  of  six  years  old,  inoculated,  who  was  afterwards 
countess  of  Bute }  and  in  a  short  time  the  children  of  the 
royal  family,  that  had  not  had  the  small-pox,  underwent 
the  same  operation  with  success ;  then  followed  some  of 
t)ie  nobility,  and  the  practice  gradually  prevailed  among  all 
&nks,  although  it  had  to  encounter  very  strong  prejudices ; 
and  was  soon  extended,  by  Mr.  Maitland  to  Scotland,  and 
by  other  operators  to  most  parts  of  Europe. 
.  Mr*  Wortley*s  negociations  at  the  Porte  having  failed, 
Owing  to  the  high  demands  of  the  Imperialists,  he  received^ 
letters  of  recall,  Oct.  28,  1717,  but  did  not  commence  his 
journey  till  June  1718;  in  October  of  the  same  year  he 
arrived  in  England.     Soon  after,  lady  Mary  was  solicited' 
by  Mr.  Pope  to  fix  her  summer  residence  at  Twickenham, 
with  which  she  complied,  and  mutual  admiration  seemed 
to  knit  these  kindred  geniuses  in  indissoluble  bonds.    A: 
short  time,  however,  proved  that  their  friendship  was  not 
superhuman.    Jealousy  of  her  talents,  and  a  difference  in 
apolitical  sentiments,  appear  to  have  been  the  primary  cause* 
of  that  dislike  which  soon  manifested  itself  without  cere- 
mony and  without  delicacy.     Lady  Mary  was  attached  to 
the  Walpole  administration  and  principles.     Pope  hated* 
the  whigs,  and  was  at  no  pains  to  conceal  his  aversion  in 
Conversation  or  writing.     What  was  worse,  lady  Mary  had. 
for  some  time  omitted  to  consult  him  upon  any  new  poeti-y 

27Q  MONTiG  U. 

cal  production,  and  even  when  be  had  been  formerly  vetf 
free  with  his  emendations,. was  wont  to  say,  u  Come,  no 
touching,  Pope,  for  what  is  good,  the  world  will  give-to 
you,  and  leave  the  bad  for  me ;"  and  she  was  well  aware 
that  he  disingenuously  encouraged  that  idea.  But  the 
more  immediate  cause  of  their  implacability,  was  a  satire 
in  the  form  of  a  pastoral,  entitled  "^Town  Eclogues;" 
These  were  some  of  lady  Mary's  earliest,  poetical  attempts, 
and  had  been  written  previously  to  her  leaving  England* 
After  her  return,  they  were  communicated .  to  a  favoured 
few,  and  no  doubt  highly  relished  from  their  supposed,  or 
teal  personal  allusions.  Botfy  Pope  and  Gay  suggested 
many  additions  and.  alterations,  which  were  certainly  not 
adopted  by  lady  Mary  ;  and  as  copies,  including  their  cor- 
rections, were  found  among  the  papers  of  these,  poets^ 
tjieir  editors  have  attributed  three  out  of  six  to  them* 
"  The.  Bfisset  Table,"  and  "The  Drawing  Boom,"  are 
given  to  Pope  ;  and  the  u  Toilet"  to  Gay*  The  publica- 
tion, however,  of  these  poems,  in  the  name  of  Pope,  by 
Curl,  a  bookseller  who  hesitated  at  nothing  mean  or  in* 
famous,,  appears  to  have  put  a  final  stop  to  all  intercourse' 
between  Pope  and  lady  Mary.  "  Irritated,"  says  her  late 
biographer,  "  by  Pope's  ceaseless  petulance,  and  disgusted 
by  his  subterfuge,  she  now  retired  totally  from  bis  society, 
and  certainly  did  not  abstain  from  sarcastic  observations* 
which  were  always  repeated. to  him"  The  angry  hard  re- 
taliated in  the  most  gross  and  public  manner  against  her 
*nd  her  friend  lord  Hervey.  Of  this  controversy,  which  is 
admirably  detailed  by  Mr.  Dallaway,  we  shall  only  add,, 
that  Dr.  Warton  and  Dr.  Johnson  agree  in  condemning  the 
prevarication  with  which  Pope  evaded,  every  direct  charge 
of  his  .ungrateful  behaviour  to  those  whose  patronage  he 
bad  once  servilely  solicited ;  and  even  bis  panegyrical  com- 
mentator, Dr.  Warburton,  confesses  that  there  were  alle- 
gations against  him,  which  "  he  was  not  quite  clear  of*."  , 
Lady  Mary,  however,  preserved  her  envied  rank  in  the 
world  of  fashion  and  ef  literature  until  1739,  when  her 
health  declining,  she  took  the  resolution  to  pass  the  re- 
mainder of  her  days  on  the  continent.  Having  obtained 
Mr.  Wortley's  consent,  she  left  England  in  the  month  of 
July,  and  hastened  to  Venice,  where  she  formed  many 

*  After  all  this  Pope  has  found  a  zealous  advocate  in  Mr.  Hayley.— See  bis 
"  Desultory  Remarks  on  the  Letters  of  Eminent  Persons,"  prefixed  to  his  edi- 
tion of  Cowper's  Works. 


connexions  with  the  noble  inhabitants,  and  determined  to 
establish  herself  in  the  north  of  Italy.  Having  been  gratis 
lied  by  a  short  tour  to  Rome  and  Naples,  she  returned  to- 
Brescia,  one  of  the  palaces  of  Which  city  she  inhabited, 
mid  also  spent  some  months  at  Avignon  and  Chamberry, 
Her  summer  residence  she  fixed  at  Louverre,  on  the  shores 
of  the  lake  of  Isco,  in  the  Venetian  territory,  whither  she 
had  been  first  invited  on  account  of  the  mineral  waters, 
which  she'  found  greatly  beneficial  to  her  health*  There 
she  took  possession  of  a  deserted  palace,  she  planned  her 
garden,  applied  herself  to  the  business  of  a  country  life, 
and  was  happy  in  the  superiatendance  of  her  vineyards 
and  silk-worms*  Books,  and  those  chiefly  English,  sent  by 
her  daughter  lady  Bute,  supplied  the  want  of  society. 
Her  visits  to  Genoa  and  Padua  were  not  un frequent,  but 
about  175$,  she  quitted  her  solitude,  and  settled  entirely 
at  Venice,  where  she  remained  till  the  death  of  Mr.  Wort- 
ley  in  1761.  She  then  yielded  to  the  solicitations  of  her 
daughter,  and  after  an  absence  of  twenty -jtwo  years,  she 
began  her  journey  to  England,  where  she  arrived  in  Oc- 
tober. But  her  health  had  suffered  much,  and  a  gradual 
decline  terminated  in  death,  on  the  21st  of  August,  1762, 
and  in  the  seventy -third  year  of  her  age. 

The  year  following  her  death,  appeared  "  Letters  of 

Lady  M y  W y  M ,"  in  3  vols.  12mo,  of  which 

publication  Mr.  Dallaway  has  given  a  very  curious  history. 
By  this  it  appears  that  after  lady  Mary  had  collected  copies 
of  the  letters  which  she  had  written  during  Mn  Wortley'a 
embassy,  she  transcribed  them  in  two  small  quarto  volumes, 
and  upon  her  return  to  England  in  1761,  gave  them  to  Mr. 
Sowden,  a  clergyman  at  Rotterdam,  to  be  disposed  of  as 
he  thought  proper.  After  her  death,  the  late  earl  of  Bute 
purchased  them  of  Mr.  Sowden,  but  they  were  scarcely 
landed  in  England  when  the  above  mentioned  edition  was. 
published.  On  farther  application  to  Mr.  Sowden,  it  could 
only  be  gathered  that  two  English  gentlemen  once  called 
on  him  to  see  the  letters,  and  contrived,  during  his  being 
called  away,  to  go  off  with  them,  although  they  returned  ' 
diem  next  morning  with  many  apologies.  Whoever  will 
look  at  the  three  12mo  volumes,  may  perceive  that  with 
tte  help  of  a  few  amanuenses,  there  was  sufficient  time <o 
transcribe  them  during  this  interval.  Cleland  was  the 
editor  of  the  publication,  and  probably  one  of  the  "  gea- 
tlemeu"  concerned  in  the  trick  of  obtaining  the  copies.      , 

272  HON  TAG  IK 

<  The  appearance  of  these  letters,  however,  excited  ant* 
verbal  attention,  nor  on  a  re-perusal  of  them  at.  this  in*** 
proved  period  of  fepiale  literature,  can  any  thing  he  de- 
ducted from  Dr.  Smollett's  opinion  in  the  "  Critical  Re- 
view,1* of  which  he  was  then  conductor*    "  The  publication 
of  these  letters  will  be  an  immortal  monument ^o  the  me- 
mory of  lady  M.  W.  M.  and-  will  shew,  as  long  as  the 
English  language  endures,  the  sprtghtliness  of  her  wit,  the. 
solidity  of  her  judgment,  the  elegance  of  her.  taste,;  and' 
the  excellence  of  her  real  character.     These  letters,  are  so* 
bewitchingly  entertaining,,  that  we  defy  the  most  phleg- 
matic man  on  earth  to  read  one  without  going  through  with 
them,  or  after  finishing  the  third  volume*  not  to  wish  there 
were  twenty  more  of  them."     Other  critics  were  not  -as* 
enraptured,  and  seemed  to  doubt  their  authenticity,  whirh, 
however,  is  now  placed  beyond,  all  question  by  the  follow?* , 
ing  publication,  "  The  Works  of  the  right  hon.  lady  M. 
W.  M.  including  her  correspondence,  poems,  and.  essays, 
published  by  permission  (of  the  Earl  of  Bute)  from  her 
genuine  papers,"  London,   l£03,.  5  vols.  12mo,  with  Me~ 
moirs  of  her  Life  by  Mr.  Dallaway,  drawn  up  with  much 
taste  and  delicacy,  and  to  which  we  are  indebted  for  the* 
preceding  sketch.     This  edition, /besides  her  poems,  and; 
a  few  miscellaneous*  essays,  contains  a  great  number  of 
letters  never  before  printed,  perhaps  of  equal  importance' 
with  those  which  have  long  been  before  the  world,  as  they 
appear  not  to  have  been  intended  for  publication,  which 
the  others  certainly  were,  and  we  have  in  these  new.  letter^' 
a  more  exact  delineation  of  her  character  in  advanced  life. 
This  if  it  be  not  always  pleasing,  will  afford  many  instruc- 
tive lessons.     Her  poetry,  without  being  of  the  superior 
kind,  is  yet  entitled  to  high  praise,  and  bad  she  cultivated 
/the  acquaintance  of  the  muses  with  more  earnestness,  and 
had  not  disdained  the  scrupulous  'labour  by  which  some 
df  her  contemporaries  acquired  fame,  it  is  probable  she 
might  have  attained  a  higher  rank.     She  certainly  was  * 
woman  of  extraordinary  talents,  atfd  acquired  the  honours* 
Of  literary  reputation  at  a  time  when  tbeyt'were  not  be* 
stowed  on  the  undeserving.     It  is,  however,  incumbent 
epon  us  to  add,  that  the  moral  tendency  of  her  letters  may 
be  justly  questioned  ;  many  of  the  descriptions  of  Eastern 
luxuries  and  beauty  are  such  as  cannot  be  tolerated  in  an 
age  x>f  decency,  and  a  prudent  guardian  will  hesitate  long 
before  be  can  admit  the  letters  from  Constantinople  among 

MONTAGU.  273 

books  fit  for  the  perusal  of  the  young.  Her  amiable  rela- 
tive, the  late  Mrs.  Montague,  represents  Lady  Mary  as" 
one  who  "neither  thinks,  speaks,  acts,  or  dresses  like  any 
body ;"  and  many  traits  of  her  moral  conduct  were  also,  it 
is  to  be  hoped,  exclusively  her  own. ' 

MONTAGUE  (Edward  Wortley),  only  son  of  the 
preceding  lady  Mary,  was  born  in  October  1713,  and  hi 
the  early  part  of  his  life  seems  to  have  been  the  object  of 
his  mother's  tenderest  regard,  though  he  afterwards  lost 
her  favour.  In  1716,  he  was  taken  by  her  on  his  father's 
embassy  to  Constantinople,  and  while  there,  was,  as  we 
have  noticed  in  her  life,  the  first  English  child  on  whom  the 
practice  of  inoculation  was  tried.  Returning  to  England 
with  his  parents  in  1719,  he  was  placed  at  Westminster-  , 
school,  where  he  gave  an  early  sample  of  his  wayward 
disposition,  by  running  away,  and  eluding  every  possible 
search,  until  about  a  year  after  he  was  accidentally  dis- 
covered at  Blackwall,  near  London,  in  the  character  of  a 
vender  of  fish,  a  basket  of  which  he  had  then  on  his  head. 
He  had  bound  himself,  by  regular  indenture,  to  a  poor 
fisherman,  who  said  he  had  served  him  faithfully,  making 
his  bargains-shrewdly,  and  paying  his  master  the  purchase- 
money  honestly.  He  was  now  again  placed  at  Westmin- 
ster-school, bat  in  a  short  time  escaped  a  second  time,  and 
bound  himself  to  the  master  of  a  vessel  which  sailed  for 
Oporto,  who,  supposing  him  a  deserted  friendless  boy, 
treated  him  with  great  kindness  and  humanity.  TJjjs  treat- 
ment, however,  produced  no  corresponding  feelings ;  for 
the  moment  they  landed  at  Oporto,  Montague  ran  away 
tip  the  country,  and  contrived  to  get  employment  for  two 
or  three  years  in  the  vintage.  Here  at  length  he  was  dis- 
covered, brought  home,  and  pardoned  ;  but  with  no  better 
effect  than  before*  He  ran  away  a  third  time ;  after  which 
his  father  procured  him  a  tutor,  who  made  him  so  far  re* 
gular  that  he  had  an  appointment  in  one  of  the  public  of- 
fices; and,  in  1747,  he  was  elected  one  of  the  knights  of 
the  shire  for  the  county  of  Huntingdon  ;  but  in  his  sena- 
torial capacity  he  does  not  appear  to  have  any  way  distin- 
guished himself;  nor  did  he  long  retain  his  seat,  his  ex-' 
polices  so  far  exceeding  his  income,  that  he  found  it  pru- 
dent once 'more  to  leave  England,  about  the  latter  end  of 
175 U    His  first  excursion  was  to  Paris,  where,  in  a  sbprt 

1  life  as  above. 

Vol.  XXII.  T 



time,  be  was  imprisoned  in  the  Chatelet,  for  a  fraudulent 
gambling  transaction :  how  be  escaped  is  not  very  clear* 
but  he  published  a  defence  of  himself,  under  the  title  of 
"  Memorial  of  £.  W.  Montague,  esq.  written  by  himself, 
in  French,  and  published  lately  at  Paris,  against  Abraham. 
P&yba,  a  Jew  by  birth,  who  assumed  the  fictitious  name  of 
James  Roberts.  Translated  into  English  from  an  authen-* 
tick  copy  sent  from  Paris,"   1752,  8va. 

In  the  parliament  which  assembled  in  1754,  Mr.  Monta- 
gue was  returned  for  Bossiney  :  and  in  1759  he  published 
his  "  Reflections  on  the  Rise  and  Fall  of  the  ancient  Re-. 
publics,  adapted  to  the  present  state  of  Great  Britain," 
8vo.     This  work  contains  a  concise,  and  not  inelegant,  re- 
lation of  the  Grecian,  Roman,   and  Carthaginian  states, 
interspersed  with  occasional  allusions  to  his  own  country, 
the  constitution  of  which  he  appears  to  have  studied  with* 
care.     It  is  somewhat  singular  that  Mr.  Forster,  the  person 
whom  his  father  had  engaged  as  his  tutor,  endeavoured  to, 
claim  the  merit  of  this  work ;  but  not,  as  Mr.  Seward  re- 
marks, until  more  than  a  year  after  Mr.  Montague's  death, 
when  he  could  receive  no  contradiction. 

His  father  died  in  January  1761,  at  the  advanced  age 
of  eighty,  and  by  his  will,  made  in   1755,    bequeathed 
to  his  son  an  annuity  of  one  thousand  pounds  a- year,  to 
be  paid  to  him  during  the  joint  lives  of  himself  and  his' 
mother  lady  Mary ;  and  after  her  death  an  annuity  of  two 
thousand  pounds  a- year,  during  the  joint  lives  of  himself 
and  bis  sister  lady  Bute.    By  the  same  will  he  empowered 
Mr.  Montague  to  make  a  settlement  on  any  woman  be 
might  marry,  not  exceeding  eight  hundred  pounds  a-year ;. 
and  to  any  son  of  such  marriage  he  devised  a  considerable* 
estate  in  the  West  Riding  of  Yorkshire*.    It  was  this  last; 
clause  which  gave  rise  to  a  story  that  he  had  advertised, 
for  a  wife,  promising  to  marry  *'  any  widow  or  single  lady, 
of  genteel  birth  and  polished  manners,  and  five,  six,  seven, 
ejc  eight  months  in  her  pregnancy.9'  Such  an  advertisement 
certainly  appeared,  but  not  sooner  than  1776,  within  a  few 
months  of  his  death,  and  when  he  was  abroad ;  all  which 
render  the  story  rather  improbable. 

His  mother  died  in  1762,  and  left  him  only  one  guinea* 
he  having  offended  her  irrecoucileably :  but  as  he  was 
now  independent  by  bis  father's  liberal  bequest,  he  pnce. 
more  took  leave  of  his  native  country,  ana  passed  the  re- 
mainder of  his  life  in  foreign  parts.     In  1762,  while  at 

M  O  N  T  A  O  U  ii  «#. 

Turin,  be  Wrote  two  letters  to  the  earl  of  Macclesfield, 
which  were  fead  at  the  Royal  Society,  and  afterwards  pub- 
lished in  a  quarto  pamphlet,    entitled,     "  Observations, 
upon  a  supposed  antique  bast  at  Turin."     In  the  Philoso- 
phical Transactions  are  also,  fay  him,  "  New  Observations 
on  Pompey's  Pillar,"  and  an  account  of  bis  journey  from 
Cairo  in  Egypt  to  the  Written  Mountains  in  the  desarta  of 
Sinai.     It  is  said  that  he  published  "  An  Explication  of  the 
Causes  of  Earthquakes ;"  bat  it  is  not  recollected  where. 
Hi*  travels  in  the  East  occupied  some  years,  and  in.  the 
course  of  them  he  first    abjured  the  protestant  for  the 
Roman  catholic  religion,  and  then  the  latter  for  Mahome- 
tanism,  all  the  rites  and  ceremonies  of  which  he  performed 
with  a  punctuality  which  inclines  us  to  think  that  he  wa9 
in  some  degree  deranged.     He  died  at  length  at  Padua  in 
May  1776,  and  was  buried  under  a  plain  slab,  in  the  clois- 
ter of  the  Hermitants,  with  an  inscription  recording  his 
travels  and  his  talents.    The  latter  would  hare  done  honour 
to  any  character,  but  in  him  were  obscured  by  a  disposition 
which  it  would  be  more  natural  to  look  for  in  romance  than 
in  real  life. l 

MONTAGUE  (Elizabeth),  a  learned  and  ingenious 
English  lady,  was  the  daughter  of  Matthew  Robinson,  esq* 
of  West  Layton,  in  Yorkshire,  of  Coveney,  Cambridge- 
shire, and  of  Mount  Morris  in  Kent,,  by  Elizabeth  daugh- 
ter and  heiress  of  Robert  Drake,  esq. .  She  was  born  at. 
York,  Oct.  2,  1720,  but  lived,  for  some  of  her  early  years, 
with  her  parents  at  Cambridge,  where  she  derived  great 
assistance  in  her  education  from  Dr.  Conyers  Middleton, 
whom  her  grandmother  had  taken  as  a  second  husband.' 
Her  uncommon  sensibility  and  acutencss  of  understanding, 
as  welt  as  her  extraordinary  beauty  as  a  child,  rendered 
her  an  object  of  great  notice  and  admiration  in  the  uni* 
versity,  and  Dr.  Middleton  was  in  the  habit  of  requiring 
from  her  an  account  of  the  learned  conversations  at  which, 
in  his  society,  she  was  frequently  present :  not  admitting 
of  die  excuse  of  her  tender  age  as  a  disqualification,  but 
insisting,  that  although  at  the  present  time  she  could  but 
imperfectly  understand  their  meaning,  she  would  in  future 
derive  great  benefit  from  the  habit  of  attention  inculcated 
by  this  practice.     Her  father,  a  man  of  considerable  inteU 

i  See  many  adtfitioaat  particulars*  adventures,  and  eccentricities  of  this  sin- 
gular character,  in  Mr.  Nichols's  History  «f  Leicestershire  and  Life  of  Bowyer, 


MONTAIGNE,  or  MONTAGNE  (Michael  m),  an 
Eminent  French  writer,  was  born  at  the  cattle  of  Mont- 
aigne, in  tbe  Perigord,  Feb.  8,  1533.  His  father,  seigneur 
of  Montaigne,  and  mayor  of  Bourdeaux,  bellowed  particu- 
lar attention  on  his  education,  perceiving  in  him  early 
.proofs  ef  talents  that  would  one  day  reward  his  care.  His 
mode  of  teaching  him  languages  is  mentioned  as  somewhat 
singular  at  that  time,  although  it  has  since  been  frequently 
practised.  He  provided  him  with  a  German  attendant, 
who  did  not  know  French,  and  who  was  enjoined  to  speak 
to  him  in  Latin,  and  in  consequence  young  Montaigne  is 
said  to  have  been  a  master  of  that  language  at  the  age  of 
six  years.  He  was  taught  Greek  also  as  a  sort  of  diversion, 
and  because  his  father  had  heard  that  the  brains  of  children 
may  be  injured  by  feeing  roused  too  suddenly  out  of  sleep, 
he  caused  him  to  be  awakened  every  morning  by  soft  musk. 
All  this  care  he  repaid  by  tbe  most  tender  veneration  for 
tbe  memory  of  his  father.  Filial  piety,  indeed,  is  said  to 
have  been  one  of  the  most  remarkable  traits  of  his  cha- 
racter, and  he  sometimes  displayed  it  rather  in  a  singular 
manner.  When  on  horseback  he  constantly  wore  a  cleric 
•which  had  belonged  to  his  father,  riot,  as  he  said,  for  con- 
venience, but  for  the  pleasure  vt  gave  him.  "  II  me  semble 
in'envelopper  de  lui," — "  I  seem  to  be  wrapped  up  in  my 
father;"  and  this,  which  from  any  other  wit  would  have 
been  called  the  personification  ef  a  pom,  was  considered  in 
Montaigne  as  a  sublime  expression  of  ,fi Hal  piety. 

At  the  age  of  thirteen  he  had  finished  bts  courie  of 
studies,  which  be  began  at  tbe  college  of  Bourdeaux,  un- 
der Crouehy,  the  celebrated  Buchanan,  and  Muret,  all 
learned  and  eminent  teachers,  and  bis  progress  bore  pro- 
portion to  tbeir  care.  Being  designed  fipr  the  bar  by  his 
father,  he  married  the  daughter  of  a  counsellor  of  parlia- 
ment at  Bourdeaux,  when  in  his  thirty-third  year,  and  fojr 
some  time  himself  sustained  that  character,  but  afterwards 
abandoned  a  profession  to  which  he  probably  was  never 
cordially  attached.  His  favourite  study  was  that  of  humjin 
nature,  to  pursue  which  he  travelled  through  various  parts 
of  France,  Germany,  Swisserland,  and  Italy,  making  his 
observations  on  every  thing  curious  or  interesting  in  so- 
ciety, and  receiving  many  marks  of  distinction.  At  Rome, 
in  1581,  he  was  admitted  a  citizen ;  and  tbe  same  year  he 
was  chosen  mayor  of  Bourdeaux,  and  in  this  office  gave 
such  satisfaction  to  his  fellow-citizens,  that  in  1582  they 



Employed  him  ia  a  special  mission  to  court  on  important 
affairs,  and  after  his  mayoralty  expired,  they  again  elected 
him  into  the  same  office.  In  1538  he  appeared  to  advan- 
tage at  the  assembly  of  the  states  of  Blois,  and  although 
not  a  deputy,  took  a  share  in  their  proceedings  and  cabals. 
During  one  of  his  visits  at  court,  Charles  IX?  decorated 
him  with  the  collar  of  the  order  of  St.  Michael,  without 
any  solicitation,  which,  when  young,  he  is  said  to  have 
coveted  above  all  thipgs,  it  being  at  that  time  the  highest 
mark  of  honour  among  the  French  nobility,  and  rarely 

Returning  afterwards  to  his  family  residence,  he  devoted 
himself  to  study,  from  which  he  suffered  some  disturbance 
during  the  civil  wars.  On  one  occasion  a  stranger  pre- 
sented himself  at  the  entrance  of  his  house,  pretending 
that  while  travelling  with  his  friends,  a  troop  of  soldiers 
had  attacked  their  party,  taken  away  their  baggage,  killed 
all  who  made  resistance,  and  dispersed  the  rest.  Mon? 
taigne,  unsuspectingly,  admitted  this  man,  who  was  the 
chief  of  a  gang,  and  wanted  admittance  only  to  plunder 
the  house.  In  a  few  minutes  two  or  three  more  arrived, 
whom  the  first  declared  to,  be  his  friends  that  had  made 
their  escape,  and  Montaigne  compassionately  made  them 
welcome.  Soon  after,  however,  he  perceived  the  court 
of  his  chateau  filled  with  more  of  the  party,  whose  beha- 
viour left  him  in  no  doubt  as  to  their  intentions.  Mon- 
taigne preserved  his  countenance  unaltered,  and  ordered 
them  every  refreshment  the  place  afforded,  and  presented 
this  with  so  much  kindness  and  politeness,  that  the  cap- 
tain of  the  troop  had  not  the  courage  to  give  the  signal 
for  pillage. 

In  bis  old  age  Montaigne  was  much  afflicted  with  the 
stone  and  nephritic  colic,  but  could  never  be  prevailed 
upon  to  take  medicines,  in  which  he  never  had  any  faith. 
The  physicians,  he  used  to  say,  "  know  Galen,  but  they 
know  nothing  of  a  sick  person  ;"  and  such  was  his  confi- 
dence in  the  powers  of  nature,  that  be  refused  even  a 
common  purgative,  when  the  indication  was  plain.  He 
died  Sept.  15,  1592,  in  his  sixtieth  year. 

His  reputation  is  founded  on  his  "  Essays,"  which  Were 
at  one  time  extremely  popular,  and  which  are  still  read 
with  pleasure  by  a  numerous  class  of  persons.  La  Harpe 
says  of  him,  "  As  a  writer,  he  has  impressed  on  our  lan- 
guage (the  French)  an  energy  which  it  did  not  before  pos? 


sess,  and  which  has  not  become  antiquated,  because  it  is 
that  of  sentiments  and  ideas.     As  a  philosopher  he  has 

Sainted  man  as  he  is  ;  he  praises  without  compliment,  and 
lames  without  misanthropy."     In  1774  was  published  at 
Rome  (Paris),  "  Memoirs  of  a  Journey  into  Italy,"  &c.  by 
Montaigne,  the  editor  of  which  has  given  us  a  few  les» 
known  particulars  of  the  author.     He  says  that  "  with  a 
large  share  of  natural  vivacity,  passion,,  and  spirit,  Mon- 
taigne's life  was  far  from  being  that  of  a  sedentary  con- 
tern  platist,  as  those  may  be  inclined  to  think,  who  view 
him  only  in  the  sphere  of  his  library  and  in  the  composition 
of  his  essays.     His  early  years  by  no  means  passed  in  the 
arms  of  leisure.     The  troubles  and  commotions  whereof 
be  had  been  an  eye-witness  during  five  reigns,  which  he 
had  seen  pass  successively  before  that  of  Henry  IV.  had 
not  in  any  degree  contributed  to  relax  that  natural  activity 
and  restlessness  of  spirit.     They  had  been  sufficient  to  call 
it  forth  even  from  indolence  itself.     He  had  travelled  a 
good  deal  in  France,  and  what  frequently  answers  a  better 
purpose  than  any  kind  of  travel,  he  was  well  acquainted 
with  the  metropolis,  and  knew  the  court.     We  see  his  at- 
tachment to  Paris  in  the  third  book  of  his  Essays.   Thuanus 
likewise  observes,  that  Montaigne  was  equally  successful 
in  making  his  court  to  the  famous  duke  of  Guise,  Henry  of 
Lorraine,  and  to  the  king  of  Navarre,  afterwards  Henry 
IV.  king  of  France.     He  adds,  that  he  was  at  his  estate  at 
Blois  when  the  duke  of  Guise  was  assassinated,  1558.  Mon- 
taigne foresaw,  says  he,  that  the  troubles  of  the  natioti 
would  only  end  with  the  life  of  that  prince,  or  of  the  king 
of  Navarre ;  and  this  instance  we  have  of  his  political  sa- 
gacity.    He  was  so  well  acquainted  with  the  character  and 
disposition  of  those  princes,  so  well  read  in  their  hearts 
and  sentiments,  that  he  told  his  friend  Thuanus,  the  king 
of  Navarre  would  certainly  have  returned  to  the  religion  of 
bis  ancestors  (that  of  the  Romish  communion)  if  he  had 
not  been  apprehensive  of  being  abandoned  by  his  party. 
Montaigne,  in  short,  had  talents  for  public  business  and 
negotiation,  but  his  philosophy  kept  him  at  a  distance 
*  from  political  disturbances ;  and  he  had  the  address  to  con- 
duct himself  without  offence  to  the  contending  parties,  in 
the  worst  of  times*" 

More  recently,  in  1 799,  his  memory  has  been  revived 
in  France  by  an  extravagant  eloge  from  the  pen  of  a 
French  lady,  Henrietta  Bourdic-viot,  who  assures  us  that 


<-«  it  was  in  the  works  of  Montaigne  that  she  acquired  the 
knowledge  of  her  duties."  But  we  rather  incline  to  the 
more  judicious  character  given  of  this  author  by  Dr.  Jo- 
seph Warton.  "  That  Montaigne,"  says  this  excellent 
critic,  "  abounds  in  native  wit,  in  quick  penetration,  in 
perfect  knowledge  of  the  human  heart,  and  the  various 
vanities  and  vices  that  lurk  in  it,  cannot  justly  be  denied. 
JBpt  a  man  who  undertakes  to  transmit  his  thoughts  on  life 
and  manners  to  posterity,  with  the  hope  of  entertaining 
and  amending  future  ages,  must  be  either  exceedingly 
vain  or  exceedingly  careless,  if  he  expects  either  of  these 
effects  can  be  produced  by  wanton  sallies  of  the  imagina- 
tion, by  useless  and.  impertinent  digressions,  by  never 
forming  or  following  any  regular  plan,  never  classing  or 
confining,  his  thoughts,  never  changing  or  rejecting  any 
sentiment  that  occurs  to  him*  Yet  this  appears  to  have 
been  the  conduct  of  our  celebrated  essayist ;  and  it  has 
produced  m$ny  awkward  imitators,  who,  under  the  notion 
of  writing  with  the  fire  and  freedom  of  this  lively  old  Gas* 
con,  have  fallen  into  confused  rhapsodies*  and  uninterest- 
ing egotisms.  But  these  blemishes  of  Montaigne  are  tri- 
fling and  unimportant,  compared  with  his  vanity,  his  inde- 
cency, and  his  scepticism.  That  man  must  totally  have 
suppressed  the  natural  love  of  houest  reputation,  which  is 
so  powerfully  felt  by  the  truly  wise  and  good,  who  can 
calmly  sit  down  to  give  a  catalogue  of  his  private  vices, 
publish  his  most  secret  infirmities,  with  the  pretence  of 
exhibiting  a  faithful  picture  of  himself,  and  of  exactly 
pburtraying  the  minutest  features  of  his  mind.  Surely  he 
deserves  the  censure  Quintilian  bestows  on  Demetrius,  a 
celebrated  Grecian  statuary,  that  he  was  nimius  inveritate, 
et  similitudinis  quam  pulchritudims  amantior ;  more  stu- 
dious of  likeness  than  of  beauty." 

The  first  edition  of  Montaigne's  Essays  was  published 
by  himself  in  1580,  8vo,  in  two  books  only,  which  were 
augmented  afterwards  to  the  present  number.  Of  the 
subsequent  editions,  those  by  P.  Coste  are  reckoned  the 
best,  and  of  these,  Tonson's  edition,  1724,  in  3  vols.  4to, 
is  praised  by  the  French  bibliographers,  as  the  most  beau- 
tiful that  has  ever  appeared.  We  have  also  two  English 
translations.  Montaigne's  iife  was  first  written  by  the 
president  Bouhier,  and  prefixed  to  a  supplementary  vo- 
lume of  his  works  in  1740.  Montaigne  appeared  once  as 
the  editor  of  some  of  the  works  of  Stephen  de  la  Boetie,  in 

£S2  M  0  N  T  A  J  G  N  £ 

1571 ;  at)d  ten  ydws  afterwards  translated  the  **  Natural 
Theologie"  of  Raimond  de  Sebonda,  a  learned  Spaniard, 
and  prefixed  prefaces  to  both. 1 

MONTALEMBERT  (Mark  Rene  de),  senior  membet 
of  the  academy  of  sciences  of  France,  was  born  July  16, 
1714.,  at  Angouleme.  His  family  bad  been  a  long  time  ren* 
dered  illustrious  in  arms  by  Andr6  De  Montalembert,  count 
d'£ss£,  lieutenant-general  to  the  king,  commander  of  his 
jinnies  in  Scotland,  governor  -of  Terouane  near  St.  Omers, 
and  wbo  died  oh  the  breach,  the  12th  of  June  1553.  In 
3739  the  young  Montalembert  entered  into  the  army,  and 
distinguished  himself  at  the  sieges  of  Kehl  and  Philipsburg 
in  1736.  He  was  afterwards  captain  of  the  guards  to  the 
prince  of  Conti.  In  peace  be  studied  the  mathematics  and 
natural  philosophy :  he  read  a  memoir  to  the  academy  of 
aciences,  upon  the  evaporation  of  the  water  in  the  salt 
works  at  Turcheim,  in  the  palatinate,  which  he  had  exa- 
mined, and  was  made  a  member  in  1747.  There  are  in 
the  volumes  in  the  academy  some  memoirs  from  him  upon 
the  rotation  of  bullets,  upon  the  substitution  of  stoves  for 
fire-places,  and  upon  a  pobl,  in  which  were  found  pike 
purblind,  and  others  wholly  without  sight.  From  1750to 
17*55  he  established  the  forges  at  Angoumois  and  Perigord, 
and  there  founded  cannon  for  the  navy.  In  1777  three 
volumes  were  printed  of  the  correspondence  which  he  held 
with  the  generals  and  ministers,  whilst  he  was  employed 
by  his  country  in  the  Swedish  and  Russian  armies  during 
the  campaigns  erf  1757  and  1761,  and  afterwards  in  Bri* 
tanny  and  the  isle  of  Olerou,  when  fortifying  it.  He  for* 
lifted  also  Stralsund,  in  Pomerania,  against  the  Prussian 
troops,  and  gave  an  account  to  his  court  of  the  military 
-operations  in  which  it  was  concerned ;  and  this  in  a  maru 
ner  which  renders  it  an  interesting  part  of  the  History  of 
ithe  Seveii*years  War.  In  1776  he  printed  the  first  volume 
of  an  immense  work  upon  Perpendicular  Fortification,  ami 
the  art  of  Defence ;  demonstrating  the  inconveniences  of 
the  old  system,  for  which  he  substitutes  that  of  casemates, 
>which  admit  of  such  a  kind  of  firing,  that  a  place  fortified 
-after  his  manner  appears  to  be  impregnable.  His  system 
lias  been,  however,  not  always  approved  or  adopted.  His 
treatise  was  extended  to  teir  volumes  in  quarto,    with  a 

-great  number  of  plates;  the  last  volume  was  published 

.•  ■  • 

(  t      »  |loreri.«— Nic«r?B>  vol.  XVI,— Adventurer,  No.  49.— Pict,  Hist. 


in  1792,  and  will  doubtless  carry  bis  name  to  posterity 
wan  author  as  well  as  a  general.  He  married,  in  1770, 
Marie  de  Comarieu,  who  was  an  actress,  and  the  owner  of 
a  theatre,  for  whom  the  general  sometimes  composed  a 
dramatic  piece.  In  1764  and  1786  he  printed  three  ope* 
rattcal  pieces,  set  to  music  by  Cambini  and  Tomeont :  they 
were,  "  La  Statue,"  "  La  Bergdre  qualitA,"  and  "  La 
Boh6mienfie."  Alarmed  at  the  progress  of  the  revolution, 
he  repaired  to  England  in  1789  or  1790,  and  leaving  fails 
wife  there,  procured  a  divorce,  and  afterwards  married*  Ro*» 
ealie  Louise  Cadet,  to  whom  he  was  under  great  obliga* 
tion  during  the  Robespierrian  terror,  and  by  whom  he  had  a 
daughter  born  in  July  1796.  In  his  memoir  published  in 
•1790,  it  may  be  seen  that  he  had  been  arbitrarily  dis- 
possessed of  his  iron  forges,  and  that  having  a  claim  for 
«ix  millions  of  livres  due  to  him,  he  was  reduced  to  a  pent- 
ston,  but  ill  paid,  and  was  at  last  obliged  to  sell  his  estate 
at  Maumer,  in  Angoumois,  for  which  he  was  paid  in  a*- 
«igna*s,  and  which  were  insufficient  to  take  htm  out'  of 
that  distress  which  accompanied  him  throughout  his  life. 
He  was  sometimes  almost  disposed  to  put  an  end  to  his 
existence,  but  had  the  courage  to  resume  his  former 
studies,  and  engaged  a  person  to  assist  him  in  cbmpleat- 
ing  some  new 'models.  His  last  public  appearance  was  in 
the  institute,  where  be  read  a  new  memoir  upon  the  mount- 
ings (affect)  of  -ship-guns.  On  this  occasion  he  was  re- 
ceived with  veneration  by  the  society,  and  attended  to 
with  religious  silence :  a  man  of  eighty-six  years  of  age 
bad  never  been  heard  to  read  with  so  strong  a  voice.  His 
memoir  was  thought  of  so  much  importance,  that  the  in- 
stitute wrote  to  the  minister  of  marine,  who  sent  orders  to 
Brest  for  the  adoption  of  the  suggested  change.  He  was 
upon  the  list  for  a  place  in  the  institute,  and  was  even  pro- 
posed as  the  first  member  for  the  section  of  mechanics,  but 
learning  that  Bonaparte  was  spoken  of  for  the  institute,  be 
'wrote  a  letter,  in  which  he  expressed  bis  desire  to  see  the 
young  conqueror  of  Italy  honoured  with  this  new  crowns 
His  strength  of  mind  he  possessed  to  the  last,  for  not  above 
a  month  before  his  death  he  wrote  reflections  upon  the 
siege  of  St.  John  d'Acre,  which  contained  further  prooft 
of  the  solidity  of  his  defensive  system,  but  at  last  be  fell  ill 
of  a  catarrh,  which  degenerated  into  a  dropsy,  and  carried 

iiim  off  March  22,  1602. ' 

«...  <  »         • «      i 

\  Diet  Hist. — Biographie  Mode  rue. 


MONTANUS,  an  ancient  heresiarch  among  tbe  Chris- 
tiaos,  founded  a  new  sect  in  tbe  second  century  of  tbe 
church,  whicb  were  called  Montanists.  They  bad  also  tbe 
name  of  Phrygians  and  Catapbrygians,  because  Montanus 
was  either  born,  or  at  least  first  known,  at  Ardaba,  a  vil- 
lage :  of  My  si  a,  which  was  situated  upon  tbe  borders  of 
Phrygia.  Here  he  set  up  for  ?  prophet,  although  it  seems 
he  had  but  lately  embraced  Christianity :  bat  it  is  said  that 
he  had  .an  immoderate  desire  to  obtain  a  first  place  in  tbe 
church,  and  that  be  thought  this  tbe  most  likely  means  of 
raising  himself.  In  this  assumed  character  he  affected  to 
appear  inspired  with  the  Holy  Spirit,  and  to  be  seized  and 
agitated  with  divine  ecstacies;  and,  under  these  disguises 
he  uttered  prophecies,  in  which  he  laid  down  doctrines, 
and  established  rites  and  ceremonies,  entirely  new.  This 
wild  behaviour  was  attended  with  its  natural  consequences 
and  effects  upon  tbe  multitude  ;  some  affirming  bim  to  be 
a  true  prophet ;  others,  that  be  was  possessed  with  an  evil 
spirit.  To  carry  on  his  delusion  the  better,  Montanus 
associated  to  himself  Priscilla  aud  Maxim  ilia,  two  wealthy 
ladies,  who  acted  the  part  "  of  prophetesses  ;"  and,  <(  by 
the  power  of  whose  gold,"  as  Jerome  tells  us,  "  he  first 
seduced  many  churches,  and  then  corrupted  them  with 
his  abominable  errors."  He  seems  to  have  made  Pepuza, 
a  town  in  Phrygia,  tbe  place  of  his  first  residence ;  and  be 
artfully  called  it  Jerusalem,  because  he  knew  the  charrt 
there  was  in  that  name,  and  what  a  powerful  temptation  it 
would  be  in  drawing  from  all  parts  tbe  weaker  and  more 
credulous  Christians.  Here  he  employed  himself  in  de- 
livering obscure  and  enigmatical  sayings,  under  the  name 
of  prophecies ;  and  made  no  small  advantage  of-  his  fol- 
lowers, who  brought  great  sums  of  money  and  valuable 
presents,  by  way  of  offerings.  Some  of  these  prophecies 
of  Montanus  and  his  women  are  preserved  by  Epiphanius, 
in  which  they  affected  to  consider  themselves  only  as  mere 
machines  and  organs,  through  which  God  spake  unto  his 

The  peculiarities  of  this  sect  of  Christians  are  explicitly 
set  forth  by  St.  Jerome.  They  are  said  to  have  been  very 
heterodox  in  regard  to  tbe  Trinity ;  inclining  to  Sabellian- 
jsro,  "  by  crowding,"  as  Jerome  expresses  it,  "  tbe  Father, 
Son,  and  Holy  Ghost,  into  the  narrow  limits  of  one  per- 
son." Epiphanius,  however,  contradicts  this,  and  affirms 
them  to  have  agreed  with  the  church  in  the  doctrine  of  tbe 

M  O  N  T  A  N  tr  3:  2ts 


Trinity.    The  Montanists  held  all  second  marriages  to  tie 
unlawful,  asserting  that  although   the  apostle  Paul  per- 
mitted them,  it  was  because  he  "  only  knew  in  part,  and 
prophesied  in  part;1'  but  that,  since  the  Holy  Spirit  had 
been  poured  upon  Montanus  and  bis  prophetesses,  they 
were  not  to  be  permitted  any  longer.     But  the  capital 
doctrines  of  the  Montanists  are  these  :  "  God,"  they  &ay,. 
"  was  first  pleased  to  save  the  world,  under  the  Old  Testa--, 
ment,  from  eternal  damnation  by  Moses  and  the  prophets. 
When  these  agents  proved  ineffectual,  he  assumed  flesh 
and  blood  of  the  Virgin  Mary,  and  died  for  us  in  Christ, 
under  the  person  of  the.  Son.     When  the  salvation  of  the 
world  was  not  effected  yet,  he  descended  lastly  upon  Mon- 
tanus, Priscilla,  and  Maximilla,  into  whom  he  infused  that 
fulness  of  bis  Holy  Spirit,  which  had  not  been  vouchsafed 
to  the  apostle  Paul ;  for,  Paul  only  knew  in  part,  and  pro- 
phesied in  part."  These  doctrines  gained  ground  very  fast; 
and  Montanus  soon  found  himself  surrounded  with  a  tribe  of 
people,  who  would  probably  have  been  ready  to  acknow- 
ledge bis  pretensions,  if  they  had  been  higher.     To  add  to 
his  influence  over  their  minds,  he  observed  a  wonderful 
strictness  and  severity  of  discipline,  was  a  man  of  moni-- 
fication,  and  of  an  apparently  most  sanctified  spirit.     He 
disclaimed  all  innovations  in  the  grand  articles  of  faith; 
and  only  pretended  to  perfect  what  was  left  unfinished  by 
the  saints.     By  these  means  he  supported  for  a  long  time 
the  character  of  a  most  holy,  mortified,  and  divine  person* 
and  the  world  became  much  interested  in  the  visions  and 
prophecies  of  him  and  bis  two  damsels  Priscilla  and  Maxi- 
milla; and  thus  the  face  of  severity  and  saintship  conse- 
crated their  reveries,  and  made  real  possession  pass  for 
inspiration.     Several  good  men  immediately  embraced  the 
delusion,   particularly  Tertullian,  Alcibiades,  and  Theo- 
dotus,  who,  however,, did  not  wholly  approve  of  Montanus'$ 
extravagancies ;  but  the  churches  of  Phrygia,  and  after- 
Wards  other  churches,  grew  divided  upon  the  account  of 
these  new  revelations;  and,  for  some  time,  even  the  bishop 
of  Rome  cherished  the  imposture.     Of  the  time  or  manner 
of  Montanus's  death  we  have  no  certain  account.     It  has 
been  asserted,  but  without  proof,  that  he  and  his  coad- 
jutress  Maximilla  were  suicides. 1 

I  Moaheim.— Cave,  ?J«  *•— ■  Marcher's  Works. 


•  MONT  ANUS  (Benedict  Alius),  a  very  learned  Spa- 
niard, was  born  at  Frexenel,  in  Estremadura,  in  15%7t  and 
was  the  son  of  a  notary.     He  studied  in  the  university  of 
Atcala,  where  he  made  great  proficiency  in  the  learned 
languages.     Having  taken  the  habit  of  the  Benedictines* 
be  accompanied,  in  1562,  the  bishop  of  Segovia  to  the 
council  of  Trent,  where  he  first  laid  the  foundation  of  hns 
celebrity.     On  bis  return  to  Spain,  be  retired  to  a  hermit* 
age  situated  on  the  top  of  a  rock,  near  Aracena,  where  it: 
was  his  intention  to  have  devoted  his  life  to  meditation,  hot 
Philip  II.  persuaded  him  to  leave  this  retreat,  and  become 
editor  of  a  new  Polyglot,  which   was   to   be   printed  by 
Christopher  Plantin  at  Antwerp.     On  this  employment  he 
spent  four  years,  from   1568  to  1572,  and  accomplished 
this  great  work  in  8  volumes  folio.  The  types  were  cast  by 
the  celebrated  William  Lebe,  whom  Plantin  bad  invited 
from  Paris  for  this  purpose.     This  Polyglot,  besides  what 
is  given  in  the  Alcala  Bible,  contains  the  Chaldaic  para- 
phrases, a  Syriac  version  of  the  New  Testament,  in  Sy- 
riac  and  Hebrew  characters,  with  a  Latin  translation,  &e. 
While  Montanus  was  beginning  to  enjoy  the  reputation  to 
which*  his  labours  in  this  work  so  well  entitled  him,  Leo  de 
Castro,  professor  of  oriental  languages  at  Salamanca,  ac- 
cused him  before  the  inquisitions  of  Rome  and  Spain,  as 
having  altered  the  text  of  the  holy  Scriptures,  and  con- 
firmed the  prejudices  of  the  Jews  by  his  Chaldaic  para- 
phrases.    In  consequence  of  this,  Montanus  was  obliged  to 
take  several  journies  to  Rome,  to  justify  himself,  which  be 
did  in  the  most  satisfactory  manner.     Being  thus  restored, 
Philip  II.  offered  him  a  bishopric ;  but  he  preferred  his 
former  retirement  in  the  hermitage  at  Aracena,  where  he 
hoped  to  finish  his  days.     There  he  constructed  a  winter 
and  a  summer  habitation,  and  laid  out  a  pleasant  garden, 
&c. ;  but  had  scarcely  accomplished  these  comforts,  when 
Philip  II.  again  solicited  him  to  return  to  the  world,  and 
accept  the  office  of  librarian  to  the  Esemrial,  and  teach  the 
oriental  languages.     At  length  be  was  permitted  to  retire 
to  Seville,  where  he  died  in  1598,  aged  seventy-one. 

Arias  was  one  of  the  most  learned  divines  of  the  sixteenth 
century.  He  was  a  master  of  the  Hebrew,  Chaldaic,  Sy- 
riac, Arabic,  and  Greek  and  Latin  languages,  and  spoke 
fluently  in  German,  French,  and  Portuguese.  He  was 
sober,  modest,  pious,  and  indefatigable.  His  company  was 
sought  by  the  learned,  the  great,  and  the  pious ;  and  his 

M  O  N  T  A  N  V  9<  $8* 

conversation  was  always  edifying:  Besides  the  Antwerp 
Polyglot,  he  was  the  author  of,  1.  "  Index  correctoriut 
Lib.  Theologicorum,  Catholici  regis  authoritate  editus," 
Antwerp,  1571,  4to,  2.  "  Coalmen taria  in  duodecim  puo- 
phetas  nainores,"  ibid.  1571,  4 to;  reprinted  15S2.  3,  "Elu- 
cidationes  in  quatuor  Evangel i a  &  in  Act.  Apost."  ibid*  1 57£*, 
4to.  4.  "  Elucidationes  in  omnia  JS.  S.  apostolorum  script*, 
&c?  ibid.  1588,  4 to.  5.  "  De  optimo  imperio,  sive  in  Li* 
bruin  Josue  commentarius,"  ibid.  1583,  6.  "  De  varia  Re- 
publica,  sive  Comment,  in  librum  Judicum,"  ibid.  1592, 
4to.  7.  "  Antiquitatum  Judaicarum,  lib.  novem,"  Leydery 
1593.  8.  "  Liber  generationis  et  regenerationis  Adas** 
sive  historia  generis  bumani,"  Antwerp,  1593,  4to;  a  se- 
cond part  in  1601.  9.  "Davidis,  aliorumque  Psalnai  ex 
Heb.  in  Lat.  carmen  conversi,"  ibid.  1574,  4to.  10.  "  Cooa- 
mentarii  in  triginta  priores  Psalmos,"  ibid.  1605:  with  a. 
few  other  works  enumerated  by  Antonio  and  Niceron,1 

MONTANUS,  or  DA  MONTE  (John  Baptist),  was  aa 
Italian  physician  of  so  much  reputation,  that  he  was  re*, 
garded  by  his  countrymen  as  a  second  Galen.  He  was, 
born  at  Verona  in  1488,  of  the  noble  family  of  Monte  in 
Tuscany,  and  sent  to  Padua  by  his  father,  to  study  the 
civil  law.  But  his  bent  lay  towards  physic ;  which,  how- 
ever, though  he  made  a  vast  progress  in  it,  so  displeased  his . 
father,  that  he  entirely  withdrew  from  him  all  support.  He 
therefore  travelled  abroad,  and  practised  physic  in  several 
cities  with  success,  and  increased  his  reputation  among  the 
learned,  as  an  orator  and  poet.  He  lived  some  time  at  Rome, 
with  cardinal  Hyppolitus ;  then  removed  to  Venice ;  whence, 
having  in  a  short  time  procured  a  competency,  he  retired 
to  Padua.  Here,  within  two  years  after  his  arrival,  he  was 
preferred  by  the  senate  to  the  professor's  chair ;  and  he 
was  so  attached  to  the  republic,  which  was  always  kind  to 
him*  that,  though  tempted  with  liberal  offers  from  .the  em- 
peror, Charles  V.  Francis  I.  of  France,  and  Cosmo  duke 
of  Tuscany,  he  retained  his  situation.  He  was  greatly  af- 
flicted with  the  stone  in  his  latter  days,  and  died  in  155  K 
He  was  the  author  of  many  works;  part  of  which  were 
published  by  himself,  and  part  by  his  pupil  John  Crato 
after  his  death.  They  were,  however,  principally  comments 
upon  the  ancients,  and  illustrations  of  their  theories ;  and 

*  Antonio  Bibl.  Hisp. — Biog.  Universale  iri  Arias. — Dupio. — Niceron,  to?. 
XXVIII Foppen  Bibl,  Belf .— Saxii  Onomasticon. 

288  MONf  ANUS.    ' 

hare  therefore  ceased  to  be  of  importance,  since  the  ori-v 
ginals  have  lost  their  value.  He  translated  into  Latin  the 
works  of  A€tius,  which  he  published  at  the  desire  of  car- 
dinal Hyppolitus.  He  also  translated  into  Latin  verse  the 
poem  of  Museus;  and  made  translations  of  the  Argonautics 
attributed  to  Orpheus,  and  of  Lucian's  Tragopodagra.1 

MONTBELIARD  (Philibert-Gueneau),  a  French  na- 
turalist,' was  born  in  1720,  at  Semur,  in  Auxois.  He  spent' 
the  early  part  of  bis  youth  at  Dijon,  and  afterwards  came 
to  Paris,  where  he  made  himself  known  as  a  man  of  science. 
He  continued  with  reputation,  the  "  Collection  Acade- 
roique,"  a  periodical  work,  which  gave  a  view  of  every; 
thing  interesting  contained  in  the  "  Memoirs"  of  the  dif- 
ferent learned  societies  in  Europe.  He  was  chosen  by 
Buffon  to  be  his  associate  in  bis  great  work  on  natural  hisr 
tory,  and  the  continuation  of  bis  ornithology  was  com- 
mitted to  him.  He  is  described  by  Buffon,  "  as  of  all 
men,  the  person  whose  manner  of  seeing,  judging,  and 
writing,  was  most  conformable  to  his  own."  When  the 
class  of  birds  was  finished,  Montbeliard  undertook  that  of 
insects,  relative  to  which  he  had  already  furnished  several 
articles  to  the  New  Encyclopedia,  but  bis  progress  was  ' 
cut  short  by  his  death,  which  took  place  at  Semur,  Nov.  2S, 


MONTECUCULI  (Raymond  de),  a  very  celebrated 
Austrian  general,  was  born  in  1608,  of  a  distinguished  fa- 
mily in  the  Modenese*  Ernest  Montecuculi,  his  uncle, 
who  was  general  of  artillery  in  the  imperial  troops,  made 
bim  pass  through  all  the  military  ranks,  before  he  was 
raised  to  that  of  commander.  The  young  man's  first  ex- ' 
ploit  was  in  1634,  when  at  the  head  of  2000  horse,  he  Sur- 
prised 10,000  Swedes  who  were  besieging  Nemeslaw,  in 
Silesia,  and  took  their  baggage  and  artillery;  but  he  was 
shortly  after  defeated  and  made  prisoner  by  general  Ban- 
nier.  Having  obtained  his  liberty  at  the  end  of  two  yearis, a 
he  joined  his  forces  to  those  of  J.  de  Wert,  in  Bohemia, 
and  conquered  general  Wrangel,  who  was  killed  in  the 
battle.  In  1627,  the  emperor  appointed  Montecuculi  ma- 
rechal  de  camp  general,  and  sent  him  to  assist  John  Casi- 
mir,  king  of  Poland.  He  defeated  Razolzi,  prince  of 
Transylvania,    drove  out  the  Swedes,   and  distinguished 

*  Eloy  Diet.  Hist,  de  Medecine.  *  Diet  Hist. 


himself  greatly  against  the  Turks  in.  Transylvania,  and  in 
Hungary,  by  gaining  tbe  battle  of  St.  Gothard,  in  1664. 
Monteouculi  commanded  the  imperial  forces  against 
France  in  1673,  and  acquired  great  honour  from  tbe  cap- 
ture of  Bonn,  which  was  preceded  by  a  march,  conducted 
with  many  stratagems  to  deceive  M.  Turenne.  The  com- 
mand of  this  army  was  nevertheless  taken  from  him  the 
year  following,  but  he  received  it  again  in  1675,  that  he 
might  oppose  tbe  great, Turenne,  on  the  Rhine.  Monte- 
cuculi  had  soon  to  bewail  tbe  death  of  this  formidable 
enemy,  on  whom  he  bestowed  the  highest  encomiums:  "I 
lament,"  said  he,  "  and  1  can  never  too  much  lament,  the 
loss  of  a  man  who  appeared  more  than  man ;  one  who  did 
honour,  to  human  nature."  The  great  prince,  of  Cond^ 
was  the  only  person  who  could  contest  with  Montecuculi, 
the  superiority  which  M.  de  Turenne' s  .death  gave  Lira. 
That  prince  was  therefore  sent  to  the  Rhine,  and  stopped 
the  imperial  general's  progress,  who  nevertheless  considered 
this  last  campaign  as  his  most  glorious  one.;  (not  because 
he  was  a  conqueror,  but  because  be  was  not  conquered  by 
two  such  opponents  as  Turenne  and  Conde.  He,  spent 
the  remainder,  of  his  life  at  the  emperor's  court,-  devoting 
himself  to  the  belles  lettres ;  and, the  academy  of  natu- 
ralists owes  its  establishment  to  him.  He  died  October  16, 
1680,  at  Lines,  aged  seventy-two.  This  great  general  left 
«ome  very  excellent  "  Memoires"  on  the  military  art ;  the 
best  French  edition  .of  which  is  that  of  Strasburg,  1735  ;  to 
which  that. of  Paris,  1746,  12mo,  is  similar.1 .        .   , 

MONTE-MAYOR  (George  jje),  a  celebrated  CastiU 
lian  poet,  was  born  at  Monte-mayor,  whence  he  took  hi* 
name,  probably  in  the .  early  part  of  the  sixteenth  century, 
one  authority  says  in  1520.  It  is  thought  he  owed  his  re- 
putation more  to  genius  than  study  ;  in  his  early  years  be 
was  in  the  army,  and  amidst  the  engagements  of  a  military 
life,  cultivated  music  and  poetry.  He  appears  to  have  af- 
terwards obtained  an  employment,  on  account  of  his  mu- 
sical talents,  in  the  suite  of  Philip  II. ;  and  was  also  patro- 
nized by  queen  Catherine,  sister  to  the  emperor  Charles  V. 
He  died  in  the  prime  of  life  in  1562.  His  reputation  now 
rests  on  his  "  Diana,"  a  pastoral  romance,  which  has  al- 
ways been  admired  on  the  continent,  and  translated  into 
various  languages.     The  last  edition  of  the  original  is  that 

ft.    '  *  Diet.  Hilt— Moreri. 

Vol.  XXII.  U 


of  Madrid,  ]  795,  8vo.  Gaspar  Polo  published  a  continua- 
tion, "  La  Diana  enajnorada  cinco  libros  que  progequen  let 
VII,  de  Jorge de  Montemayor,"  Madrid,  1778,  8vo,  a  work 
which,  Brunet  says,  is  more  esteemed  than  that  of  Moott- 

MONTESQUIEU  (Charles  de  Sbcondat,  baton  of), 
a  very  celebrated  French  writer,  was  descended  of  an  an* 
•cient  and  noble  family  of  Guienne,  and  born  at  the  castle 
of  Brede  near  Bourdeaux,  Jan.  18,  1639.  The  greatest 
care  was  taken  of  his  education ;  and,  at  the  age  of  twenty, 
he  bad  actually  prepared  materials  for  bis  •*  Spirit  of  Laws," 
by  a  wellr  digested  extract  from  those  immense  volumcfs 
which  compose  the  body  of  the  civil  law ;  and  which  he 
had  studied  both  as  a  civilian  and  a  philosopher.  Mau- 
pertuis  informs  us  that  he  studied  this  science  almost  from 
bis  infancy,  and  that  the  first  product  of  his  early  genius 
was  a  work,  in  which  he  undertook  to  prove,  that  the  ido- 
latry of  most  part  of  the  pagaps  did  not  deserve  eternal 
punishment,  but  this  he  thought  fit  to  suppress.  In  Feb. 
1714,  he  became  a  counsellor  of  the  parliament  of  Bouiu 
deaox,  and  was  received  president  amortier,  July  13, 1716, 
in  the  room  of  an  uncle,  who  left  htm  his  fortune  and  hie 
office.  He  was  admitted,  April  3, 1716,  into  the  academy 
of  Bourdeaux,  which  was  then  only  in  its  infancy.  A  taste 
for  music,  and  for  worts  of  entertainment,  had,  at  first, 
assembled  the  members  who  composed  it ;  but  the  socio* 
ties  for  belles  lettres  being  grown,  in  bis  opinion,  too  nu- 
merous, he  proposed  to  have  physios  for  their  chief  ob- 
ject ;  and  the  duke  de  la  Force,  having,  by  a  prize  just 
founded  at  Bourdeaux,  seconded  this  jast  and  rational  pro* 
posal,  Bourdeaux  acquired  an  academy  of  sciences,  . 

Montesquieu  is  said  not  to  have  been  eager  to  shew  him- 
self to  the  public,  but  rather  to  wait  for  "an  age  ripe  foj 
writing."  It  was  not  till  1721,  when  he  was  thirty-two 
years  of  age,  that  he  published  his  "  Persian  Letters." 
The  description  of  oriental  manners,  real  or  supposed,  of 
the  pride  and  phlegm  of  Asiatic  love,  is  but  the  smallest 
object  of  these  "  Letters ;"  which  were  more  particularly 
intended  as  a  satire  upon  French  manners,  and  treat  of 
several  important  subjects,  which  the  author  investigates 
rather  fully,  while  he  only  seems  to  glance  at  th$ai. 
Though  this  work  was  exceedingly  admired,  yet  he  did  not 

»  Ant.  BibL  Hitp.— Diet.  Hitt.— Brunei  Mamul  du  Likfltire. 


openly  declare  himself  the  author  of  it.  He  expresses 
himself  sometimes  freely  about  matters  of  religion,  awl 
therefore  as  soon  as  he  was  known  to  be  the  author,  he 
had  to  encounter  much  censure  and  serious  opposition,  for 
at  that  time  the  philosophizing  spirit  was  not  tolerated  in 
France.  In  1725,  he  opened  the  parliament  with  a  speech* 
the  depth  and-  eloquence  of  which  were  convincing  proofs 
of  his  great  abilities  as  an  orator;  and  the  year  following 
he  quitted  bis  charge. 

A  place  in  the  French  academy  becoming  vacant  by  th* 
death  of  monsieur  de  Sacy,  in  1728,  Montesquieu,  .by  the 
advice  of  bis.  friends,  and  supported  also  by  the  voice  of 
the  public,  offered  himself  for  it.  Upon  this,  the  minister, 
cardinal  Fleury,  wrote  a  letter  to  the  academy,  informing 
them,  that  his  majesty  wquld  never  agree  to  the  election  of 
the  author  of  the  "  Persian  Letters  ;"  that  he  had  not  him* 
self  read  the  book;  but  that  persons  in  whom  be  placed 
confidence,  bad  informed  him  pf  its  dangerous  tendency* 
Montesquieu,  thinking  it  prudent  immediately  to  enco4nr 
ter  this  opposition,  waited  on  the  minister,  and  declared 
to  him,  that,  for  particular  reasons,  he  bad  flqc  owned  the 
*'  Persian  Letters,*'  but  that  he  would  be  still  farther  from 
disowning  a  work,  for  which  he  believed  he  bad  no  reaso* 
to  bhish  ;  and  that  he  ought  to  be  judged  after  a  reading, 
and  not  upon  information*  At  last,  the  minister  did  what; 
he  opght  to  haive  begun  with ;  he  read  the  hook,  loved  the 
author,  and  learned  to  place  his.  con6dence  better.  Th^ 
French  academy,  says  J>'Alei*bert4  was  not  deprived  of 
one  of  its  greatest  ornaments,  nor  France  of  a  subject,  of 
which  superstition  or  calumny  was  ready  to  deprive  her  \ 
for  Montesquieu,  it  seems,  bad  frankly  4*cl*red  to  the 
government,  that  he ;  could  not  think  of  continuing  in 
France  after  the  affront  they  were  about  to  offer,  but  should 
aeek- among  foreigners  for  that  safety,  repose,  and  honpur^ 
which  he  might  have  hoped  in  his  own  country.  He  was 
jecerred  into  the  academy,  Jan.  54,  1728  ;  and  his  dis* 
course  upon  that  occasion,  which  was  reckoned  a  very  finq 
one,  is  printed  among  his  works*.  . , 

*  His  conduct  ba«  been  differently  condemned  by  a  cardinal  or  a  minis. 

represented    by   Voltaire.       Monies-  ter.     Montesquieu  himself  carried  the 

quieti*  says  feat  author*  took  a  v*ry  work  to  the.  cardinal,  who  seldom  read, 

judicious  step  to  make  the  minister  and  he  perused  part  of  it.    Tbis  air  of 

bis  friend.    Be  printed,  in  a  few  days*  confidence,  supported  by  the  influence 

a  new  edition  ^>f  his  book%  in  which,  of  some  persons  of  credit,  regained  the 

every  thing  was  omitted  that'  could  be  cardinal's  interest ;  and  Montesquieu; 




As  before  his  admission  into  the  academy,  he  had  given1 
tip  his  civil  employments,  and  devoted  himself  entirely  to 
his  genius  and  taste,  he  resolved  to  travel,  and  went  first, 
in  company  with  lord  Waldegrave  our  ambassador,  td 
Vienna,  where  he  often  saw  prince  Eugene ;  in  whom  he 
thought  he  could  discover  some  remains  of  affection  for  his 
native  country.  He  left  Vienna  to  visit  Hungary  ;  and1, 
passing  thence  through  Venice,  went  to  Rome.  There  he 
applied  himself  chiefly  to  examine  the  works  of  Raphael^ 
of  Titian,  and  of  Michael  Angek),  although  he  had  not 
made  the  fine  arts  a  particular  study.  After  having  tra- 
velled over  Italy,  be  came  to  Switzerland,  and  carefully 
examined  those  vast  countries  which  are  watered  by  the 
Rhine.  He  stopped  afterwards  some  time  in  the  United 
Provinces ;  and,  at  last,  went  to  England,  where  he  stayed 
three  years,  and  contracted  intimate  friendships  with  many 
of  the  most  distinguished  characters  of  the  -  day.  He  in 
particular  received  many  marks  of  attention  from  queen 
Caroline.  In  the  portrait  of  Montesquieu,  written  by  him- 
self, and  published  lately  among  some  posthumous  pieces, 
he  gives  the  following  proof  of  his  gallantry  in  reply : 
"Dining  in  England  with  the  duke  of  Richmond,  the 
French  envoy  there  La  Boine,  who  was  at  table,  and  wa» 
ill  qualified  for  his  situation,  contended  that  England  was 
not  larger  than  the  province  of  Guienne.  I  opposed  the 
envoy.  In  the  evening,  the  queen  said  to  me,  ( I  am 
informed,  sir,  that  you  undertook  our  defence-  against  M. 
de  la  Boine.9  (  Madam,'  I  replied,  *  I  cannot  persuade 
myself  that  a  country  over  which  you  reign,  is-  not  a  great 

During  his  travels  to  gain  a  personal  acquaintance  with* 
the  manners,  genius,  and  laws  of  the  different  nations  of 
Europe,  he  met  with  some  singular  adventures.  Whilst 
he  was  at  Venice  he  wrote  mucfr  and  inquired  more  :  his 
writings,  which  he  did  not  keep  sufficiently  secret,  had 
alarmed  the  state ;  he  was  informed  of  it,  and  it  was  hinted 
to  him.  that  be  had  some  reason  to  be  apprehensive  that  in 
crossing  from  Venice  to  Fucina*  he  might  probably  be  ar- 
rested. With  this  information  he  embarked :  about  the 
middle  of  the  passage,  he  saw  several  gondolas  approach, 
and  row  round  his  vessel :  terror  seized  him,  and  in  his 

obtained  a  seat  in  the  academy.  This  tioned,  it  a  greater  proof  of  littleness 
teems  unworthy  of  Montesquieu ;  but  of  mind/  and  renders  Che  afore  &*•<•' 
%ii  conduct  to  Dupio,  hereafter  men-     babte.  <       - 



panic  he  collected  all  bit  papers  which  contained  his  ob- 
servations on  Venice,  and  cast  them  into  the  sea.  The 
author  of  the  "  New  Memoirs  of  Italy"  says,  that  the  state 
t&d  no  design  against  his  person,  but  only  to  discover 
what  plans  he  might  have  formed. 

After  his  return,  he  retired  for  two  years  to  his  estate  at 
Bcede,  and  there  .finished  his  work  "  On  the  Causes  of 
the<Grandeur  and  Declension  of  the  Romans,"  which  ap- 
peared in  1734,  and  in  which  he  has  rendered  a  common 
topic  highly  interesting.  By  seizing  only  the  most  fruitful 
tranches  of  his  subject,  he  has  contrived  to  present  within 
a  small  compass  a  great  variety  of  objects.  But  whatever 
reputation  he  acquired  by  this  work/  it  was  but  prepara- 
tory to  the  more  extensive  fame  of  his  "  Spirit  of  Laws,? 
of  which  he  had,  as  already  noticed,  long  formed  the  de- 
sign. Yet  scarcely  was  it  published,  in  1748,  when  it  was 
attacked  by  the  same  adversaries  who  had  objected  to  the 
*  Persian  Letters,"  who  at  first  treated  it  with  levity,  and 
even  the  title  of  it  was  made  a  subject  of  ridicule ;  but  the 
more  serious  objections  made  to  it  on  the  score  of  religion* 
alarmed  the  author,  who  therefore  drew  up  "  A  Defence 
of  the  Spirit  of  Laws  ;"  in  which,  while  he  could  not  pre- 
tend that  it  was  without  faults,  be  endeavoured  to  prove 
that  it  had  not  all  the  faults  ascribed  to  it.  It  is  said  that 
when  the  "  Spirit  of  Laws"  made  its  appearance,  the  Sor- 
honne  found  in  it  several  propositions  contrary  to  the  doc- 
trine of  the  catholic  church.  These  doctors  entered  into 
a  critical. investigation  of  the  work,  which  they  generally 
censured;  but  as  among  the  propositions  condemned,  there 
were  found  some  concerning  ecclesiastical  jurisdiction 
w.hich  were  attended  with  many  difficulties,  and  as  Mon- 
tesquieu had  promised  to  give  a  new  edition,  in  which  he 
would  correct  any  passages  that  had  appeared  against  reli- 
gion, this  censure  of  the  Sorbonne  did  not  appear. 

The  systematical  part  of  the  "  Spirit  of  Laws"  was  that 
of  which  Montesquieu  seemed  the  most  tenacious ;  this 

•  Among  his  critics  was  M.  Dupin, 
M  farmer-general,  who  wrote  an  ans- 
wer to  the  "  Spirit  of  Laws;"  but  after 
a  few  copies  had  been  distributed, 
Montesquieu  made  his  complaint  to 
madame  Pompadour,  who  sent  for  the 
writer,  and  told  him  she  took  the 
"Spirit of  the  Laws,"  and  it«  author, 
j^nderjjer  protection  :  in  consequence 

of  this,  Dupin  was  obliged  to  submit, 
and  the  whole  edition  of  his  answer 
was  consigned  to  the  flames.  This 
was  not  to  the  credit  of  Montesquieu, 
who  should  have  learnt  a  different  les- 
son from  England,  in  which  he  said 
be  had  been  excited  to  thought  and 



indeed  was  the  most  important  and  the  most  difficult  His 
system,  however,  of  the  climates,  inconclusive  and  ill- 
founded  asit  is,  appears  borrowed  from  Bod  in' s  "  Method 
of  studying  History,"  and  Charron's  "Treatise  on  Wisdom.** 
Still  the  numerous  useful  observations,  ingenious  reflec- 
tions, salutary  plans,  and  strong  images,  that  are  diffused 
through  the  work,  added  to  the  admirable  maxims  we  there 
meet  with  for  the  good  of  society,  gave  the  work  a  very 
high  reputation  in  France,  as  well  as  throughout  Europe 
in  general.  It  has  now  lost  much  of  its  popularity,  but  at 
tone  time  no  book  was  more  read  and  studied. 

The  admirers  of  Montesquieu  have  wished  that  he  had 
applied  himself  to  the  writing  of  history;  but  it  may  be 
doubted  whether  his  imagination  would  not  have  proved 
too  lively  for  that  attention  to  facts  and  authorities  which 
is  absolutely  necessary  to  historical  narrative.  He  had, 
however,  finished  the  history  of  Lewis  XI.  of  France,  and 
the  public  was  upon  the  point  of  reaping  the  benefit  of  hi& 
labours,  when  a  singular  mistake  deprived  them  of  if. 
Montesquieu  one  day  left  the  rough  draught  and  the  copy 
of  this  history  upon  his  table,  when  be  ordered  his  secre- 
tary to  burn  the  draught,  and  lock  up  the  copy.  The  se- 
cretary obeyed  in  part,  but  left  the  copy  upon  the  table  : 
Montesquieu  returning  some  hours  alter  into  his  studyy 
observed  this  copy,  which  he  took  for  the  draught,  and 
threw  it  into  the  fire.  On  this  and  the  preceding  anec- 
dote, one  of  bis  countrymen,  in  the  true  spirit  of  French 
compliment,  observes,  "  that  the  elements,  as  well  as 
taen  in  power,  seemed  jealous  of  his  superior  merit,  at 
water  and  lire  deprived  us  of  two  of  his  most  valuable  pro* 

In  1751,  a  literary  dispute  arose  concerning  the  transla- 
tion  of  the  Bible  into  French :  the  question  was,  whether 
the  second  person  singular,  which  is  dismissed  in  all  polite 
conversation,  should  be  preserved  ?  Fontenelle  was  en  the 
affirmative  side,  as  well  as  Montesquieu.  Remarks  were 
written  on  this  determination,  in  which  the  writer,  among 
other  things,  observes,  "  That  the  author  of  the  Persian; 
Letters  with  his  eastern  taste,  could  not  fail  being  an  ad- 
vocate for  thou*'9 

About  this  time,  among  other  marks  of  esteem  bestowed 
on  Montesquieu,  Dassier,  who  was  celebrated  for  cutting 
of  medals,  and  particularly  the  English  coin,  went  from 
London  to  Paris,  to  engrave  that  of  the  author  of  the  Spirit 



Lata ;  but  Montesquieu  modestly  declined  it.  Tbe 
artist  said  to  him  one  day,  "  Do  not  you  think  there  is  as 
much  pride  in  refusing  my  proposal,  as  if  you  accepted  it?" 
Disarmed  by  this  pleasantry,  he  yielded  to  Dassier's  re* 

Montesquieu  was  peaceably  enjoying  that  esteem  which 
bjs  merits  bad  procured  him,  when  he  fell  sick  at  Paris  in 
1155.  His  health,  naturally  delicate,  had  begun  to  decay 
for  some  time,  partly  by  the  slow  but  sure  effect  of  deep 
study,  and  partly  by  the  way  of  life  be  was  obliged  to  lead, 
at  Paris,  He  was  oppressed  with  cruel  pains  soon  after  be 
fell  siek,  nor  had  he  his  family,  or  any  relations,  near  him ; 
yet  he  preserved  to  his  last  moments  great  firmness  and 
tranquillity  of  mind.  "  In  short,"  says  bis  elogist,  "  after 
paving  performed  every  duty  which  decency  required,  he 
died  with  the  ease  and  well-grounded  assurance  of  a  man 
who  had  never  employee!  his  talents  but  in  the  cause  of 
virtue  and  humanity."  His  last  hours  are  said  to  have 
been  disturbed  by  the  Jesuits,  who  wished  him  to  retract 
some  of  his  opinions  on  religion ;  and  some  say  he  made  a 
formal  disavowal  of  these.  He.  died  February,  10,  1755,> 
aged  66. 

Besides  the  works  already  mentioned,  Montesquieu  wnota 
others  of  less  reputation,  but  wbicb  might  have  conferred 
celebrity  on  a  writer  of  inferior  merit.  The  most  remarkable 
of  them  is  the  "  Temple  of  Gnidus,"  which  was  published 
aOon  after  the  "Persian  Letters."  Montesquieu,  says 
D'Alembert,  after  having  been  Horace,  Theophrastus,  and 
Lucian,  ip  those,  was  Ovid  and  Anacreon  in  this  new  essay. 
in  this  he  professes  to  describe  the  delicacy  and  simjplicity 
of  pastpral  love,  such  a*  it  is  in  an  inexperienced  hearty 
not  yet  corrupted  with  tbe  commerce  of  the  world : 
and, this  be  has  painted  in  a  sort  of  poem  in  prose;  for, 
3t>cb  we  may  reasonably  call  a  piece  so  full  of  images  and 
descriptions  as  the  "  Temple  of  Gnidus."  Its  voluptuous 
style  at  first  made  it  be  read  with  avidity,  but,  it  is  now 
Considered  as  unworthy  of  the  author.  Besides  this,  there 
is  a  small  piece,  called  "  Lysimachus,"  and  another,  still 
smaller,  "  On  Taste;"  but  this  is  indeed  paly:  a  fragment. 
Several  of  bis  works  have  been  translated  at  different  times 
into  English,  but  are  not  now  much  read  in  this  country. 
In  France,  however,  he  is  still  considered  as  one  of  their 
standard  authors,  and  within  these  few  years,  several  splen- 
did editions  of  his  collected  works  have  been  published 


both  in  4to  and  8vo,  with  additions  from  the  author's  ma- 
'  To  the  personal  character  of  Montesquieu,  as  given  by 
his  eulogists  and  biographers,  we  have  never  heard  any 
objection.     He  was  not  less  amiable,  say   they,  for   the 
qualities  of  his  heart,  than  those  of  his  mind.     He  ever 
appeared  in  the  commerce  of  the  world  with  good  humour, 
cheerfulness,  and  gaiety.    His  conversation  was  easy,  agree- 
able, and  instructive,  from  the  great  number  of  men  he 
bad  lived  with,  and  the  variety  of  manners  he  had  studied.    ' 
It  was  poignant  like  his  style,  full  of  salt  and  pleasant 
sallies,  free  from  invective  and  satire.     No  one  could  relate 
a  narration,  with  more  vivacity,  readiness,  grace,  and  pro- 
priety.    He  knew  that  the  close  of  a  pleasing  story  is 
always  the  chief  object ;  he  therefore  hastened  to  reach  it, 
and  always  produced  a  happy  effect,  without  creating  too 
great  an  expectation.     His  frequent  flights  were  very  en- 
tertaining ;  and  he  constantly  recovered  himself  by  some 
unexpected  stroke,  which  revived  a  conversation  when  it 
was  drooping ;  but  they  were  neither  theatrically   played 
off,  forced,  or  impertinent.     The  6re  of  his  wit  gave  them 
birth;  but  his  judgment  suppressed  them  in  the  course  of 
a  serious  conversation  :  the  wish  of  pleasing  always  made 
him  suit  himself  to  his  company,  without  affectation  or  the 
desire  of  being  clever.     The  agreeableness  of  his  company 
was  not  only  owing  to  his  disposition  and  genius,  but  also 
to  the  peculiar  method  he  observed  in  his  studies.     Though 
capable  of  the  deepest  and  most  intricate  meditations,  he 
never  exhausted  his  powers,  but  always  quitted  bis  lucu- 
brations before  he  felt  the  impulse  of  fatigue.     He  had  a 
sense  of  glory ;  but  he  was  not  desirous  of  obtaining  with- 
out meriting  it.     He  never  attempted  to  increase  his  repu- 
tation by  those  obscure  and  shameful  means  which  dis- 
honour the  man,  without  increasing  the  fame  of  the  author. 
Worthy  of  the  highest  distinction   and  the  greatest  re- 
wards, he  required   nothing,  and  was   not  astonished   at 
being  forgotten  :  but  he  dared,  even  in  the  most  critical 
circumstances,  to  protect,  at  Court,  men  of  letters  who 
were  persecuted,  celebrated,  and  unhappy,  and  obtained 
them  favour.     Although  be  lived  with  the  great,  as  well 
from  his  rank  as  a  taste  for  society,  their  company  was  not 
essential  to  bis  happiness.     He  sequestered  himself,  when- 
ever he  could,  in  his  villa :  there  with  joy  he  embraced 
philosophy,  erudition,  and  ease.     Surrounded  in  his-leU 

M  ONTISftU  VE  U.  29* 

sure  hours  with  rustic*,  after  having  studied  man  in  ihb 
commerce  of  the  world  and  the  history  of  nations,  he 
studied  him  even  in  those  simple  beings,  whose  sole  in- 
structor was  nature,  and   in  them  he  found  information.* 
He  cheerfully  conversed  with  them :  like  Socrates  he  traced 
their  genius,  and  he  was  as  much  pleased  with  their  un- 
adorned narrations  as  with  the  polished  harangues  of  the 
great,  particularly  when  he  terminated  their  differences,* 
and  alleviated  their  grievances  by  his  benefactions.     He 
was  in  general  very  kind  to  his  servants :  nevertheless,  he 
was  compelled  one  day  to  reprove  them ;  when  turning, 
towards  a  visitor,  he  said  with  a  smile,  "  These  are  clocks- 
that   must  be  occasionally  wound   up."      Nothing  does 
greater  honour  to  his  memory  than  the  oeconomy  with 
which  he  lived  ;  it  has  indeed  been  deemed  excessive  inv 
an  avaricious  and  fastidious  world,  little  formed  to  judge 
of  the  motive  of  his  conduct,  and  still  less  to  feel  it.     Be-* 
oeficent  and  just,  Montesquieu  would  not  injure  his  family 
by  the  succours  with  which  he  aided  the  distressed,  nor 
the  extraordinary  expence  occasioned  by  his.  travels,  the 
weakness  of  his  sight,  and  the  printing  of  his  works.     He' 
transmitted  to  his.  children,  without  diminution  or  increase, 
the  inheritance  he  received  from  his  ancestors:  he  added 
nothing  to  it  but  his  fame,  and  the  example  of  his  life. 
;   Montesquieu   married,   in   1715,   Jeanne   de   Lartigue,' 
daughter  to  Peter  de  Lartigue,  lieutenant-colonel  of  the 
regiment  of  Maulevrier.     By  this  lady  he  had  two  daughters 
and  a  son,  John  Baptista  de  Secondat,  counsellor  of 
the  parliament  of  Bourdeaux,  who  died  in  that  city  in 
1796,  at  the  age  of  seventy-nine.     He  was  author  of  many> 
works ;    particularly  of  "  Observations    de    Physique  et 
d'Histoire  Naturelle  sur  les  Eaux  Minerales  de  Pyrenees,'1* 
1750 ;  "  Considerations  sur  la  Commerce  et  la  Navigation 
de  la  Grande  Bretagne,"  1740;  "  Considerations  sur  la 
Marine  Militaire  de  France,"  1756.     He  resided  a  con- 
siderable time  in  London,  and  was  elected  a  member  of 
the  Royal  Society. ! 

MONTETH,  or  MONTEITH  (Robert),  a  Scotch  his-: 
torian,  was  born  at  Salmonet,  between  Airth  and  Grange,* 
on  the  south-side  of  the  Firth-of- Forth,  whence  he  was 
called  abroad  Salmonettus  Scoto-Britannus.  Of  his  life  we 
have  been  able  to  discover  very  few. particulars.    The  tra* 

.    !  Eloge  by  O'Alembert  and  by  Maapertuit.— JWct.  HUL    ' 

»S  MONTE  T  ft. 

dition  is,  that  be  was  obliged  to  leave  Scotland  upon  bkr 
being  suspected  of  adultery  with  the  wife  of  sir  James  Ho-* 
milton  of  Preston*-field.  Monteith  appears  to  have  been  a 
chaplain  of  cardinal  de  Retz,  who  also  made  him  a  eanott 
6f  Notre  Dame,  and  encouraged  him  in  writing  his  history* 
SeeJoli,  Memoires,  torn.  II.  page  86,  where  he  is  called 
«  homme  scavant  &  de  merite."  Cardinal  de  Rets  also 
mentions  him,  vol.  III.  p.  323.  His  brother  was  lieute- 
nant-colonel of  Dbuglas's  regiment  (the  royal)>  and  killed 
in  Alsace.  In  the  privilege  for  printing  Monteith' s  History* 
granted  the  13th  of  September  1660,  to  Jaques  St.  Clair 
de  Roselin,  he  is  styled  "le  defunct  St.  Montet."  In  th«f 
title-page  he  is  called  Messire.  This  work  embraces  the 
period  of  Scotch  history  from  the  coronation  of  Charles  I* 
to  the  conclusion  of  the  rebellion.  In  his  preface  he  pro^ 
fesses  the  utmost  impartiality,  and  as  far  as  we  have  beet* 
able  to  look  into  the  work,  he  appears  to  have  treated  th& 
history  of  those  tumultuous  times  with  much  candour.' 
His  leaning;  is  of  course  to  the  regal  side  of  the  question.* 
In  1735  a  translation  of  this  work,  which  was  originally 
published  in  French,  and  was  become  very  rare,  was  exe- 
cuted at  London  in  one  vol.  fol.  by  J.  Ogilvie,  under  the. 
title  of  a  "History  of  the  Troubles  of  Great  Britain."' 
The. author  was  held  in  high  esteem  by  Menage,-  who  wrote 
two  Latin  epigrams  in  his  praise.  The  time  of  his  death 
we  have  not  been  able  to  discover.  He  must  be  distin- 
guished from  a  Robert  Mouteith,  the  compiler  of  a  scared 
and  valuable  collection  of  all  the  epitaphs  of  Scotland,, 
published  in  1704,  Svo,  under  the  title  of  "  An  Theater 
of  Mortality."  * 

MONTFAUCON  (Bernard  de),  a  Benedictine  of  the 
Congregation  of  St.  Maur,  and  one  of  the  most  learned  an- 
tiquaries France  has  produced,  was  born  Jan.  17,  1655,  at 
Soulage  in  Languedoc,  whither  his  parents  had  removed 
on  some  business ;  and  was  educated  at  the  castle  of  Ro- 
quetailiade  in  the  diocese  of  Alet,  where  they  ordinarily  re-* 
sided.  His  family  was  originally  of  Gascony,  and  of  the 
ancient  lords  of  Montfaucon-le-Vieux,  first  barons  of  the 
comt£  de  Comminges.  The  pedigree  of  a  man  of  learning* 
is  not  of  much  importance,  but  Montfaucon  was  an  anti-r 
quary,  and  has  given  us  bis  genealogy  in  his  "  Bibl.  Biblio~ 
thecarum  manuscriptorum,"  and  it  must  not,  therefore,  be 

*  Pifeftce  to  bit  kiitory.— Republic  of  Letters,  vol.  IX.  p.  175* 


forgotten,  that  besides  his  honourable  ancestors  of  the 
thirteenth  and  fourteenth  centuries,  he  was  the  soli  of  Ti* 
moleon  de  Montfaucon,  lord  of  Roquet&illade  and  Coniilac 
in  the  diocese  of  Alet,  by  Flora  de  Maignan,  daughter  of 
the  baron  d'  Albieres.     He  was  the  second  of  four  brothers. 
From  his  early  studies  in  his  father's  house  he  was  removed 
to  Limoux,  where  he  continued  them  under  the  fathers  of 
the  Christian  doctrine,  and  it  is  said  that  the  reading  of 
Plutarch's  Lives  inspired  him  first  with  a  love  for  history 
and  criticism.     A  literary  profession,  however,  was  not  his 
original  destination,  for  we  find  that  he  set  out  with  being 
ft  cadet  in  the  regiment  of  Perpignan,  and  served  one  or 
two  campaigns  in  Germany  in  the  army  of  marshal  Turenne. 
He  also  gave  a  proof  of  his  courage  by  accepting  a  chal- 
lenge from  a  brother  officer,  who  wished  to  put  it  to  the 
test.     About  two  years  after  entering  the  army,  the  death 
of  his  parents*  and  of  an  officer  of  distinction  under  whom 
he  served,  with  other  circumstances  that  occurred  about 
the  same  time,  appear  to  have  given  him  a  dislike  to  the 
military  life,  and  induced  him  to  enter  the  congregation 
of  St.  Maur  in  1675  at  the  age  of  twenty.     In  this  learned 
society,  for  such  it  was  for  many  years,  he  had  every  op- 
portunity to  improve  his  early  education,  and  follow  the 
literary  pursuits  most  agreeable  to  him.     The  first  fruits  of 
his  application  appeared  in  a  kind  of  supplement  to  Cot- 
telerius,  entitled   "  Analecta  Grceca  sive  varia  opuscula* 
Gr.  &  Lat."  Paris,  4to,  1688,  with  notes  by  him,  Antony 
Pouget  and  James  Lopin.     In  1690  he  published  a  small 
volume  12mo,  entitled  "Laverit£  de  l'Histoirede  Judith,"  • 
in  which  he  attempts  to  vindicate  the  authenticity  of  that 
apocryphal  book,  and  throws  considerable  light  on  the 
history  of  the  Medes  and  Assyrians.     His  next  publication* 
of  much  importance  was  a  Hew  edition  in  Gr.  &  Lat.  of 
the  works  of  St.  Athanaskts,  which  came  out  in  1698,  3  vols, 
fbl.    This,  which  is  generally  known  by  the  name  of  the 
Benedictine  edition,  gave  the  world  the  first  favourable 
impression  of  Montfaucon's  extensive  learning  and  judg- 
ment.    He  had  some  assistance  in  it  from  father  Lopin, 
before-mentioned,  who,  however,  died  before  the  publi- 

In  the  same  year,  Montfaucon,  who  bad  turned  hia 
thoughts  to  more  extensive  collections  of  antiquities  than 
had  ever  yet  appeared,  determined  to  visit  Italy  for  the 
sake  of  the  libraries,  and  employed  three  years  in  consult* 


in'g  their  manuscript  treasures.  After  his  return,  he  pub- 
lished in  1702,  an  account  of  his  journey  and  researches, 
under  the  title  of  "  Diarium  Italicum,  sive  monumenturn 
veterum,  bibliothecarum,  musseorum,  &c  notitiaB  singu- 
lars, itinerario  ltalico  collects ;  additis  schematibus  et 
figuris,"  Paris,  4to.  Of  this  an  English  translation  was 
published  in  1725,  folio,  by  as  great  a  curiosity  as  any  that 
father  Montfaucon  had  met  with  in  his  travels,  the  famous 
orator  Henley,  who  had  not,  however,  at  that  time  dis- 
graced his  character  and  profession.  In  1709,  Ficorin^ 
published  a  criticism  on  the  "Diarium"  which  Montfaucon 
answered -in  the  "  Journal  des  S§avans,"  and  some  time 
after  be  met  with .  a  defender  in  a  work  entitled  "  Apolo- 
gia del  diario  ltalico/'  by  father  Busbaldi,  of  Mont-Cassin. 
During  Montfaucon's  residence  at  Rome,  he  exercised  the 
function  of  procurator-general  of  his  congregation  at  that 
court;  and  it  was  also  while  there,  in  1699,  that  be  bad 
occasion  to  take  up  his  pen  in  defence  of  an  edition  of  the 
works  of  St.  Augustine  published  by  some  able  men  of  his 
order,  but  which  had  been  attacked,  as  he  thought,  very 
illiberally.  His  vindication  was  a  12mo  volume,  entitled 
"  Vindicise  editionis  sancti  Augustini  a  Benedictis  ador- 
nata,  ad  versus  epistolam  abbatis  Germani  autore  D.  B.  de 
Biviere,"  The  edition  referred  to  is  that  very  complete 
one  by  the  Benedictins,  begun  to  be  published  in  1679, 
at  Antwerp,  and  completed  in  1700,   1 1  vols,  folio. 

In  1706,  Montfaucon  published  in  2  vols,  folio,  a  col-, 
lection  of  the  ancient  Greek  ecclesiastical  writers,  with  a 
Latin  translation,  notes,  dissertations,  &c.  The  most  con^ 
siderable  part  of  this  collection  is  "  Eusebius  of  Caesarea's 
Commentary  upon  the  Psalms,"  mentioned  by  St.  Jerome, 
and  which  we  overlooked  in  our  account  of  Eusebius. 
Here  is  also  Eusebius' s  commentary  on  Isaiah,  and  some 
jnedited  works  of  St.  Athanasius,  for  which  reason  this 
"  Collectio  nova  patrum"  (for  such  is  its  title)  is  recom- 
mended as  a  companion  to  Montfaucon's  edition  of  Atha- 
nasius's  works.  A  second  edition  of  both  was  published  at 
Padua  in  1777,  4  vols,  folio;  but  although  it  professes  to 
be  improved  "  curis  novissimis,"  it  does  not  enjoy  the  re- 
putation of  the  originals.  In  1708  he  published  one  of 
his  most  important  works,  and  which  alone  would  have 
given  him  strong  claims  on  the  learned  world,  his  "  Palaeo- 
grapbia  Graeca,  sive  de  ortu  et  progressu  literarum  Grae- 
cam ui,  et  de  variis  omnium  SLscculorum  scriptioiris  Graecap 


generibus  ;  itemque  de  abbreviationibus  et  notis  variarum 
artiom  et  disciplinarum.  Additis  figuris  et  scbetnatibu* 
ad  fidem  manuscriptorum  codicum,"  folio.  This  inva- 
luable work  has  done  the  same  in  reference  to  the  disco- 
very of  the  age  of  Greek  MSS.  which  the  "  De  re  diplo- 
matica"  of  Mabillon  has  done  to  ascertain  the  age  of  those 
in  Latin.  At  the  end  of  this  work,  are  John  Comnenus's 
description  of  Mount  Athos,  Gr.  and  Lat.  with  a  learned 
preface ;  and  a  dissertation  by  the  president  Bouhier  on 
the  ancient  Greek  and  Latin  letters. 

In  1709  Montfaucon  published  Pbilo-Judaeus  on  a  con-, 
templative  life,  in  French,  *c  Le  Livre  de  Philon  de  la 
vie  contemplative,  &c."  translated  from  the  Greek  with 
notes,  and  an  attempt  to  prove  that  t!ie  Therapeut®  of 
whom  Philo  speaks  were  Christians.  Having  sent  a  copy 
of  this  to  president  Bouhier,  the  latter  returned  him  a  po- 
lite letter  of  thanks,  but  stated  that  he  could  not  agree  with 
.him  in  his  opinion  respecting  the  religion  of  the  Thera- 
peutm.  This  brought  on  a  correspondence  which  was 
published  at  Paris  in  1712,  12mo,  under  the  title  of  "  Let- 
tres  pour  &  contre  sur  la  fameuse  question,  si  les  solitaires 
appell^s  Therapeutes  etoient  Chretiens."  The  learned 
Gisbert  Coper  was  also  against  the  opinion  of  Montfaucon 
on  this  question;  and  it  is,  we  believe,  now  generally 
thought  that  his  arguments  were  more  ingenious  than  con- 
vincing. In  1710,  Montfaucon  published  an  "  Epistola" 
on  the  fact,  mentioned  by  Rufinus,  that  St.  Athanasius 
baptised  children  when  himself  a  child.  In  this  work  he 
investigates  the  date  of  the  death  of  St.  Alexander,  bishop 
of  Alexandria,  and  that  of  the  death  of  St.  Athanasius.  This 
was  followed  in  1713  by  an  edition  of  what  remains  of  the 
"  Hexapla  of  Origen,"  2  vols,  folio,  and  a  fine  edition  of 
the  works  of  St  Chrysostom,  begun  in  1718,  and  completed 
in  1738  in  13  vols,  folio. 

In  1715  appeared  his  "  Bibliotheca  Cosliniana,  olint  Se~ 
guieriana,  seu  MSS.  omnium  Greecorum  quae  in  ea  conti* 
nentur  accurata  descriptio,"  Paris,  folio.  This  contains  a 
list  of  400  Greek  MSS.  with  the  age  of  each,  and  often  a 
specimen  of  the  style,  &c.  In  1719,  the  year  in  which  be 
was  chosen  a  member  of  the  academy  of  inscriptions  and 
belles  lettres,  appeared  his  great  work,  and  such  as  no  na- 
tion had  yet  produced,  entitled  "  L*  Antiquity  expliqueeet 
representee  en  figures/'  Paris,  5  vo}s.  usually  bound  in  10; 
t#  'which  was  added  in  1724,.  a  supplement,  in  $  vpk.  the* 

30*  M  O  N  T  W  A  U  0  O  N. 

whole  illustrated  by  a  vast  number  of  elegant,  accurate* 
and  expensive  engravings,  representing  nearly  40,000  ob- 
jects of  antiquity,  engraved  from  statues,,  medals,  &c.  iq 
the  various  cabinets  of  Europe.  In  such  a  vast  collection 
.as  this,  it  is  as  unnecessary  to  add  that  there  are  many 
errors,  as  it  would  be  unjqst  to  censure  them  with  all  the 
parade  of  criticism.  In  the  case  of  a  work  which  so  many 
hundred  recent  scholars  and  antiquaries  have  quoted,  and 
which  laid  the  foundation  for  the  improvements  of  later 
times,  it  would  be  fastidious  to  withhold  the  praises  se 
justly  due  to  the  laborious  author.  Whole  societies,  in- 
deed, would  think  much  of  their  joint  efforts,  if  they  bad 
accomplished  a  similar  undertaking.  It  remains  to  be  no- 
ticed, however,  that  the  first  edition  of  the  above  dates,  it 
the  most  valuable.  That  reprinted  in  1722  with  the  sup- 
plement of  1757  is  by  no  means  of  equal  reputation.  Some 
copies  made  up  from  the  edition  in  40  vols,  pf  1719,  and 
tbe  supplement  of  1757,  are  also  in  little  esteem.  This  was 
followed  by  another  interesting  work,  which  is  now  be* 
come  scarce,  "  Les  Monumens  de  la  monarchic  Frangoise, 
avec  Jes  fig.  de  chaque  regne,  que  l'iujure  du  temps  a 

!>pargn£es,"  Paris,  1729 — 1733,  5  vols,  folio.  This  coU 
ection,  of  which  he  published  a  prospectus  in  1725,  may 
be  properly  called  "  The  Antiquities  of  France,"  and  in- 
cludes all  those  classes,  civil,  ecclesiastical,  warlike,  man-* 
ners,  &c.  which  form  a  work  of  that  title  in  modern  Ian* 
gpage.  His  last,  and  not  tbe  least  important  of  his  works, 
was . published  in  1739,  2  vols,  folio,  under  the  title  of 
"  $ihhotheca  bibliothecarum  MSS.  nova,  ubi  quae  innu- 
merrs .  pcene  manuscriptorum  bibliothecis  continentur  ad 
qupdvis  Utteratura  genus  spectantia  et  uotatu  digna,  de* 
toribuntur,  et  iadicantur."  Two  years  after  the  learned 
futhor  died  suddenly  at  the  abbey  of  St.  Germain  deaPres, 
Dec.  21, 174],  at  the  advanced  age  of  eighty-seven.  Be* 
aides  the  works  above  mentioned,  Montfaucon  contributed 
many  curious  and  valuable  essays  on  subjects  of  antiquity* 
frc.  to  tbe  memoirs  of  the  academy  of  inscriptions  aad 
belles  lettres,  and  other  literary  journals. 

Montfaucon  enjoyed  during  his  long  life  the  esteem  of 
ijbe  learned  world,  am)  was  not  more  regarded  for  the  e*« 
tensive  learning  than  the  amiable  qualities  of  hi*  private 
character*  He  was  modest,  polite,  affable,  and  alwayar 
ready  to  communicate  the  information  with  which  his 
indefatigable  studies  and  copious  reading  supplied  him. 



Foreigners  who  sought  to  he  introduced  to  him,  returned 
froiti  his  conversation,  equally  delighted  with  his  manner*, 
and  astonished  at  bis  stores  of  learning.  The  popes  Be- 
nedict XIII.  and  Clement  XI. -and  the  emperor  Charles  VI. 
honoured  him  with  particular  marks  of  their  regard ;  but 
honours  or  praise,  in  no  shape,  appeared  to  affect  the  hu- 
mility and  simplicity  of  his  manners.1 

MONTGERON  (Lewis  Basil  Carke'  de),  borh  in 
1686,  at  Paris,  was  the  son  of  Guy  Carr£,  mafcre  des 
requites.  He  was  but  twenty-five  when  be  purchased  a 
counsellor's  place  in  the  parliament,  and  acquired  some 
degree  of  credit  in  that  situation  by  his  wit  and  exteriot 
-accomplishments.  He  had,  by  bis  own  account,  given 
•himself  up  to  all  manner  of  licentiousness,  for  which  his 
conscience  frequently  checked  htm,  and  although  he  en- 
deavoured to  console  himself  with  the  principles  of  infi- 
delity, his  mind  was  still  harassed,  when  accident  of  de? 
•ign  led  him  to  visit  the  tomb  of  M.  Paris  the  deacon,  Sep- 
tember 7,  1731,  with  the  crowd  which,  from  various  mo* 
•lives,  were  assembled  there.  If  we  may  believe  his  own 
•account,  he  went  merely  to  scrutinize,  with  the'  utmost 
severity,  the  (pretended)  miracles  wrought  there,  but  felt 
iumself,  as  be  says,  suddenly  struck  and  overwhelmed  by 
,&  thousand  rays  of  light,  which  illuminated  him,  and,  front 
an  infidel,  he  immediately  became  a  Christian,  but  in  truth 
-was  devoted  from  that  moment  to  fanaticism,  with  the  same 
violence  and  impetuosity  of  temper  which  had  before  led 
him  into  the  most  scandalous  excesses.  In  1739  he  was 
involved  in  a  quarrel  which  the  parliament  had  with  the 
court,  and  was,  with  others,  banished  to  Auvergne.  Herd 
he  formed  a  plan  for  collecting  the  proofs  of  the  miracles 
wrought  at  the  tomb  of  the  abbe  Paris,  making  them  clear 
to  demonstration,  as  he  called  it,  and  presenting  them  to 
the  king.  At  his  return  to  Paris,  he  prepared  to  put  this 
plan  in  execution,  went  to  Versailles,  July  29,  1737,  and 
presented  the  king  with  a  quarto  volume  magnificently 
bound,  which  he  acoompanied  with  a  speech.  In  conse- 
quence of  this  step  Montgeron  was  sent  to  thebastile,  thett 
confined  some:  months  in  a  Benedictine  abbey  belonging 
to  the  diocese  of  Avignon,  removed  soon  after  to  Viviers, 
and  carried. from  thence  to  be  shut  up  in  the  citadel  of 
Valence,  where  he  died  in  1754,  aged  sixty-eight.    The 

*  Moreri.— Saxit  Oaomast.— -Diet.  Hitt.— CUrke'i  Bibliographical  Dictionary, 

.ao*  M  ON  T  G  E  R'O  n: 

work  which  he  presented  to  the  king  is  entitled  "  La  Verity 
des  Miracles  op£r£s  par  I'lntercession  de  M.  de  Paris/'  &c. 
4to.  This  first  volume  by  M.  Montgerbn  has  been  followed 
by  two  more,  and  he  is  said  also  to  have  left  a  work  in  MS. 
against  the  incredulous,  -written  while  he  was  a  prisoner. 
De  Montgeron  would,  however,  have  scarcely  deserved  a 
place  here,  if  bishop  Douglas,  in  his  "  Criterion,"  had  nofc 
bestowed  so  much  pains  on  examining  the  pretended  mira- 
cles which  be  records,  and  thus  rendered  his  history  an 
object  of  some  curiosity.1 

MONTGOLF1ER  (Stephen  James),  the  inventor  of 
•air-balloons,  was  born  at  Aunonay,.  and  was  originally  a 
paper-maker,  and  the  first  who  made  what  is  called  vellum- 
;paper.  Whence -be  took  the  bint  of « the  aerostatic  bal- 
loons seems  uncertain,  but  in  1782  be  made  his  first  ex- 
periment at  Avignon,  and  after  other  trials,  exhibited 
.before  the  royal  family  on  Sept.  19,  1783,  a  grand  balloon, 
Jiear  sixty  feet  high  and  forty-three  in  diameter,  which 
ascended  with  a  cage  containing  a  ;sheep,  a  codjk,  and  a 
duck,  and  conveyed  them  through  the  air  in  safety  to  the 
distance  of  about  10,000  feet.  This  was  foHowed  by  ano- 
ther machine  of  Montgolfier's  construction,  with  which  a 
M.  Pilatre  de  Rozier  ascended.  This  daring  adventurer 
lost  his  life  afterwards  along  with  his  companidn  Romsitr, 
by  the  balloon  catching  fire,  an  event  which  did  dot  pre- 
vent balloons  from  being  introduced  into  this-  and  other 
countries.  After  repeated  trials,  however,  the  utility  of 
these  expensive  and  hazardous  machines  seems  doubtful, 
and  for  some  years  they  have  been  of  little  use,  except  to 
fill  the  pockets  of  needy  adventurers.  MontgoJfier  was  re* 
warded  for  the  discovery  by  admission  into  the  academy  of 
sciences,  the  ribbon  of  St.  Michael,  and  a  pension.  He- 
died  in  1799.* 

MONTMORT  (Peter  Raymond  de),  an  able  mathe- 
ipatici^n,  ,was  born  at  Paris  in  the  year  1678,  and  intended 
for  the  profession  of ,  the  law,  to  -enable  him  to  qualify  for 
a  place  in  the  magistracy**  From  dislike. of  this  destination,* 
he  withdrew  into  England,  whence  he  passed  over  into  the 
Low  Countries,  and  travelled  into  Germany,  where  he  re- 
sided with  a  near  relation,,  M.Chambois,  the  plenipoten- 
tiary of  France  at  the  diet  of  Ratisbon.;    He  returned  tor 

1  Diet.  Hist.— Douglas's  Criterion,  p.  132,  fcc.  edit.  1807. 

*  DicLiiisL— Rees's  Cyclopaedia,  art.  Aerostation.  4 

•MONTMORT.  305 

'France  in  1699,  and  after  the  death  of  his  father,  who  left 

•  him  arv  ample  fortune,  devoted  his  talents  to  the  study  of 
« philosophy  and  the  mathematics,  under  the  direction  of  the 

celebrated  Malebranche,  to  whom  be  had,  -some  years  be- 
fore, felt  greatly  indebted  for  the  conviction  of  the  truth 

,of  Christianity,  by  perusing  bis  work  on  <*  The  Search  after 

-Truth."  ]n  1700  he  went  a  second  time  to  England,  and 
on  his  return,  assumed  the  ecclesiastical  habit,  and  was 
made  a  canon  in  the  church  of  Notre- Dame,  at  Paris. 
.About  this  time  be  edited,  at  his  own  expence,  the  works 
of  M.  Guisnde  on  '«  The  Application  of  Algebra  to  Geo- 
metry," and  that  of  Newton  on  the  "Quadrature  of  Curves." 
In  1703  he  published  his  "Analytical  Essay  ot)  Games  of 

-  Change,"  and  an  improved  edition  in  1714.  This  was  most 
favourably  received  by  men*  of  science  in  all  countries.    In 

'1715  hejsaid  a  third  visit  to  England,  for  the  purpose  6f 
observing  a  solar  eclipse,  and  was  elected  a  fellow  of  the 
Royal  Society,  to  which  learned  body  he  soon  afterwards 
transmitted  an  important  treatise  on  "  Infinite  Series," 
which  was  inserted  in  the  Philosophical  Transactions  for 
the-  year  1717.  He  was  elected  an  associate  of  the  Royal 
Academy  of  Sciences  at  Paris  in  1716,  and  died  at  the  early 
age  of  forty-one,  of  the  small-pox.  He  sustained  all  the 
relations  of  life  in  the  most  honourable  manner,  and  though 
subject  to  fits  of  passion,  yet  his  anger  soon  subsided,'  and 

'  be  was  ever  ashamed  of  the  irritability  of  his  temper.  Such 
was  his  steady  attention  that  he  could  resolve  the  most  dif- 
ficult problems  in  company,  and  among  the  noise  of  play- 
ful children.  He  was  employed  several  years  in  writing 
u  A  History  of  Geometry,"  but  he  did  not  live  to  com- 
plete it.1 

MONTUCLA  (John  Stephen),    a  celebrated  mathe- 
matician; was  born  at  Lyons  in  the  year  1725,  and  giving 

:  early  indications  of  a  love  of  learning,  was  placed  under  the 
instructions  of  the  Jesuits,'  with  whom  he  acquired*  an  inti- 
mate acquaintance  with  the  ancient  and  modern  languages, 
and  some  knowledge  of  the  mathematics.     At  the  age  of 

•  sixtfeen  he  went  to  Toulouse  to  study  the  law,  arid  was  ad- 
mitted an  advocate,    though  without  much  intention  of 

'practising 'at  the  bar.  *  Having  completed  his  studies,  he 
wept  to  Paris,  cultivated  an  acquaintance  with  the  most 
distinguished  literary  characters,  and  it  was  owing  to  his 

<•  Moreru— Diet  Hwt.— *ee*'»  CyCk>p«dhi. 

Vol.  XXII.  X 

;  m  MONT.UCLi 


intercourse  with  them,  that  lie  was  induced  to  undertake 
his  "  History  of  the  Mathematical  Sciences.19     But  in  the 

.  interim  he  published  new  editions,  with  additions  and 
improvements,  of  several  mathematical  treatises  which 
were  already  held  in  the  highest  estimation.  The  first  of 
these  was  "  Mathematical  Recreations,"  by  M.  Ozanam, 
which  has  been  since  translated  into  English,  atid  pub- 
lished in  London,  in  4  vols.  8vo.  To  all  the  works  which 
he  edited,  after  Ozanam' s,  he  gave  the  initials  of  his  name. 
He  also  contributed  bis  assistance  for  some  years  to  "  The 
French  Gazette ;'9  and  in  1755  he  was  elected  a  member 
of  the  Royal  Academy  of  Sciences  at  Berlin.  In  the  fol- 
lowing  year,  when  the  experiment  of  inoculation  was  about 
to  be  tried  on  the  first  prince  of  the  blood,  Montucla  trans- 
lated from  the  English  an  account  of  all  the  recent  cases 
of  that  practice,  which  had  been  sent  from  Constantinople, 

.by  lady  Mary  Wortley  Montague.  This  translation  he 
added  to  the  memoir  of  De  la  Condamine  on  the  subject. 
Previously  to  this  publication,  be  had  given  to  the  world 
his  "  History  of  Inquiries  relative  to  the  Quadrature  of  the 
Circle."  The  encouragement  which  this  met  with  from 
very  able  judges  of  its  merit,  afforded  him  great  encou- 
ragement to  apply  with  ardour  to  his  grand  design,  "  The 
History  of  the  Mathematics;99  and  in  1758  he  published 
this  "  History,'*  in  two  volumes,  4to,  which  terminates  with 
the  close  of  the  17th  century.  It  answered  the  expectation 
of  all  his  friends,  and  of  men  of  science  in  all  countries,  and 
the  author  was  instantly  elevated  to  a  high  rank  in  the 

.,  learned  world.  His  fame  was  widely  diffused,  and  he  was 
pressed  from  all  quarters  to  proceed  with  the  mathematical 
history  of  the  18th  century,  which  he  had  announced  for 
the  subject  of  ft  third  volume,  and  for  which  l\e  had  made 

.  considerable  preparations ;  but  he  was  diverted  from  his 
design,,  by  receiving  the  appointment  of  secretary  to  the 
Intendance  at  Grenoble.  Here  he  spent  his  leisure  hours 
chiefly  in  retirement,  and  in  scientific  pursuits.  In  1764, 
Turgot,  being  appointed  to  establish  a  colony  at  Cayenne, 
took  Montucla  with  him  as  his  "  secretary,"  to  which  was 

>  added  the  title  of  "  astronomer  to  the  king,9'  and  although 
he  returned  without  attaining  any  particular  object  with 
regard  to  the  astronomical  observations,  for  which  he  went 

'  out,  he  had  ai)  opportunity  of  collecting  some  valuable 
tropical  plants,  with  which  he  enriched  the  king9s  hot* 
Rouses  at  Versailles.    Soon  after  his  return,  be  was  ap~ 

MONTUC'LA.  set' 

pointed  chief  clerk  4n  a?  official  department,    similar  x<o,] 
that  known  in  this  country  by  the  name  of  ahe  "  Board  of, 
Wqrks,".  which  he  retained  till  the  place  was  abolished  in , 
1792,  when  he  was  reduced  to  considerable  pecuniary  era- , 
harrassments.     Under  the  pressure  of  these  circumstances, 
he  began  to  prepare  a  new  and  much  enlarged  edition  of 
his  "  History,"  which  he  presented  to  the  world  in  1799,, 
in  two  volumes,  quarto.     In  this  edition  are  many  impor- 
tant improvements;   and  many  facts,  which  were  barely, 
announced  in  the  former  impression,  are  largely  detailed . 
and  illustrated  in  this.     After  the  publication  of  these  two 
volumes,  the  author  proceeded  with  the  printing  of  the. 
third;  but  death  terminated  his  labours,  when  he  had  ar- 
rived at  the  336th  page.  .  The  remainder  of  the  volume,, 
and  the  whole  of  the  fourth,  were  printed  under  the  in- . 
spection  of  Lalande.     Montucla  had  been  a  member  of  the . 
National  Institute  from  its  original  establishment.    He  had 
obtained  various  employments  under  the  revolutionary  go- 
vernment, though  he  was  but  meanly  paid  for  his  labour, 
and  had  to  struggle  with  many  difficulties  to  furnish  his 
family  with  the  bare  necessaries  of  life.     At  length  he  was 
reduced  to  seek  the  scanty  means  of  support  by  keeping 
a  lottery-office,  till  the  death  of  Saussure  put  him  in  the. 
possession  of  a  pension  of  about  one  hundred  pounds  per 
annum,  which  he  enjoyed  only  four  months.     He  died  in 
December  1799,  in  the  75th  year  of  his  age.  He  was  amaij 
of  great  modesty,  and  distinguished  by  acts  of  generosity, 
and  liberality,  when  it  was  in  his  power.     He  was  also 
friendly,  cheerful,  and  of  very  amiable  manners. ! 

MOOR  (Karel  de),  an  excellent  portrait-painter,  was 
born. at  Ley  den,  in  1656,  and  at 'first  was  a  disciple  of  Gerard 
Douw,  and  afterwards  of  Abraham  Vanden  Tempel,  whose , 
death  compelled  him  to  return  to  Leyden  from  Amster- 
dam, where  he  studied  awhile  with  Francis  Mieris,  and  at 
last  went  to  Dort,  to  practise  with  Godfrey  Schalcken,  to 
whom  he  was  superior  as  a  designer ;  but  he  coveted  to 
learn  Schalcken's  manner  of  handling*     As  soon  as  Moor 
began  to  follow  his  profession,  the  public  acknowledged . 
his  extraordinary  merit;  and  he  took  the  most  effectual 
ipethod  to  establish  his  reputation,  by  working  with  a  much  > 
stronger  desire  to  acquire  fame,  than  to  increase  his  fortune. . 
He  painted  portraits  in  a  beautiful  style,  in  some  of  them, 

*  Hilt  of  tk*  Mathematics,  vol.  IV.— Rees'i  Cj^opadia. 

30*  MOOR 

imitating  the  taste,  the  dignity,  the  force,  and  the  de!t~ 
cacy  of  Vandyck;  and  in  others,  he  shewed  the  striking 
effect  and  spirit  of  Rembrandt.     In  his  female  figures,  the 
carnations  were  tender  and  soft ;  and  in  his  historical  com* 
positions,  the  air  of  bis  heads  had  variety  and  grace.     His 
draperies  are  well  chosen,  elegantly  disposed  in  very  natu- 
ral  folds,  and   appear  light,  flowing,  and  unconstrained. 
His  pictures  are  always  neatly  and  highly  finished ;  he  de- 
signed them  excellently,  and  grouped  the  figures  of  bis 
subjects  with  great  skill.     His  works  were  universally  ad- 
mired, and  some  of  the  most  illustrious  princes  of  Europe 
seemed  solicitous  to  employ  his  pencil.     The  grand  duke 
of  Tuscany  desired  to  have  the  portrait  of  DeMoor,  painted 
by  himself,  to  be  placed  in  the  Florentine  gallery ;  andv 
on  the  receipt  of  it,  that  prince  3ent  htm,  in  return,  a 
chain  of  gold,  and  a  large  medal  of  the  same  metal.     The 
Imperial  ambassador  count  Sinzendorf,  by  order  of  fair 
.master,  engaged  him  to  paint  the  portraits  of  prince  Eu- 
gene, and  the  duke  of  Marlborough,  on  horseback ;  and 
in   that  performance,  the  dignity  and  expression  of  the 
figures,  and  also  the  attitudes  of  the  horses,  appeared  s+ 
masterly,  that  it  was  beheld  with  admiration,  and  occa- 
sioned many  commendatory  poems,  in  elegant  Latin  verse, 
to  be  published  to  the  honour  of  the  artist ;  and  the  em- 
peror, on  seeing  that  picture,  created  De  Moor  a  knight 
of  the  empire*     He  died    in  1733,  in  his  eighty-second 
year. l 

MOOR  (Michael),  a  very  learned  divine  of  the  Roman 
catholic  persuasion,  was  born  in  Dublin  in  1640.  After 
being  taught  at  a  grammar-school  for  some  time,  he  was 
sent  to  France,  and  had  his  first  academical  learning  at  the 
college  of  Nantz,  whence  he  removed  to  Paris,  and  com- 
pleted his  studies  in  philosophy  and  divinity,  in  both  which 
he  attained  great  reputation,  as  he  did  likewise  for  his 
critical  skill  in  the  Greek  language.  He  taught  philoso- 
phy and  rhetoric  in  the  Grassin  college  for  some  years : 
but  at  length  returning  to  Ireland,  was,  with  considerable 
reluctance,  prevailed  upon  to  take  priest's  orders,  and 
had  some  preferment  while  the  popish  bishops  had  any  in- 
fluence. When  James  II.  came  to  Ireland,  Dr.  Moor  was 
recommended  to  him,  often  preached  before  him,  and  had 
influence  enough  to  prevent  his  majesty  from  conferring 

1  Pilkington. — D'Argenville,  vol.  Ilk 

MOOR.  30$ 

Trinity-college,  Dublin,  on  the  Jesuits,  to  which  he  had 
been  advised  by  his  confessor  father  Peters.     t)r.  Moor 
being  made  provost  of  this  college,  by  the  recommenda- 
.  tion  of  the  Roman  catholic  bishops,  was  the  means  of  pre* 
serving  the  valuable  library,  at  a  time  when  the  college 
was  a  popish  garrison,  the  chapel  a  magazine,  and  many  of 
the  charpbers  were  employed  as  prisons  for  the  protestants. 
But  th^  Jesuits  could  not  forgive  him  for  preventing  their 
gaining  the  entire  property  of  the  college,  and  took  ad- 
.  vantage  to  ruin  him  with  the  king,  from  a  sermon  he  preached 
.  before  James  II.  at  Christ  Church.     His  text  was,  Matt/ 
xv.  14.  "  If  the  blind  lead  the  blind,  both  shall  fall  into 
the  ditch."     In  this  discourse  Dr.  Moor  had  the  boldness 
.to  impute  the  failure  of  the  king's  affairs  to  his  following 
too  closely  the  councils  of  the  Jesuits,  and  insinuated  that 
they  would  be  his  utter  ruin.     Father  Peters,  who  had  a 
defect  in  his  eyes,  persuaded  the  king  that  the  text  was 
levelled  at  his  majesty  through  his  confessor,  and  urged 
that  Moor  was  a  dangerous  subject,  who  endeavoured  to 
stir  up  sedition  among  the  people..   James  was  so  weak  as 
to  believe  all  this,  and  ordered  Dr.  Moor  immediately  to 
quit  his  dominions.     Moor  complied,  as  became  an  obe- 
dient subject,  but  hinted  at  his  departure,  "  that  he  only 
went  as  the  king's  precursor,  who  would  soon  be  obliged  to 
follow  him."     Moor  accordingly  went  to  Paris,  where  the 
reputation  of  his  learning  procured  him  a  favourable  re- 
.  qeption  ;  and  king  James,  after  the  battle  of  the  Boyne, 
.  followed  him,  as  he  had  predicted.     But  here  it  appears 
that  the  king  had  influence  enough  to  oblige  Moor  to  leave 
.  France  as  be  had  done  Ireland,  probably  by  misrepresenting 
his  conduct  to  the  Jesuits. 

Moor  now  went  to  Rome,  where  his  learning  procured 
•  him  very  high  distinction.     He  was  6rst  made  censor  of 
.  books,  and  then  invited  to  Montefiascone,  and  appointed 
•rector  of  a  seminary  newly    founded   by  cardinal   Mark 
;  Antony  Barbarigo,  and  also  professor  of  philosophy  and 
-Greek..  Pope  Innocent  XII.  was  so  much  satisfied  with 
his  conduct  in  the  government  of  this  seminary,  that  he 
contributed  the  sum  of  two  thousand  Roman  crowns  yearly 
^towards  its  maintenance;  and  Clement  XI.  had  such  a  high 
/opinion  of  Moor  that  he  would  have  placed  his  nephew 
jinder  his  tuition,  had  he  not  been  prevented,  as  was  sup- 
posed, by  the  persuasions  of  the  Jesuits.     On  the  death  of  ' 
James  IL  Dr.  Moor  was  invited  to  France,  and  such  was 

'310  M  O  OR. 

.  »  m  -      I  *     ft     . 

bis  reputation  there,  that  he  was  made  twice  rector  of  the 
university  of  Paris,  and  principal  of  the  college  of  Navarre, 
and  was  appointed  regius  professor  of  philosophy,  Greek, 

"  and  Hebrew.  He  died,  in  his  eighty-fifth  year,  at  his 
apartments  in  the  college* of  Navarre,  Aug.  22,  1726.  It 
is  evident  he  could  have  been  no  common  character,  who 
attained  so  many  honours  in  a  foreign  land.   *  His  writings, 

'  however,  are  perhaps  not  much  known.  One  of  them, 
"DeExistentiaDei,  et  human®  mentis  immortalitate,"  &c. 

'  published  at  Paris,  1692,  8vo,  is  said  by  Harris  to  have 
been  translated  into  English  by  Mr.  Blackmore,  perhaps  sir 
Richard,  but  we  have  not  been  able  to  find  this  work  in 
any  of  our  public  libraries.  Dr.  Moor  also  published  "Hor- 
tatio  ad  studium  linguae  Graecse  et  Hebraic*,"  Montefias- 
cone,  1700,  12mo;  and  "  Vera  sciendi  Methodus,"  Paris, 
1716,  8vo,  against  the  philosophy  of  Des  Cartes. l 

MOORE  (Edward),  an  English  poetical  and  miscella- 
neous writer,  was  the  grandson  of  the  rev.  John  Moore  of 
Devonshire,  one  of  the  ejected  non-conformists,  who  died 
Aug.  23,  1717,  leaving  two  sons  in  the  dissenting  ministry. 
Of  these,  Thomas,  the  father  of  our  poet,  removed  to 
Abingdon  in  Berkshire,  where  he  died  in  1721,  and  where 
Edward  was  born  March  22,  17.11-12,  and  for  some  time 

1  brought  up  under  the  care  of  his  uncle.  He  was  after- 
wards placed  at  the  school  of  East  Orchard  in  Dorsetshire, 
where  he  probably  received  no  higher  education  than  would 

•  qualify  him  for  trade.  For  some  years  he  followed  the  bu- 
siness of  a  linen-draper,  both  in  London  and  in  Ireland, 

*  but  with  so  little  success  that  he  became  disgusted  with  his 
.  occupatipn,  arid,  ps  be  informs  us  in  his  preface,  "  more 

from  necessity  than  inclination,7'  began  to  encounter  the 
vicissitudes  of  a  literary  life.  His  first  attempts -were  of 
the  poetical  kind,  which  still  preserve  his  name  among  the 
••  minor  poets  of  his  country.  In  1744,  he  published  his 
«.t*  Fables  for  the  Female  Sex/*  which  were  so  favourably- 
received  as  to  introduce  him  into  the  society  of  some  learned 
and  some  opulent  contemporaries.  The  bon.  Mr.  Pelhato 
was  one  of  his  early  patrons ;  and,  by  his  "  Trial  of  Selim/" 
he  gained  the  friendship  of  Jord  Lytteltpn,  who  felt  himself 
flattered  by  a  compliment  turned  with  much  ingenuity,  and 
decorated  by  wit  and  spirit.  But  as,  for  some  time,  Motire 
derived  no  substantial  advantage  from  patronage,  his  <chi$f 

1  Harris's  edition  of  Watt. 

*  *  1  •  ■  • 

MOORE.  311 

dej&endance  was  on  the  stage,  to  which,  within  five  yeari, 
he  supplied  three  pieces  of  considerable,  although  une-  • 
qual,  merit  "  The  Foundling,"  a  comedy,  which  was  first r 
acted  in  1748,  was  decried  from  a  fancied  resemblance  to 
the  "  Conscious  Lovers."  His  "  Oil  Bias,"  which  ap- 
peared in  1751,  met  with  a  more  severe  fate,  and,  not- 
withstanding the  sprightliness  of  the  dialogue,  not  altoge- 
ther unjustly.  "The  Gamester,"  a  tragedy,  first  acted' 
Feb.' 7,  1753,  was  our  author's  most  successful  attempt, 
and  is  still  a  favourite.  In  this  piece,  however,  he  deviated 
from  the  custom  of  the  modern  stage,  as  Lilio  had  in  his  - 
".  George  Barnwell,"  by  discarding  blank  verse ;  and  per* 
haps  nothing  short  of  the  power  by  which  the  catastrophe, 
engaged  the  feelings,  could  have  reconciled  the  audience 
to  this  innovation.  But  his  object  was  the  misery  of  the  life 
and  death  of  a  gamester,  to  which  it  would  have  been 
difficult  to  give  a  heroic  colouring ;  and  his  language  became 
what  would  be  most  impressive,  that  of  truth  aad  nature. 
Davies,  in  his  Life  of  Garrick,  seems  inclioed  to  share  the 
reputation  of  the  "  Gamester"  between  Moore  and  Gar- 
rick. Moore  acknowledges,  in  his  preface,  that  he  was  in 7 
debted  to  that  inimitable  actor  for  "  many  popular  pas- 
sages," and  Davies  believes  that  the  scene  between  Lew- 
son  and  Stukely,  in  the  fourth  act,  was  almost  entirely -Jus, 
because  he  expressed,  during  the  time  of  action,  uncom- 
mon, pleasure  at  the  applause  given  to  it  Whatever  may  . 
be  in  this  conjecture,  the  play,  after  having  been  acted  to 
crowded  houses  for  eleven  nights,  was  suddenly  with* 
drawn.  The  report  of  the  day  attributed  this  to  the  in- 
tervention of  the  leading  members  of  some  gaming  clubs* 
Davies  thinks  this  a  mere  report  "  to  give  more  conse- 
quence to  those  assemblies  than  they  could  really  boast." 
From  a  letter,  in  our  possession,  written  by  Moore  to  Dr. 
Warton,  it  appears  that  Garrick  suffered  so  much  from 
the  fatigue  of  acting  the  principal  character  as  to  require 
some  repose.  Yet  this  will  not  account  for  the  total  ne- 
glect, for  some  years  afterwards,  of  a  play,  not  only  por 
pular,  but  so  obviously  calculated  to  give  the  alarm  to  re- 
claimable  gamesters,  and  perhaps  bring  the  whole  gang 
into  discredit.  The  author  mentions,  in  his  letter  to  Dr* 
Warton,  that  he  expected  to  clear  about  four  hundred 
pounds  by  his  tragedy,  exclusive  of  the  profits  by  the  sale 
of  the  copy. 

312^  MOO  R&i 


f|tis  asserted  by  Dr.  Johnson,  in  his  life  of  lord  Lyttel- 
ton,  that,  in  return  for  Moore's  elegant  compliment,  "  The  ■ 
Trial  of  Selim,"  his  lordship  paid  him  with  "  kind  words,  • 
which,  as  is  common,  raised  great  hopes,  that  at  last  were  ' 
disappointed/9     It  is  possible,  however,  that  these  hope*- 
were  of  another  kind  than  it  was  in  his  lordship's  power  to  ' 
gratify*;  and  it  is  certain  that  he  substituted  a  method  of r 
serving  Moore,  which  was  not  only  successful  for  a  consi- 
derable time,  but  must  have  been  agreeable  to  the  feelings  * 
ofadelicateand  independent  mind.  About  the  years  1751-2, 
periodical  writing  began  to  revive  in  its  most  pleasing  fornrr, 
but  had  hitherto  been  executed  by  men  of  learning  only. 
Lord  Lyttelton  projected  a.  paper,  in  concert  with  Dodsley,* 
which  should  unite  the  talents  of  certain  men  of  rank,  arid  t 
receive  such  a  tone  and  consequence  from  th&t  circum* -"* 
stance,  as  mere  scholars  can  seldom  hope  to  command  or  * 
attain.     Such  was  the  origin  of  the  "  World,'*  for  every! 
paper  of  which  Dodsley  stipulated  to  pay  Moore  three 
guineas,  whether  the  papers  were  written  by  him,   or  by 
the  volunteer  contributors.    Lord  Lyttelton,  to  render  this 
bargain  more  productive  to  the  editor,  solicited  and  ob- 
tained the  assistance  of  the  earls  of  Chesterfield,  Bath,  and 
Corke,  and  of  Messrs.  Walpole,  -Cambridge,  Jenyns,  and 
other  men  of  rank  and  taste,  who  gave  their  assistance, ' 
some  with  great  regularity,  and  all  so  effectually  as  to  roun- 
der the  "  World99  far  more  popular  than  any  of  *U  con*  ; 

In  this  work,  Moore  wrote  sixty-one  papers,  in  a  style 
easy  and  unaffected,  and  treated  the  whims  and  follies  of' 
the  day  with  genuine  humour.    His  thoughts  are  often  orU: 
grnal,    and  his   ludicrous  combinations    argue  a  copious 
fancy.      Some  of  his  papers,    indeed,    are  mere  playful' 
exercises  which  have  no  direct  object  in  view,  but  in  ge*: 
neral,  in  bis  essays,  as  well  as  in  ail  his  wdrks,  -he  shews- 
himself  the  friend  of  morality  and  public  decency.     In  tbe; 
last  number,  the  conclusion  of  the  work  is  made  to  depend 
on  a  fictitious  accident  which  had  occasioned  the  author'*1 


*  Of  this  Moore  was  not  always  sen-  know   that  Walpole  had  written  tba 

fibte;    Oo  one   occasion,    when   lord  "  Letters  to  the  Whigs,"  which,  in  bis 

Lyttelton  bestowed  a  small  place  on  zeal  for  Lyttelton,  he  had  undertaken. 

Bower,  to  which  oor  poet  thought  he  to  answer.     Horace,  however,  kept  his 

had  a  higher  claim,  he  behaved  in  such  own  secret,  and  performed  the  office  o£- 

a  manner  to  his  patron  as  to  occasion  mediator.  Walpole'*  Letters,  in  Worka^ 

a  coolness.    Horace   Walpole  under-  vol.  V.  '   \  k  ' 

took  to  reconcile  them.    Moore  did  not 

M  O  O  RI  31S 

death. .  When  the  papers  were  collected  into  volumes  Car 
a  teeonfd  edition,:  Moore  superintended  the  publication/ 
and  actually  died  white  this  last  number  was  in  the  press ; 
a  circumstance  which  induces  the  wish  that  death  may  be 
fess  frequently  included  among  the  topics  of  wit 

During  the  publication  of  the  World,  and  probably  be- 
fore, Moore  wrote  some  lighter  pieces  and  songs  for  the 
public  gardens.  What  his  other  literary  labours  were,  or 
whether  he  contributed  regularly  to  any  publications,  i* 
not  known.  A  very  few  weeks  before  his  death  he  pro* 
jected  a  Magazine,  in  which  Gataker  and  some  other  of 
his  colleagues  in  the  "  World9'  were  to  be  engaged:  .  His 
acknowledged  works  are  not  numerous,  consisting  only  of 
the  poems  here  noticed,  and  of  his  three  plays.  These 
were  published  by  bhn,  in  a  handsome  quarto  volume,  in 
1756,  by  subscription,  dedicated  to  the  duke  of  Newcastle,* 
brother  to  his  deceased  patron  Mr.  Pelham.  The  sub* 
scribers  were  very  numerous,  and  included  many  persons 
of  the  highest  rank  and  talents,  but  he  did  not  long  enjoy 
the  advantages  of  their  liberality.  He  died  Feb.  28,  1757, 
at  his  house  at  Lambeth,  of  an  inflammation  on  his  lungs, 
.  the  consequence  of  a  fever  improperly  treated. 

tin  1750,  be  married  Miss  Hamilton,  daughter  of  Mr. 
Charles  Hamilton,  table-decker  to  the  princesses ;  a  lady 
wbo  bad  herself  a  poetical  turn.     By  this  lady,  who  in 
1758  obtained  the  place  of  necessary-woman  to  the  queen's 
apartments,  and  who  still  survives,  he  bad  a  son  Edward, 
who  died  in  the  naval  service  in   1773.     Moore's  personal 
character  appears  to  have  been  unexceptionable,  and  his 
pleasing   manners  and    humble  demeanour  rendered  hi* 
society  acceptable  to  a  very  numerous  class  of  friends.  His 
productions  were  those  of  a  genius  somewhat  above  the 
common  ord£r,  unassisted  by  learning.     His  professed  ex- 
clusion of  Greek  and  Latin  mottoes  from  the  papers  of  the 
World  (although  tbey  were  not  rejected  when  sent),  in- 
duces us  to  think  that  he  had  little  acquaintance  with  the 
classics,  and  there  is  indeed  nothing  in  any  of  his  works 
that  indicates  the  study  of  a  particular  branch  of  science. 
When  he   projected  the  Magazine  above  mentioned,  he 
told  the  Wartons,  "  in  confidence,  that  he  wanted  a  dull 
plodding  fellow  of  one  of  the  universities,  who  understood 
JLratin  amd  Greek.** 

Of  his  poetry,  simplicity  and  smoothness  appear  to  be 
the   leading  features ;  bence  he  is  easily  intelligible,  and 

314  MOORS. 

consequently  instructive,  and  bis  "Fables"  bave  always 
been  popular.  All  his  pieces  are  of  the  light  kind,  pro- 
duced with  little  effort,  and  to  auswer  temporary  purposes. 
We  find  nowhere  indications  that  he  could  have  succeeded 
in  the  higher  species  of  poetry.  His  songs  bare  much 
originality  of  thought,  but  sometimes  a  looseness  of  ex- 
pression which  would  not  now  be  tolerated.  The  "  Trial 
of  Selim"  is  an  ingenious*  and  elegant  panegyric,  but  it 
ought  to  have  sufficed  to  have  once  versified  the  forms  of 
law.  The  "  Trial  of  Sarah  ***  alias  Slim  Sal/9  has  too 
much  the  air  of  a  copy.  He  ranks  but  low  as  a  writer  of 
odes,  yet  "  The  Discovery,"  addressed  to  Mr.  Pelbam, 
has  many  beauties,  and  among  those  the  two  last  stanzas 
may  be  safely  enumerated.1 

MOORE  (John),  an  eminent  English  prelate,  was  the 
son  of  Thomas  Moore  of  Market- Harboro  ugh  in  Leicester- 
shire, where .  he  was  born.  He  was  admitted  June  28, 
1 662,  of  Clare-ball  college,  Cambridge,  where  be  took  the 
degree  of  B.  A.  in  1665,  M.  A.  in  1669,  and  D.  D.  in  16$l. 
He  was  also  fellow  of  that  college,  and  afterwards  became 
chaplain  to  Heneage  Finch,  earl  of  Nottingham,  by  whose 
interest  he  rose  to  considerable  preferments,  and  in  parti* 
cular,  was  promoted  to  the  first  prebeodal  stall  in  the  ca- 
thedral church  of  Ely.  His  next  preferment  was  the  rec- 
tory of  St.  Austin's,  London,  to  which  he  was  admitted 
D6c.  3,  1687,  but  he  quitted  that  Oct  26,  1689,  on  bis 
being  presented  by  king  William  and  queen  Mary  (to  whom 
be  was  then  chaplain  in  ordinary)  to  the  rectory  of  St. 
Andrew's,  Holborn,  vacant  by  the  promotion  of  Dr.  Stil- 
lingfleet  to  the  see  of  Worcester.  On  the  deprivation  of 
Dr.  William  Lloyd,  bishop  of  Norwich,  for  not  taking  the 
oaths  to  their  majesties,  he  was  advanced  to  that  see,  and 
consecrated  July  5,  1691,  and. was  thence  translated  to 
Ely,  July  31,  1707,  in  which  he  remained  until  his  death. 
He  died  at  Ely-house,  in  Holborn,  July  31,  1714,  in  his 
sixty-eighth  year.  He  was  interred  on  the  north  side  of 
the  presbytery  of  his  cathedral  church,  near  his  predeces- 
sor bishop  Patrick,  where  an  elegant  monument  was  erected 
to  his  memory.  . 

This  divine  was,  after  his  advancement  to  the  episcopal 
dignity,  one  of  the  most  eminent  patrons  of  learning  and 

learned  men  in  his  time;  and  his  name  will  be  carried 


1  Johnson  and  Chalmers's  English  ?eets,  edit.  1810. 


M  O  ORE.  3t* 

*4)6wii  to  posterity,  not  only  by  his  sermons  published  by 
Dr.  Samuel  Clarke,  his  chaplain   (1715,  2  vols.  8vo),  but 

*  by  thg  curious  and  magnificent  library  collected  by  him, 
and  purchased  after  bis  death  by  George  I.  who  presented 
it  to  the  university  of  Cambridge.  Burnet  ranks  him 
amdng  those  who  were  an  honour  to  the  church  and  the 

'  age  in  which  they  lived.     He  assisted  him  (as  he  did  many 

*  learned  m£n)  from  his  valuable  library,  when  writing  his 
'History  of  the  Reformation.  Hie  contributed  also  to  Clark's 

Caesar,  and  to  Wilkins's  "  Ecclesiastes,"  by  pointing  out  a 
-multitude  of  celebrated  authors  who  deserved  notice  in  that 

*  useful,' but  now  much-neglected  work.  His  sermons  were 
held  in  such  estimation  as  to  be  translated  into  Dutch,  and 
published  at   Delft  in  1700.     His  library,   consisting  of 

"30,000  volumes,  fills  up  the  rooms  on  the  north  and  west , 
sides  of  the  court  over  the  philosophy  and  divinity  schools, 
and  is  arranged  in  26  classes.    It  ought  not  to  be  omitted 
that  his  present  majesty  gave  2000/.  towards  fitting  up'thi* 

MOORE  (John),  a  medical  and  miscellaneous  writer, 

5  was  the  son  of  the  rev.  Charles  Moore,  a  minister  of  the 

-English  church  at  Stirling,  in  Scotland,  where  this,  his  only 
surviving  son,  was  born  in   1730.      His  father  dying  in 

-1735,  his  mother,  who  was  a  native  of  Glasgow,  and  had 

*  some  property  there,  removed  to  that  city,  and  carefully 
^superintended  the  early  years  of  her  son  while  at  school 

and  college.  Being  destined  for  the  profession  of  medi- 
cine, he  was  placed  under  Mr.  Gordon,  a  practitioner  of 
pharmacy  and  surgery,  and  at  the  same  time  attended  such 

•ibedtcal  lectures  as  the  college  of  Glasgow  at  that  time 
afforded,  which  were  principally  the  anatomical  lectiires  of 

t  Dtf.  Hamilton,  and  those  on  the  practice  of  physic  by  Dr. 
Cullen,  afterwards  the  great  ornament  of  the  medical 
school  of  Edinburgh.  Mr.  Moore's  application  to  his  stu- 
dies must  have  been  more  than  ordinarily  successful,  as  we 

-find  that  hi  1747,  when  only  in  his  seventeenth  year,'  he 

-went  to  the  continent,  under  the  protection  of  the  duke  of 
Argyle,  and  was  employed  as  a  mate  in  one  of  the  military 
hospitals  at   Maestricht,    in  Brabant,   and  afterwards  at 

-Flushing.     Henoe  he  was  promoted  to  be  assistant  to  thfe 

<  surgeon  of  the  Coldstream  regiment  of  foot  guards,  com- 

»  * 

.    J  Bentham's  Ely.— Birch's  Life  of  Tillotson. — Burnet's  History  of  the  Refor- 
*  roation,  vol.  Ill,  p.  4<v— aod  Own  Times  passim*— Cole's  MS  Atb*  Cantab,  in 
'Mus,  Britan*       * 

31.6  MOORE. 

jganded  by  general  Brad  dock,  and  after  remaining  durirvg' 
the  winter  of  1748  with  this  regiment  at  Breda,  came  to 
England  at  the  conclusion  of  the  peace.  .  At  London  he 
resumed  his  medical  studies  under  Dr.  Hunter,  and  soon 
after  set  out  for  Paris,  where  be  obtained  the  patronage, of 
the  earl  of  Albemarle,  whom  be  had  known  in  Flanders, 
and  who  was  now  English  ambassador  at  the  court  of 
France,  and  immediately  appointed  Mr.  Moore  surgeon  to 
his  household.  In  this  situation,  although  be  had  an  qp* 
portunity  of  being  with  tbe  ambassador,  he  preferred  to 
lodge  nearer  the  hospitals,  and  other  sources  of  instruc- 
tion, with  which  a  more  distant  part  of  tbe  capital  abounded, 
«nd  visited  lord  Albemarle's  family  only  when  his  assistance 
was  required.  After,  residing  two  years  in  Paris,  it  was 
proposed  by  Mr.  Gordon,  wha  was  not  insensible  to  the 
assiduity  and  improvements  of  bis  former  pupil,  that  be 
should  return  to  Glasgow,  and  enter  into  partnership  with 
him.  Mr.  Moore,,  by  the  advice  of  his  friends,  accepted 
the  invitation,  but  deemed  it  proper  to  take  London  ill  bis 
way,  and  while  there,  went  through  a  course  under  Dr. 
Srpellie,  then  a  celebrated  accoucheur.  On  his  return  to 
Glasgow,  he  practised  there  during  the  space  of  two  years, 
but  when  a  diploma  was  granted  by  tbe  university  of  that 
city  to  his  partner,  now  Dr.. Gordon,  who  cbose  to  pre? 
scribe  as  a  physician  alone,  Mr.  Moore  still,  continued  to  act 
as  a  surgeon  ;  and,  as  a  partner  appeared  to  be  necessary, 
be  cbose  Mr.  Hamilton,  professor  of  anatomy,  as  his.  asso- 
ciate. Mr.  Moore  remained  for  a  considerable  period. at 
Glasgow ;  but  when  he  had  attained  his  fortieth  year,  aa 
incident  occurred  that  gave  a  new  turn  to  his  ideas,  and 
opened  new  pursuits  and  situations  to  a  mind  naturally 
active  and  inquisitive.  James  George,  duke  of  Hamilton, 
a  young  noblemau  of  great  promise, .  being  affected  with  a 
.consumptive  disorder,,  in  1 769,  he .  was  attended  by  Mr. 
Moore,  who  has  always  spoken  of  this  youth  in  terms,  of 
the  highest  admiration;  hut,  as  bis  malady  baffled  all  the 
efforts  of  medicine,  be  yielded  to  its  pressure,  after  a  tin* 
gering  illness,  in  the  fifteenth  year  of  bis  age.  This  event, 
which  Mr.  Moore  recorded,  together  with  the  extraordinary 
endowments  of  his  patient,  on  bis  tomb  in  the  burying- 
.place  at  jElamilton,  led  to  a  more  intimate  connection  with 
this  noble  family.  The  late  duke  of  Hamilton,  being,  like 
his  brother,  of  a  sickly  constitution,  his  mother,  .the  duchess 
•f  Argyle,  determined  that  he  should  travel  in  company 

MOORE.  S17 

with  som$  gentleman,  who  to  a  knowledge*  of  medicine 
added  an   acquaintance  with  the  continent.     Both  these 
qualities  were  united  in  the  person  of  Dr.  Moore,  who  by 
this  time  had  obtained  the  degree  of  M.  D.  from  the  uni*- 
versity  of  Glasgow.     They  accordingly  set  out  together;, 
rfrid'sperit  a  period  of   no  less  than   five   years   abr6ad; 
during  which  they  visited  France;  Italy,  Switzerland,  and 
Germany.     On  their  return,  in  1778,   Dr.  Moore  brought 
his  family  from  Glasgow  to  London  ;  and  in  the  course  of 
the  next  year  appeared  the  fruits  of  his  travels,  in  |4?  A  View 
of  Society  and  Manners  in  France,  Switzerland,  and  G6f- 
ihany,"  in  2  vols.  8vo.     Two  years  after,  in  1781,  he  pub- 
lished a  continuation  of  the  same  work,  in  two  additional 
volumes,  entitled  "  A  View  of  Society  and  Mariners  in 
Italy.**     Having  spent  so  large  a  portion  of  his  time  either 
in  Scotland  or  on  the  continent,  he  could  not  expect  sud- 
denly to  attain  an  extensive  practice  in  the  capital ;  nor 
indeed  was  he  much  consolted,  unless  by  his  particular 
friends.     With  a  view,  however,  to  practice,  he  published 
in  1785,  his  "  Medical  Sketches,"  a  work  which  was  fa- 
vourably received,  but  made  no  great  alteration  in  his  en- 
gagements; and  the  next  work  he  published  was  "Zefcfco," 
a  novel,    which   abounds   with   many  interesting  events, 
arising  from  uncontrouled  passion  on  the  part  of  a  darling 
son,  and  unconditional  compliance  on  that  of  a  fond  mo- 
ther.   While  enjbying  the  success  of  this  novel,  which  was 
very  considerable,  the  French  revolution  began  to  occupy 
the  minds  and  writings  of  the  literary  world.     Dr.  Mbore 
happened  to  reside  in  France  in  1792,  and  witnessed  many 
of  the  important  scenes. of  that  eventful  year,  but  the  mas- 
sacres of  September  tending  to  render  a^restdence  in  Paris 
highly  disagreeable,  he   returned  to  England;  and  soon 
after  his  arrival,  began  to  arrange  his  materials,  and  in 
179.5,  published  "  A  View  of  the  Causes  and  Progress  of 
the  French  Revolution,"  in  2  vols.  Svo,  dedicated  to  the 
Duke  of  Devonshire.     He  begins  with  the  reign  of  Henry 
IV.  and  ends  with  the  execution  of  th£  royal  family.     In 
1796  appeared  another  novel,  "  Edward  :  various  Views  of 
Human  Nature,  taken  from  Life  and  Manners  chiefly  in 
England."     In    J800,    Dr.  Moore  published  .'his  "  Mor- 
daunt,"  being  lt  Sketches  of  Life,  Characters,  and  Manners 
in  various  Countries;  including  the  Memoirs  of  a  French 
Lady  of  Quality,"  in  2  vols.  Svo.     This  chiefly  consists  of 
a  series  of  letters,  written  by  u  the  honourable  John  Mor- 

3iS  WO  ORE. 

d^unt,"  while  confined  to  bis  couch  at  Vevfcy,  in  Switzeis 
land*  giving  an  account  of  what  he  had  seen  in  Italy,  Ger- 
many, France,  Portugal,  &c.  The  work  itself  copies  unn 
der  no  precise  head,  being  neither  a  romance,  nor.a  novel, 
nor  travels :  the  most  proper  title  would  perhaps  be  that, 
of  "  Recollections."  Dr.  Moore  was  one  of  the  first  to: 
notice  the  talents  of  his  countryman  the  unfortunate  Ro- 
bert Burns,  who,  at  his  request,  drew  up  ap  account  of, 
bis  life,  and  submitted  it  to  his  inspection. 

After  his  return  from  bis  third  and  last  journey  to  France,, 
be  resided  the  remainder  of  his  days  in  bis  bouse  in  Clif- 
ford-street, where  he  died  Feb.  20,  1802,  leaving  a. 
daughter  and  five  sons.  Dr.  Moore  was  a  man  of  conside-. 
derable  general  knowledge,  but  excelled  in  no  particular 
branch  of  science.  After  be  had  once  begun  bis  travels  as 
tutor,  he  assumed  the  character  of  a  man  of  wit  and  hu- 
mour,, both  which  entered  largely  into  the  composition  of 
his  subsequent  publications.  His  travels  were  at  one  time; 
very  popular,  on  account  of  the  frequent  recurrence  of 
scenes  of  dry  humour,  but  bis  constant  attempts  in  this, 
way  made  them  be  read,  more  for  sprigbtliness  of  narrative 
than  accuracy  of  information,  or  depth  of  remark.  Of  his 
novels,  "  Zeluco"  only  has  stood  its  ground. l 

MOORE  (Sir  John),  a  gallant  English  officer,  was  one 
*f  the  sons  of  the  preceding,  and  born  at  Glasgow,  Nov^ 
13A  1761,  and  was  educated  principally  on  the  coutinent,, 
while  his  father  travelled  with  the  duke  of  Hamilton,  who. 
in  1776  obtained  for  him  an  ensigncy  in  the  51st  regiment 
of  foot,  then  quartered  at  Minorca.  He  afterwards  obtained 
a  lieutenancy  in  the  82d,  in  which  he  served  in  America, 
during  the  war,  and  in  1783,  at  the  peace,  was  reduced 
with  his  regiment.  He  was  soon  after  brought  into  par- 
liament for  the  boroughs  of  Lanerk,  &c.  by  the  interest  of 
the  duke  of  Hamilton.  In  1787  or  1788  he  obtained  the 
majority  of  the  4th  battalion  of  the .  60th  regiment,  then, 
quartered  at  Chatham,  and  very  soon  after  negociated  an 
exchange  into  his. old  regiment,  the  51st.  In  1790  he 
succeeded,  by  purchase,  to,  the  lieutenant-colonelcy,  and 
went  the  following  year  with  his  regiment  to  Gibraltar. 
After  some  other  movements  he  was  sent  to  Corsica,  wher$ 
general  Charles  Stuart  having  succeeded  to  the  command 
of  the  army  in  1794,  appointed  colonel  Moore  to  command 

"»  Gent.  Mas.  &c. 

MOORE.  31* 

the  reserve.  Here  he  particularly  distinguished  himself  at 
the  siege  of  Calvi,  and  received  his  first  wound  in  storming 
the  Mozzello  fort.  These  operations  made  Moore's  cha- 
racter known  to  general  Stuart,  and  a  friendship  com- 
'  menced,  which  continued  during  the  general's  life ;  and 
the. situation  of  adjutant-general  in  the  army  in  Corsica 
becoming  vacant  at  this  time,  he  bestowed  it  on  his  friend 
Moore,  and  ever  after  showed  him  every  mark  of  confidence 
and. esteem.  * 

In  consequence  of  a  disagreement  with  the  viceroy,  who 
had  occasioned  the  recall  of  general  Stuart,  colonel  Moore 
arrived  in  England  in  Nor.  1795,  and  was  immediately  ap- 
pointed a  brigadief -general  in  the  West  Indies,  and  at- 
tached to. a  brigade  of  foreign  corps,  which  consisted  of 
Choiseul's  hussars,  and  two  corps  of  emigrants.  On  Feb. 
25,  1796,  he  received  an  order  to  take  charge  of,  and 
embark  with  general  Perryn's  brigade,  going  out  with  the 
expedition  to  the  West  Indies,  utider  sir  Ralph  Abercrom- 
bie ;  that  officer  having  unexpectedly  sailed  in  the  Ven- 
geance, 74,  and  left  his  brigade  behind.  General  Moore, 
.although  be  had  no. previous  intimation  that  he  was  to 
embark,  hurried  to  Portsmouth,  and  having  time  only  to 
prepare  a  few  necessaries,  sailed  for  the  West  Indies  with 
the  fleet  at  day- light  on  the  28th,  with  no  other  baggage 
than  a  small  portmanteau,  and  not  one  regiment  of  his  own 
brigade  was  in  the  fleet.  On  his  .arrival  atBarbadoes,  on 
the  13th  of  April,  1796,  having  had  an  opportunity  of  wait- 
ing on  the  commander-in-chief,  sir  Ralph  Abercrombie, 
that  sagacious  and  attentive  observer  very  soon  distin- 
guished him,  and  in  the  course  of  the  operations  against 
St.  Lucie,  which  immediately  followed,  employed  him  in 
every  arduous  and  difficult  service  which  occurred.  Hp 
had,  in  particular,  opportunities,  during  the  siege  of  Mornp 
Fortun£e  at  St.  Lucie,  which  lasted  from  the  26th  of  April 
to  the  same  day  in  May,  of  eminently  distinguishing  him- 
self; and  his  conduct,  as  sir  Ralph  expressed  in  his  public 
orders,  was  the  admiration  of  the  whole  army.  Sir  Ralph, 
immediately  on  the  capitulation,  bestowed  the  command 
and  government  of  the  island  on  general  Moore,  whp  did 
all  he  could  to  induce  sir  Ralph  to  keep  him  with  the  army, 
and  employ  him  in  the  reduction  of  the  other  islands,  but 
without  effect.  Sir  Ralph,  in  a  manner,  forced  this  imr 
portant  command  upon  him,  at  the  same  time  giving  him 
the  most  flattering  reasons  for  wishing  him  to  accept  of  it* 

520  MOO  RE. 

The '  admiral  and  general  sailed  Atom  St  Lucie  on  the 
5d  of  June,  leaving  brigadier-general  Moore  in  a  situation 
which  required,  from  what  remained  to  be  done  in  such  a 
climate,  perhaps  more  military  talent,  and  a  greater  de- 
gree of  exertion  and  personal  risk,  than  even  there  had 
been  occasion  for  during  the  reduction  of  the  island;  for, 
although  the  French  commanding  officer,  and  the  principal 
post  in  the  islaud,  had  surrendered,  numerous  bands  of 
armed  negroes  remained  in  the  woods ;  yet  he  at  length 
succeeded  in  completely  reducing  these.  Having,  how* 
ever,  had  two  narrow  escapes  from  violent  attacks  of  yellow 
•  fever,  the  last  rendered  it  necessary  that  he  should  be  re- 
lieved from  the  command  of  the  island,  and  he  returned  to 
England  in  the  month  of  July  or  August  1797.  In  Nov. 
following,  sir  Ralph  Abercrombie  having  been  appointed 
commander  of  the  forces  in  Ireland,  desired  that  brigadier- 
general  Moore  might  be  put  upon  the  staff  in  that  country, 
which  was  done,  and  he  accompanied  sir  Ralph  to  Dublin 
on  the  2d  day  of  December  1797.  During  the  period  im- 
mediately preceding  the  rebellion  in  1798,  Moore  had  an 
important  command  in  the  south  of  Ireland,  which  was 
very  disaffected,  and  was  also  the  quarter  where  the  enemy 
were  expected  to  make  a  landing.  His  head-quarters  were 
at  Bandon,  and  bis  troops,  amounting  to  3000  men,  were 
considered  as  the  advanced  corps  of  the  south.  When 
the  rebellion  broke  out,  he  was  employed  first  under  ma- 
jor-general Johnstone,  at  New  Ross,  where  the  insurgents 
suffered  much,  and  immediately  afterwards  was  detached 
towards  Wexford,  at  that  time  in  the  hands  of  the  rebels. 
He  bad  on  this  occasion  only  the  60th  yagers,  or  sharp 
'shooters,  900  light  infantry,  50  of  Hompesch's  cavalry, 
-and  six  pieces  of  artillery.  With  thesg  he  had  not  marched 
above  a  mile  before  a  large  body  of  rebels  appeared  .on  the 
road,  marching  to  attack  him.  He  had  examined  the 
•ground,  as  well  as  the  short  time  would  allow,  in  the 
morrting,  and  thus  was  able  to  form  his  men  to  advantage. 
-The  rebels  attacked  with  great  spirit,  but,  after  an  ob- 
stinate contest,  were  driven  from  the  field,  and  pursued 
with  great  loss.  They  amounted  to  about  6000  men,  and 
were  commanded  by  general  Roche,  a  priest.  After  the. 
action,  the  two  regiments  under  lord  Dalhousie  arrived 
from  Duncannon  fort  It  then  being  too  late  to  proceed 
to  Taghmoue,  which  was  his  intention,  the  brigadier  took 
post  for  the  night  on  the  ground  where  the  action  began* 

MOORE,  321 

Next  day  on  his  march  he  was  met  by  two  men  from  Wex- 
ford with  proposals  from  the  rebels  to  lay  down  their  arms, 
on  certain  conditions.  As  general  Moore  had  no  power  to 
treat,  he  made  no  answer,  but  proceeded  on  to  Wexford, 
.which  he  delivered  from  the  power  of  the  rebels,  who  bad 
piked  or  shot  forty  of  their  prisoners  the  day  before,  and 
intended  to  have  murdered  the  rest  if  they  had  not  been 
.thus  prevented. 

Brigadier-general  Moore  continued  to  serve  in  Ireland* 
where  he  succeeded  to  the  rank  of  major-general,  and  had 
a  regiment  given  him,  until  the  latter  end  of  June  1799, 
when  he  was  ordered  to  return  to  England  to  be  employed 
in  the  expedition  under  sir  Ralph  Abercrombie,  which 
.sailed  August  13,  and  was  destined  to  rescue  Holland  from 
the  tyranny  of  the  French  government;     The  general  re- 
sult, owing  to  circumstances  which  could  not  be  foreseen* 
was  unfavourable ;  but  the  English  troops  had  an  oppor- 
tunity of  displaying  the  greatest  valour,  and  none  were 
more  distinguished  than  those  under  the  more  immediate 
command  of  general  Moore,  who,  after  being  twice  wound- 
ed, in  the  hand,  and  in  the  thigh,  received  a  musket-ball 
through  his  face,  by  which  he  was  disabled,  and  was  brought 
from  the  ground  with  some  difficulty.    He  was  now  carried 
back  to  his  quarters,  a  distance  often  miles,,  and  as  soon 
as  he  could  be  moved,  he  was  taken  to  the  Helder,  where 
be  embarked  on  board  the  Amethyst  frigate,  and  arrived 
at  the  Nore  on  the  24th ;  from  thence  he  proceeded  to 
•London.     Soon  after  his  return  to  England  from  the  Hel- 
der, a  second  battalion  was  added  to  the  52d  regiment,  of 
which  the  command  was  bestowed  on  him  by  the  king,  in 
the  most  gracious  manner.    Being  ot  an  excellent  consti- 
tution, and  temperate  habits,  his  wounds  closed  in  the 
course  of  five  or  six  weeks.     He  joined  his  brigade  at 
Chelmsford  on  the  24th  of  December,  1799.    In  the  early 
part  of  1 800  it  had  been  intended  to  send  a  body  of  troops 
to  the  Mediterranean  under  sir  Charles  Stuart ;  he  wrote 
.to  general  Moore,  and  proposed  to  him  to  serve  under  him, 
which  was  accepted  with  the  greatest  pleasure.     It  was  at 
first  intended  that  sir  Charles  should  take  out  of  England 
16,000  men,  but  it  was  afterwards  found  that  the  regiments 
.  allotted  for  this  service,  and  which  had  been  part  of  the 
expedition  to  Holland,  were  insufficient,  and  only  amounted 
to   10,000  effective.     About  the  middle  of  March,  the 
.first  division,  amounting  to  5000  men,  embarked  under 
Vol.  XXII.  Y 

322  MOORE. 

•major-general  Pigot.  At  this  time  a  change  took  place  in 
the  plan  of  the  expedition  ;  sir  Charles  had  some  disagree- 
ment with  ministers!  and  resigned  his  situation..  .Sir  Ralph 
Abercrombie  was  appointed  to  the  command,  and  major- 
general  Moore  was  named  as  pne  of  his  major-generals, 
with  Hutchinson  and  Pigot,  who  sailed  about  the  end  of 
April  with  the  .5000  men.  There  was  little  opportunity 
during  this  expedition,  the  success  of  which  was  prevented 
by  various  unforeseen  occurrences,  for  any  exertions  in 
which  general  Moore  could  distinguish  himself,  until,  the 
•armies  being  ordered  to  separate,  his  troops  were  ordered 
to  go  to  Egypt  under  sir  Ralph  Abercrombie.  Having  ar- 
rived at  Malta,  major-general  Moore  was  sent  to  Jaffa  to 
visit  the  Turkish  army,  and  form  a  judgment  as  to  what 
aid  was  to  be  expected  from  it;  but  the  result  being  un- 
favourable, sir  Ralph  determined  to  land  in  the  bay  of 
Aboukir,  and  march  immediately  upon  Alexandria.  Any 
satisfactory  detail  of  this  memorable  expedition  would  ex- 
tend this  article  too  far ;  we  shall  therefore  confine  our- 
selves to  that  part  in  which  major-general  Moore  was  more 
particularly  concerned.  As  soon  as  the  landing  was  begun, 
be,  at  the  head  of  the  grenadiers  and  light  infantry  of  the 
40th,  with  the  23d  and  28th  regiments  in  line,  ascended 
the  sand-hill.  They  did  not  fire  a  shot  until  they  gained 
the  summit,  when  they  charged  the  enemy,  drove  them, 
and  took  four  pieces  of  cannon,  with  part  of  their  horses. 
The  French  retreated  to  the  border  of  a  plain,  where  ge- 
neral Moore  halted,  as  upon  the  left  a  heavy  fire  of  mus- 
quetry  was  kept  up.  Brigadier-general  Oakes,  with  the 
left  of  the  reserve,  consisting  of  the  42d  Highlanders,  the 
58th  regiment,  and  the  Corsican  rangers,  landed  to  the 
left  of  the  sand-hill,  and  were  attacked  by  both  infantry 
and  cavalry,  which  they  repulsed  and  followed  into  the 
plain,  taking  three  pieces  of  artillery.  The  guards  and 
part  of  general  Coote's  brigade  landed  to  the  left  of  the 
reserve;  they  were  vigorously  opposed,  but  repulsed  the 
enemy,  and  followed  them  into  the  plain*  The  want  of 
cavalry  and  artillery  (for  it  was  some  time  before  the  guns 
that  were  landed  could  be  dragged  through  the  sand)  saved 
•the  enemy  from  being  destroyed.  This  was  one  of  the 
most  splendid  instances  of  British  intrepidity  that  perhaps 
ever  happened.  The  enemy  had  eight  days  to  assemble 
and  prepare,  and  the  ground  was  extremely  favourable  to 
them.    The  loss  of  the  enemy  was  considerable,  that  of 

MOORE  «** 

the  British  amounted  to  600  killed  mud  wounded,  of  which 
the  reserve  lost  400-  In  the  odurse  of  the  afternoon  the 
rest  <rf the  army  landed,  and  the  whole  moved  forwards 
Cftupl^  of  miles,  where  they  took  post  for  the  night. 

Oa  the  morning  of  the  9th,  major-general  Moore  and 
KeuteiraoUeolonel  Aiistruther,  the  quarter-master-general* 
atent  forward  with  the  92d  Highlanders,  the  Corsica* 
rangers,  and  some  cavalry,  to  look  fora  new  position.  The 
country  was  unequal,  sandy,  and  thickly  interspersed  with 
palm  rind  date  trees.  He  posted  the  92d  at  a  place  about 
two  miles  in  front,  where  there  was  a  small  redoubt,  and 
where  the  space  became  more  narrow  than  any  where  else, 
by  the  sea  and  lake  Madie  running  up  on  each  side.  .  He 
then  went  forward  with  the  cavalry,  until  they  were  met 
by  a  strong  patrole  of  the  enemy,  on  which  they  retired* 
On  reporting  to  sir  Ralph,  he  directed  major-general  Moore 
to  take  post  with  the  reserve  on  the  ground  where  he  had 
placed  the  92d;  by  noon  he  had  taken  possession  of  the 
post  with  the  reserve,  and  placed  his  out- posts.  On  the 
IGth  there  was  some  skirmishing  with  the  out-posts  of  the 
reserve  and  the  enemy's  cavalry.  The  main  body  of  the 
army  was  detained  in  their  post-position  till,  by  the-exer- 
taoas  of  the  navy,  the  stores  and  provisions  were  landed 
and  forwarded  to  them.  On  the  11th  sir  Ralph  went  to 
the  reserve,  the  brigade  of  guards  moved  forward,  and 
took  post  half  way  between  them  and  the  rest  of  the  army. 
The  lake  Madie  was  ordered  to  be  examined,  with  a  view 
io  the  practicability  of  conveying  the  army  stores  by  it, 
which  it  was  afterwards  found  could  be  done.  On  the  1 2th 
the  army  moved  forward  in  two  columns,  each  composed 
of  a  wing.  The  reserve,  in  two  colttmas,  formed  the  ad- 
vanced guard  to  each  column.  The  enemy's  cavalry  re- 
tired, skirmishing  as  the  army  advanced.  The  army  halted 
at  a.  tower  tihat  they  found' evacuated,  from  the  top  of  which 
*  body  of  infantry  was  seen  advancing.  The  line  wafs 
instantly  formed,  and  the  army  advanced  with  the  utmost 
regularity  and  steadiness.  The  enemy,  on  seeing  this 
movement,  first  halted,  and  afterwards  retired  to  some 
feeights  wbicfc  terminated  a  plain*  where  the -British  army 
took  post  for  the  night,  and  lay  on  their -arms.  Maj  ou- 
tgeneral Moore  had  the  direction  of  the  advanced  posts-; 
Mid  the  90th  and  92d  regiments,  though  not  belonging  to 
the  reserve,  were  placed  under  his  orders  for  the  night. 

The  put- posts  of  the  enemy  and  the.  advanced  gnard  <rf 

y  2 


die  British  Vfere  so  near  each  other,  (hat  it  was  impossible 
that. either  army  could  move  without  bringing  on  a  general 
action.  At  six  o'clock  in  the  morning  of  the  13th  the 
army  moved  forward  in  two  columns  from  the  left,  each 
composed  of  a  line.  The  reserve,  in  one  column  from  the 
left,  marched  on  the  right  of  the  other  two,  to  cover  the 
flank.  Sir  Ralph's  intention  was  to  attack  the  enemy'* 
right,  and,  if  possible,  to  turn  it.  The  90th  and  92d  re- 
giments formed  the  advanced  guards  to  the  two  columns 
of  the  army,  and,  having  got  too  far  a-bead  of  the  co- 
lumns, were  attacked  by  the  main  body  of  the  enemy,  and 
suffered  severely  before  the  columns  could  come  to  their 
support.  These  two  regiments,  however,  maintained  their 
ground,  and  defeated  a  body  of  cavalry  that  attempted  to 
charge  them.  The  action  now  became  general  along  the 
line;  the  French,  being  forced  back,  retreated,  covered 
by  a  numerous  artillery,  halting  and  firing  wherever  the 
ground  favoured  them.  The  British  army  advanced  ra- 
pidly without  artillery,  as  their  guns,  being  dragged  through 
sand  by  the  seamen,  could  not  keep  up  with  the  infantry. 
The  reserve  remained  in. column  on  the  right  flank